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CANADA 
DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS 



THE 

CANADA YEAR BOOK 

1922-23 



OFFICIAL STATISTICAL ANNUAL OF THE RESOURCES, 

HISTORY, INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC 

CONDITIONS OF THE DOMINION 



Published by Authority of 

The Honourable THOS. A. LOW, M.P., 

MINISTER OF TRADE AND COMMERCE 




OTTAWA 
F. A. ACLAND 

PRINTER TO THE KING S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 

1924 



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PREFACE. 

The Canada Year Book had its origin in the first year of the Dominion. The 
want of a publication that would assemble in conveniently accessible and summary 
form the chief comparative statistics of Canada, together with the necessary- 
descriptive matter, was felt immediately after Confederation, when the Year 
Book and Almanac of British North America," being, (to quote its sub-title), an 
Annual Register of political, vital and trade statistics, customs tariff, excise and 
stamp duties, and public events of interest in Upper and Lower Canada, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and the Wesi 
Indies" was founded. Subsequently the title was altered to that of The Year 
Book and Almanac of Canada, an annual statistical abstract of the Dominion, 
and a Register of legislation and of public men in British North America, 
work was edited by Mr. Arthur Harvey, F.S.S., of the Department of Finance, 
but was in no sense a government publication. It was published annually from. 

1867 to 1879. 

In 1886, after the passing of a General Statistics Act, the "Statistical Abstract 
and Record of Canada" was instituted as an official book of reference respecting the 
institutions, population, finance, trade, and general conditions of the Dominion, 
"with comparative data for the United Kingdom, British Possessions and foreign 
countries." The work was prepared in the General Statistical Office of the Depart 
ment of Agriculture, and was continued annually until 1904 under the direction of 
Dr. George Johnson, F.S.S. In 1905, the General Statistical Office was amalgamated 
with the Census Office (which was at the same time made a permanent organization) , 
the Year Book being remodelled by the late Dr. Archibald Blue, Chief Officer, and 
continued under the title "The Canada Year Book, Second Series." 

In the reorganization and centralization of statistics which followed the Report 
of the Commission on Statistics of 1912, and the establishment of the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics in 1918, the continuous improvement of the Year Book, both 
in content and method of presentation, was made a primary object. A fundamental 
purpose of statistical organization is the securing of an apergu or conspectus of the 
country as an entity, especially as regards its manifold social and economic activities, 
which are thus viewed both in their totality and in their relations to each other. In 
addition, therefore, to the branches of the Bureau which deal with specific subjects, 
such as population, agriculture, mining, trade, education, etc., etc., and which work 
in collaboration with the various Dominion and Provincial Departments having 
jurisdiction in corresponding fields, there was created a "General Statistics Branch" 
whose functions are: (a) the carrying on of subsidiary inquiries on a great variety 
of subjects of less extent and complexity than those assigned to special branches in 
the Bureau, but essential to a complete and rounded scheme; (6) the synthesizing 
of general statistics and the interpretation of the general economic trend; (c) the 
preparation of digests and abstracts of statistics relating to group phenomena; and 
(d) the bringing of Canadian statistics as a whole into relation with British Empire 
and world statistics, under the necessary reservations suggested by differing political 
and economic systems in the different nations. In these multifarious activities, the 
Branch builds upon the inter-departmental organizations completed by the other 
branches of the Bureau (which provide for a pooling of data as between the Bureau 
and the various executive Departments, Dominion and Provincial), but also supple 
ments these materials with descriptive and other data drawn from a wide field. 

The most important publication of the General Statistics Branch of the Bureau 
is the Canada Year Book, which is a compendium of official data on the physiography, 
history, institutions, population, production, industry, trade, transportation, finance, 
labour, administration, and general social and economic conditions and life of the 
Dominion the whole conceived from the widest point of view and presenting the 
more salient statistics of the country against a background of interpretative matter 
designed to bring out their significance. It will be appreciated that a work of this 
character is dependent upon completion of the basic organization of statistics, and 
that it has been necessary therefore to develop the Year Book gradually, as the 
improved materials under the Bureau became available. 

With the present edition of the Year Book, the Bureau has entered upon the 
final stages of its revision of this important publication. The changes that have 

62373 k\ 



IV 



been made in recent years have been described in the preface for each edition. The 
present is marked by the omission of any leading topical article, effort having been 
concentrated during the past year on the general improvement of the several sections 
and their arrangement in logical form and sequence. Especially thorough has beer 
the revision of the sections on population and on the different phases of production. 

Among other features of the edition to which the special attention oi the reader 
may be directed are: the contributions by Sir Frederick Stupart, Director of the 
Meteorological Service of Canada, on the factors which control Canadian weather 
and on the development of the Meteorological Service; the expanded treatment of 
parliamentary representation in Canada and of provincial government : and min 
istries the summary of the principal data collected at the census of 1921 and the 
first detailed treatment of vital statistics; the addition to the production section 
of a general survey of production and of a sub-section on construction, and 
development of the other sub-sections under this heading; the more adequate 
treatment of internal trade; the insertion of sub-sections on roads and highways 
and on aerial navigation in the transportation and communications section; the 
publication of the Bureau s new index number of wholesale prices and of its statistics 
of retail prices; the introduction into the finance section of a discussion of national 
wealth and national income; the adding to the administration section of an entirely 
new sub-section on "public health and public benevolence," also of a select t 
oeraphy of leading books relating to Canadian history. 

Throughout the volume, the latest available information is included in each 
section, the tables in many cases including figures for the fiscal year 1922-23, and the 
letter-press supplying supplementary figures extending in some cases 



the ca^en *^ n * ed - ition of the Year Book has been edited by Mr. S. A. Cudmore, 



ne . . 

B A (Tor.), M.A., (Oxon.), F.S.S, F.R. Econ. Soc. Grateful acknowledgments 
are hereby tendered to the numerous officials of the Dominion and Provincial 
Governments who have generously assisted in the collection of information. ihe 
tables have in the main been compiled, as for many years, by Messrs Jas. rkead 
and Jos. Wilkins, while most of the diagrams have been drawn by Mr. R. K Wat 



R. H. COATS, 

Dominion Statistician. 



Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Ottawa, Dec. 31, 1923. 



SYNOPTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. PAGI. 

1. Geographical Features 1-13 

1. General Description 1- 5 

1. Land and Water Area of Canada by Provinces and Territories as in 1923 

2. Physiography .* 57 

3. Rivers and Lakes 7-12 

2. Drainage Basins of Canada 

3. Lengths of Principal Rivers and Tributaries in Canada 9-10 

4. Area, Elevation and Depth of the Great Lakes 

5. Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes by Provinces 11-12 

4. Islands 12-13 

2. Geological Formation 13-24 

1. Historical Outline and Geological Divisions 13-20 

2. Economic Geology of Canada, 1922 20-24 

3. Seismology in Canada 24-25 

4. The Flora of Canada 25-32 

5. Faunas of Canada 32-38 

6. The Natural Resources of Canada 36-38 

7. Climate and Meteorology 39-59 

1 . The Factors which Control Canadian Weather 39-43 

2. The Climate of Canada since Confederation 43 

3. The Meteorological Service of Canada 43-59 

6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations 48-53 

7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations 54-59 

II. HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY. 

1. History of Canada 60-80 

2. Chronological History of Canada, 1497 to 1923 80-88 

III. THE CONSTITUTION AND GENERAL GOVERNMENT OF CANADA. 

1. Constitutional Development of the Colonies Prior to Confederation 89-91 

2. The Constitution of the Dominion at Confederation 91-94 

3. Evolution of the National Constitution since Confederation 94-100 

IV. PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA. 

1. Nova Scotia 102-103 

2. New Brunswick 103-104 

3. Prince Edward Island 104-105 

4. Quebec 105-107 

5. Ontario 107-109 

6. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta 110-113 

1. Manitoba 111-112 

2. Saskatchewan 112-113 

3. Alberta 113 

7. British Columbia 113-115 

V. PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA. 

1. Dominion Parliament 116-129 

1. Governors-General of Canada, 1867-1923 116 

2. Ministries since Confederation 117-118 

3. Duration and Sessions of Dominion Parliaments, 1S67-1923 118-119 

4. Representation in the Senate of Canada, by Provinces, according to the British 

North America Act, 1867, and amending Acts, as at Oct. 31, 1923 120-121 

5. Representation in the House of Commons of Canada, showing the effect of 

Representation Acts, 1867 to 1921 122 

6. Representation of the Provinces and Territoiies of Canada in the House of 

Commons, as determined by the British North America Act and the Censuses ^ 

of 1911 and 1921 . 123 

7. Table showing Application of Section 51, Subsection 4, of British North America 

Act, to representation of Ontario and Nova Scotia 124 

8. Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 

Representation Act, 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923 124-129 

2. Provincial Governments 129-139 

9. Provinces and Territories of Canada, with present Areas, Dates of Admission to 

Confederation and Legislative Process by which this was effected 129 

10. Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923.... 130-139 

3. The Canadian High Commissioner and the Provincial Agents-General 39 



VI 

VI. POPULATION. PAGE. 

1. Growth and Distribution of Population ................................... ---- } 4 Ti?n 

1. Census Statistics of General Population .......................................... 140-149 

1 Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in the Census years 1871 to 

1921 ............................................................. .--. 14 

2 Percentage Distribution of Canadian population by Provinces and Territories 

1871 to 1921 ......................................................... 

3. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 1871 and 1921, and 

numerical increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921 ......... .............. 

4. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 1871, and increase per cent 

by decades from 1871 to 1921 ---- .. ..................................... 

5. Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 

and 1901 .............................................................. 144-148 

6. Density of Population in Canada according to the Census of 1921 .......... ... 

7. Movement of Population, including estimated Natural Increase, recorded 

Immigration, and estimated Emigration for the intercensal periods 1901-1911 

and 1911-1921 ......................................................... j 49 

2. Sex Distribution ........................................... ---- ............ ] *"J" 

8. Sex Distribution of the People of Canada, by Provinces, 1871-1921 ..... .. ..... 

9. Proportion of Sexes per 1,000 of Population in Canada, by Provinces, 1871- lol 

10. Masculinity of the Population of Various Countries .......................... 151 

3. Conjugal Condition ................................................... ..... lo^-io 4 

11. Conjugal Condition of the Population by numbers and percentages, as shown by 

Censuses of 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921 ...................... .. 

12. Conjugal Condition of the People of Canada, classified as Single, Married, 

Widowed, Divorced, Legally Separated, and not given, by Provinces, Census 



13. Conjugal Condition of the Population, 15 years of Age and Over, 1921 ......... 1 53-1 54 

4. Dwellings and Families ........................................... ..... V, 

14. Number of Dwellings and Families in Canada, by Provinces, as shown by tne 

Census of 1921 ........................................................ 155-157 

15. Proportion per 1,666 of the Population by Age-Periods, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 

1911 and 1921 .......................................... -. ..... :^ "-li. 

16. Proportion per 1,000 of the Population by Age-Periods by Provinces, 1921, Wit! 

17. Male 1 and Female Population of Canada by Age-Periods, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911 

ar . f ] i <>-,>] ........................ 16O-157 

ana u^i .............................. ., r-ri ^o 

19. Origins of the People according to the Censuses of 1871, 1881, 1901, ioii and 

1921 ............................................... *"" 

20. Proportion per cent which the People of each Origin form of the Total Popula 

tion, 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 and 1921 .................................... J 

21. Racial Origin of the Population, by Provinces and Territories, 1921 ...... ;; ] 

22. Racial Origins of the People for Nine Cities of 60,000 and over, as shown by the 

Census of 1921 ........................................................ i ro i r- 

7. Religions ................................................................... lw ~{i? 

23. Religions of the People at each Decennial Census, 1871-1921 ....... ..... ---- 

24. Ratio per cent of Specified Denominations to Total Population in Census Years. 

25. Religions of the People by Provinces, Census 1921 ........................... i rp_! A7 

8. Birthplaces .............................................. ........ / i i^-i inoi i r 

26. Birthplaces of the Population of Canada according to the Censuses of 1871- 

27. Population classified by Sex and Nativity, by Provinces and Territories, according 

to the Census of 1921 ................................................... _ {J21 

9. Ruraland Urban Population ............................ .- -. "-"> 

28. Rural and Urban Population by Provinces and Territories, 1891, 1901, 1! 

1921 ................................................................ 

29. Percentage Distribution of Rural and Urban Population by Provinces and 

Territories, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921 .................... - - . ...... - 

30. Urban Population of Canada, divided by Size of Municipality Groups, 1 Ul, 

1911 and 1921 .................................... . ...... ............. \ \ 

31. Ratio of Females to Males in Rural and Urban Populations, 1921 .......... 

32. Population of Cities and Towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1921, compared 

with 1871.-81.-91, 1901, -11 ................................. .- ,v ; : *- 

33. Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 

1921, as compared with 1901 and 1911 .................................... 17f_1 77 

10. Quinquennial Population of the Prairie Provinces ............. . . . . .......... ii(i \ 

34. Population of the Prairie Provinces, 1901, 1906, 1911, 1916 and 1921. ....... . 

35. Population of the Prairie Provinces by Sex at each Census Period from 1870 lor 

Manitoba and from 1901 for Saskatchewan and Alberta ..................... irCiso 

11. Population of the British Empire ......................... . .;: ...... ;ii icn 

ntries 1911 and 1921 ...... 177- 



. . 

36. Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 1911 and 1921 






12. Population of the World ................................ ..... / - ; JS, ifS 

37. Number and Density of the Population of the Various Countries of the World. . 1 

2. Vital Statistics ................................................................ } ?04 

1.* Natural Increase .................................... ........ : ---- . 

38. Summary of Births, Marriages, Deaths and Natural Increase, by Provinces, tor 

the calendar years 1920, 1921 and 1922 .......... . ........ . . ... 

39. Summary of Births, Marriages, Deaths and Natural Increase, by Cities of 10.0U 

and over, for the calendar year 1921 ...................................... J 

2 Ri r//j<? ................................ loo ly^ 

40. Summary Analysis oY Birth Statistics for the calendar years 1920 and 1921 ..... 

41. Births per 1,000 Married Women of Child-bearing age. by Provinces, 1921 ..... 



Vll 

VI. POPULATION concluded. PAOE. 

2. Vital Statistics concluded. 

42. Births by Sex and Ratio of Males to Females, 1921 189 

43. Illegitimate Births in Registration Area, by Age of Mother and by Provinces, 

1921 and 1922 190 

44. Stillbirths in Registration Area, by Age and Status of Mother and by Provinces, 

1921 and 1922 191 

45. Crude Birth Rates of Various Countries in Recent Years 192 

3. Marriages 192-194 

46. Marriages and Marriage Rates, by Provinces, 1921 and 1922 

47. Previous Conjugal Condition of Brides and Grooms, 1921 193 

48. Nativity, by Percentages of Persons Married, in the Registration Area, by 

Provinces, 1921 194 

49. Crude Marriage Rates of Various Countries in Recent Years 194 

4. Deaths 194-204 

50. Deaths and Death Rates, by Provinces, 1920, 1921 and 1922 

51. Excess of Births over Deaths, by Provinces, for each Sex and by Totals, 1921 . . 196 

52. Deaths in the Registration Area of Canada from Twenty Leading Causes, 1921 

and 1922 196-197 

53. Deaths from Tuberculosis in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1922 197-198 

54. Deaths from Cancer in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1922 198-199 

55. Crude Death Rates of Various Countries in Recent Years 199 

56. Infantile Mortality by Provinces, together with the rate per 1,000 Living Births, 

1920, 1921 and 1922 200 

57. Number and Ratio of Infant Deaths in the Registration Area to Living Births, 

by Sex and Provinces, 1921 201 

58. Infantile Mortality by Sex in the Registration Area by Principal Causes of 

Death, 1921 and 1922 201 

59. Rate of Infant Mortality per 1,000 Living Births in Various Countries of the 

World in Recent Years 202 

60. Rate of Infant Mortality per 1,000 Living Births in Great Cities of the World 

in Recent Years 

61. Maternal Mortality in the Registration Area by Age Groups, 1921-1922 

62. Maternal Mortality in the Registration Area by Causes of Death, 1921-1922. . . 204 

3. Immigration 205-215 

1. Statistics of Immigration 205-214 

63. Number of Immigrant Arrivals in Canada from the United Kingdom, the United 

States and other countries, 1897-1923 206 

64. Immigrant Arrivals in Canada, by Nationalities and Races, Fiscal years 1916- 

1923 207-208 

65. Destination of Immigrants into Canada, by Provinces, 1901-1923 208 

66. Occupation and Destination of Total Immigrant Arrivals in Canada for the 

fiscal years 1922 and 1923 209 

67. Rejections of Immigrants upon Arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after 

Admission, by Principal Causes and by Nationalities, 1903-1923 210-211 

68. Juvenile Immigrants and Applications for their Services, 1901-1923 

69. Record of Chinese Immigration, 1886-1923 

70. Record of Oriental Immigration, 1901-1923 

71. Expenditure on Immigration in the fiscal years, 1868-1923 

2. Immigration Policy 214-215 

VII. PRODUCTION. 

1. General Survey of Production 216-220 

1. Summary by Industries of the Value of Production in Canada during 1920 and 

1921 219 

2. Summary by Provinces of the Value of Production in Canada, 1920 219 

3. Percentages of the Value of the Net Production in each Industry to the Total 

Net Output of each Province, 1920 

2. Agriculture 220-309 

1 . Development of Agriculture in Canada 220-225 

1. The Beginnings of Agriculture 220-221 

2. Agriculture in the Provinces before Confederation 221-224 

3. Progress since Confederation 224-225 

2. The Government in Relation to Agriculture 225-235 

1. The Dominion Department of Agriculture 226 

2. Provincial Departments of Agriculture 226-227 

3. Agricultural Experiment Stations of Canada 227 

4. Dominion Experimental Farms and Stations 227-230 

5. Provincial Experimental Farms and Stations 230-235 

3. Statistics of Agriculture 235-309 

1. Acreage, Yield, Quality and Value of Crops 236-260 

1. Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1917-1922 

and five-year average, 1917-1921 ; 238-254 

2. Annual Average Yields per Acre of Field Crops for Canada, and by Provinces, 

from 1915-1922, with decennial averages for the years 1912-1921 255-257 

3. Areas and Yields of Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye and Flaxseed in the three Prairie 

Provinces, 1920-1922. 

4. Total Areas and Values of Field Crops in Canada, 1917-1922 258 



via 



VII. PRODUCTION continued. PAQ. 

2. Agriculture continued. 

5. Field Crops of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for 1921 and 1922 . 268 

6. Quality of Grain Crops, as indicated by Average Weight per measured bushel, 

1913-1922 .- 259 

7. Average Values per Acre of Occupied Farm Lands in Canada, as estimated by 

Crop Correspondents 1908-1910, 1914-1922 260 

2. Farm Live Stock and Poultry 200-270 

8. Numbers of Farm Live Stock in Canada, by Provinces, 1921-1922 261-263 

9. Estimated Numbers of Farm Live Stock in Canada, 1917-1922 263-264 

10. Average Values of Farm Animals and of Wool, as estimated by Crop Correspond- . 

ents, 1916-1922 265-266 

11. Average Values per head of Farm Live Stock in Canada, as estimated by Crop 

Correspondents, 1916-1922 266-267 

12. Estimated Total Values of Farm Live Stock in Canada, by Provinces, 1916-1922 267-. 

13. Estimated Numbers and Values of Farm Poultry in Canada, 1921-1922 269-270 

3 Fur Farming 270-271 

14. Number of Fur Farms and Value of Land and Buildings, 1920, 1921 and 1922. . 271 

15. Number and Value of Fur Bearing Animals on Fur Farms in Canada, 1920, 1921 

and 1922 

4. Dairying Statistics 271 ~Zo 

16. Production and Value of Creamery Butter, by Provinces, 1920-1922 

17. Production and Value of Factory Cheese, by Provinces, 1920-1922. 272 

18. Miscellaneous Products of Dairy Factories, 1920, 1921, 1922 276 

19. Production and Value of Creamery Butter and Factory Cheese in Canada, by 

Provinces, 1900, 1910, 1915 and 1920-1922 273-274 

20. Total Value of all Products of Dairy Factories, by Provinces, 1918-1922 

6. Fruit Production ; 275-277 

21. Fruit Trees, Bearing and Non-bearing, together with Average Number per .barm 

and per 100 Acres of Improved Land, 1911 and 1921 275 

22. Fruit Production for all Canada, together with the Average Production per Farm 

and per 100 Acres of Improved Land, 1900-1920 275 

23. Production and Value of Apples in Canada, by Provinces, m 1920, according to 

the Census of 1921 

24. Production and Value of Commercial Apples in Canada, by Provinces, 1921 and 

1922 

25. Production and Value of all Kinds of Commercial Fruits in Canada, 1920-1922. 

6. Farm Labour and Wages 278-280 

26. Average Wages of Farm Help in Canada, as Estimated by Crop Correspondents, 

1915-1922 - ^78-279 

27 Average Wages per Year of Farm Help in Canada, as Estimated by Crop Corre 
spondents, 1920-1922 ^ 

7. Prices of Agricultural Produce ::. 280-292 

28. Weekly Range of Cash Prices per Bushel of Canadian Wheat at Winnipeg, 

Basis in store, Fort William-Port Arthur, 1922 .. . .. ...... 281-282 

29. Monthly Range of Average Cash Prices of Canadian Wheat at Winnipeg, Basis 

in store, Fort William-Port Arthur, 1920-1922 . . . ..... . . . 282-283 

30. Weekly Range of Cash Prices of Oats at Winnipeg, Basis in Store, Fort William- 

Port Arthur, 1922 -. -.-. 

31. Weekly Range of Cash Prices of Barley and Flaxseed at Winnipeg, Basis m Store, 

Fort William-Port Arthur, 1922 . .. v. ....... 284-/Si> 

32. Monthly Range of Average Cash Prices of Barley, Oats and Flaxseed at Winni 

peg, Basis in Store, Fort William-Port Arthur, 1920-1922 

33. Monthly Range of Average Prices in British Markets of Canadian Wheat and 

Oats, 1920-1922 A . : ; 286-287 

34 Yearly Average Prices of Home Grown Wheat, Barley and Oats in England and 
Wales, 1902-1922 :-. . ,- 

35. Average Monthly Prices of Flour, Bran, and Shorts at Principal Markets, 11 

36. Average Prices per Cwt. of Canadian Live Stock at Principal Markets, 1920, 

1921 and 1922 .-: ;; 

37. Average Monthly Prices per Cwt. of Canadian Live Stock at Principal Markets, 

1922 

38. Average Prices per Ib. paid by Farmers for Grade Number 1 Clover and Grass- 

peed, by Provinces, during April and May, 1923, and Average Prices for Canada 

during April and May, 1919-1923 : 

39 Average Prices per Ib. Paid to Farmers for Clover and Grass-seed, by Provinces, 

during April and May, 1923, and Average Prices for Canada during April an. ^ 

40. Index Numbers of Agricultural Prices for Canada, 1914-1922 

f ^Q2 299 
8. Miscellaneous Agricultural Statistics * 9Q9 

41. Estimated Production of \Vix.l. by Provinces, 1922 -; - 

42. Production and Value of Wool in Canada, 1915-1922 

43. Area and Yield of Tobacco in Canada, 1920-1922 ......... . . . ... ... . . . . - 

44. Area, Yield and Value of Sugar Beets in Canada and Production of Refined 

Beet-root Sugar, 1911-1922 . 

45. Maple Products in the Province of Quebec, 1918-1922 ...... 

46. Stocks of Grain in Farmers Hands at the end of th e Crop Years 1920-22 ... **0 

47. Stocks of Grain in Canada at the clo, Crop Years 1920, 1921 and 1922. 296-2. 7 

48. Stocks ol XVh.-Mt in Canada, March 81, J1-1M...... ...- -.-ly-- 207 

49. Stocks in Canada of Oats, Barley and Flaxseed, March 31, 1922 and 1923 

50. Distribution of Canadian Wheat Crops of 1921 and 1922 - 

51. Distribution of Canadian Oat Crops of 1921 and 1922 



IX 

VII. PRODUCTION continued. PAGE. 

2. Agriculture concluded. 

9. Summary Statistics of Agricultural Revenue and Wealth 299-301 

52. Estimated Gross Annual Agricultural Revenue of Canada, by Provinces, 1918- 

1922 299-300 

53. Estimated Gross Agricultuial Wealth of Canada, by Provinces, 1922 301 

10. Statistics of the World s Agriculture 302-309 

54. Acreage and Production of Cereals and of Potatoes in various Countries of the 

World, 1921 and 1922 303-307 

55. Yields per Acre of Cereals and of Potatoes in Various Countries of the World, 

1921 and 1922 308-309 

3. Forestry 

1. Physiography, Geology and Climate from a Forestry Viewpoint 310-311 

2. Main Types of Forest Growth 312-314 

3. Important Tree Species 314-317 

4. Forest Resources 317-318 

1. Estimated Stand of Timber of merchantable size in Canada, by Regions, 1922. . 318 

5. Forest Administration 318-322 

6. Forest Utilization 322-339 

2. Lumber, Lath and Shingle Production in Canada for the calendar years 1908-1921 323 

3. Total Production of Lumber, Lath and Shingles in Canada, by Kinds of Wood, 

for the calendar year 1921 325 

4. Production of Lumber, Lath and Shingles in Canada, by Provinces, for the 

calendar year 1921 

5. Imports of Forest Products, by Chief Classes, calendar years 1920-22 

6. Exports of Forest Products, by Chief Classes, calendar years 1920-22 

7. Production, Consumption and Export of Pulpwood, calendar years 1908-22 

8. Pulp Production, Mechanical and Chemical, calendar years 1908-22 

9. Pulp Production, by Classes and Provinces, calendar years 1921-22 

10. Summary of Paper Production in Canada, calendar years 1917-22 

11. Paper Production in Canada, by Classes, calendar years 1921-22 335-336 

12. Exports of Wood Pulp, by Countries, calendar year 1922 

13. Imports of Wood Pulp, by Countries, calendar year 1922 

14. Exports of Paper, by Principal Countries, calendar year 1922 

15. Imports of Paper, by Principal Countries, calendar year 1922 

16. Summary Statistics of Forest Products, 1917-21 

17. Total Values of Primary and Secondary Forest Production, 1920-21 

7. Forest Depletion and Increment 340341 

4. Fur Trade 341-345 

1. Numbers and Values of Pelts Purchased by Traders from Trappers and Fur 

Farmers, years ended June 30, 1921-22 344 

2. Kind, Number, Total Value and Average Value of Pelts of Fur Bearing Animals 

taken in Canada, year ended June 30, 1922, with Comparative Average Values 
for the year ended June 30, 1921 

5. Fisheries 345-361 

1 . The Early Fisheries 345. 

2. The Canadian Fishing Grounds 346-349 

3. The Government and the Fisheries 349-351 

1. Government Bounties to Fishermen, in the fiscal years 1918-1921 

4. The Modern Fishing Industry 351-361 

2. Total Value of the Fisheries of Canada, in the fiscal years 1870-1921 352 

3. Total Value of Fisheries, by Provinces in the calendar years 1917-21 ^ 352 

4. Quantity and Value of Chief Commercial Fishes, 1917-21 352-353 

5. Quantities and Values of Sea fish marketed during the calendar years 1920 and 

1921 354-355 

6. Quantities and Values of Inland Fish Marketed during calendar years 1920 and 

1921 356 

7. Yield of the Fisheries of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for 

1920-1921 

8. Number of Fish Canning and Curing Establishments, by Provinces, 1921 ... 3o7 

9. Materials used and Value of Products of Fish Canning and Curing Establish 

ments, 1920-1921 357 

10. Number and Capital Value of Fishing Vessels, Boats, Nets, Traps, etc., used in 

the Fisheries of Canada, 1920-21 

11. Number of Persons Employed in the Fisheries of Canada 1920-21 

12. Salaries and Wages in Fish Canning and Curing Establishments, 1920-21 

13. Value of Exports and Imports of Fish and Fish Products, 1902-1922 

14. Exports of the Fisheries, the Produce of Canada, by Principal Countries, in the 

fiscal years 1921 and 1922 

15. Exports of the Fisheries compared as to Quantity and Value, for the fiscal years 

1921 and 1922 360-361 

6. Mines and Minerals 361-400 

1 . General Production 361-369 

1. Value of Mineral Production in Canada, calendar years 1886-1921 

2. Mineral Production of Canada, calendar years 1921 and 1922 362-363 

3. Mineral Production of Canada compared as to Quantity and Value, calendar 

years !921 and 1922 



VII. PRODUCTION continued. PAGE. 

6. Mines and Minerals concluded. 

4. Mineral Production of Canada, by Provinces, 1899-1922 ..................... 

5. Mineral Production of Nova Scotia, 1920-1921-1922 ......................... 

6. Mineral Production of New Brunswick, 1920-1921-1922 t .................... 

7. Mineral Production of Quebec, 1920-1921-1922 ............................. 

8. Mineral Production of Ontario, 1920-1921-1922 ............................. 

9. Mineral Production of Manitoba, 1920-1921-1922 ........................... 

10. Mineral Production of Saskatchewan, 1920-1921-1922 ....................... 

11. Mineral Production of Alberta, 1920-1921-1922 ............................. 

12. Mineral Production of British Columbia, 1920-1921-1922 .................... 

13. Mineral Production of Yukon, 1920-1921-1922 .............................. 

2. Metallic Minerals ............................................................ 370-384 

! Gold .......... ....................................... 370-375 

14. Quantity of Gold Produced in Canada, by Provinces, calendar years 1911-1922. 370 

15 Value of Gold Produced in Canada, by Provinces, calendar years 1911-1922. . . . .571 

16. Quantity and Value of the World s Production of Gold and Silver for calendar 

years 1920-1921 ....................................................... 07^077 

o qjl ver ............................................. 610-61 1 

17. Quantity and Value of Silver Produced in Canada during the calendar years 

1 ocy _ i Q22 .................................... o/ 

18. Quantity and" Value of Silver Produced in Canada, by Provinces, during the 
calendar years 1911-1922 ............................................... 

3 Copper ................................................ 

19! Quantity "and Vaiue ofCopper "Produced in Canada, by Provinces, calendar 

20. Copper Production of Seven Countries and of the World, 1913-1922 ........... 

4 Lead ............................................ 

21. Quantity and Value of Lead Produced from Canadian Ore, calendar yaars 

1887-1922 ............................................................. ^|V 

5 Nickel ............................................... 

22! Quantity and Value of Nickel Produced in Canada during calendar years 1889- 

1922 .................................................................. ?Si 

6. Cobalt ......................................................................... 

................................................ 382-383 

23. Production of Zinc in Canada, calendar years 161 1-1922 ...................... 382-383 

........................................................ 383-384 

24. Iron Ore Shipments and Production of Pig Iron, calendar years 1909-1922 ..... 

Non-Metallic Minerals ....................................................... 384-396 

........................................... 384-395 

25 . Production of Coal in Canada, calendar years 1909-1922 .... ---- . . ...... . 385 

26. Imports into Canada of Anthracite and Bituminous Coal for Home Consumption, 

fiscal years 1901-1923 ............. . . . . . . . ...... ............... ||i 

27. Exports of Coal, the produce of Canada, fiscal years 1903-1923 ........... 

28. Annual Consumption of Coal in Canada, calendar years 1901- 

29. Coal made available for consumption in Canada, by Provinces, calendar year 

i noo ................ ooo-J JU 



- 
Coal Resources of the Provinces ................................................ 

30. Coal Resources of Canada, by Provinces and Classes of Coal . . . . . ........... 3> 

31. Coal Production in the Principal Countries of the World, 1913-1921 ........... . 

. , ...... 395-396 

2. Asbestos ............................................... 

32. Production of Asbestos and Asbestic in Canada, calendar years 1909 

3. Other Non-Metallic Minerals ..................................................... *** 

4. Clay Products and Structural Materials ................. 3J7 

33. Production of Cement in Canada, calendar years 1902-1922. .... ............. 

34. Imports into Canada of Portland Cement, fiscal years 1. 192J .............. o 

5. Number of Mines, Capital, Labour, Wages, etc., by Principal Groups ................ 397-4 

35. Summary of Principal Statistics relative to Mining Metallurgical, Structural 

Materials and Clay Products Industries Operating Plants, 1921 ............... 39! 

7. Water Powers ..................................................... 

1. Water Powers of Canada. . .................................................. 

1. Developed Water Power of leading countries, 1922. ...... . ..... .......... 401 

2. Available and Developed Water Power in Canada, February 1, 1923 ........... 

3. Developed Water Power in Canada, February 1 1923. ... . . . . -. ; 

4. Developed Water Power in Canada, Utilized in the Central Electric Station ^ 

5. Developed Water Pcfwe r of Canada used in t h ePuip and Paper Industry, February ^ 

2. Central Electric Stations ................................................ ...... 404 ~ 4 

6. Statistics of Central Electric Stations, calendar years 1917-1921.. ... 

7. Electric Energy Generated in calendar years 1919, 1920, 1921 by Provinces. ... 

8 Number of Electric Light and Power Companies registered under the Electricity 

Inspection Act in the fiscal years 1914-1923 ........... .... .... ---- vv ;: 

9 Electrical Energy Generated or Produced for Export by Canada undei 

authority of the Electricity and Fluid Exportation Act during the fiscal years. 
1918-1923 ............................................................. 



XI 

VII. PRODUCTION concluded. PAGE. 

7. Water Powers concluded. 

3. Public Ownership of Hydro-Electric Power 406-411 

10. Consolidated Operating Report of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 

Ontario, 1912-1922 408 

11. Statement of Earnings and Operating Expenses of Electric Departments of 

Municipalities served by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission, calendar 

years 1919-1922 409 

12. Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Electric Departments of Municipalities 

served by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission for the calendar 

years 1919-1922 409-410 

8. Manufactures 411-459 

1. Evolution of Canadian Manufactures 411-413 

2. Statistics of Manufactures 413-443 

1. Growth since 1871 413-416 

1. Historical Summary of Statistics of Manufactures, by Provinces, 1870-1921. . . . 415-416 

2. Recent Manufacturing Production 417-431 

2. Volume of Products of Canadian Manufactures, 1915-1921 417 

3. Summary Statistics of Manufactures of Canada, 1919, 1920, 1921 

4. Principal Statistics of Forty Leading Industries, 1920 418-419 

5. Principal Statistics of Forty Leading Industries, 1921 419 

6. Summarv Statistics of Manufactures, by Groups of Industries (old classifica 

tion) 1918, 1919, 1920 420-421 

7. Statistics of the Numbers, Capital, Employees, Wages, Cost of Materials and 

Value of Products of Canadian Manufacturing Industries, 1921, with summary 

by groups for 1920 (new classification) 422-431 

3. Capital Employed 430-432 

8. Capital Employed in the Manufacturing Industries of Canada, in Percentages, by 

Provinces, 1915, 1917-21 432 

9. Capital Employed in the Manufacturing Industries of Canada, by Industrial 

Groups, 1920-1921 432 

10. Capital Employed in the Manufacturing Industries of Canada, by Provinces 

and by Groups of Industries, 1921 432 

4. Employment 433-435 

11. Wage Earners in Manufacturing Industries, 1915-1921 433 

12. Average Yearly Earnings and Real Wages of Wage Earners in Manufacturing 

Industries, 1915-1921 434 

13. Male and Female Employees on Salaries and Wages, by Provinces, 1920 and -1921 435 

5. Power and Fuel 435-437 

14. Power used in the Manufacturing Industries of Canada, by Provinces and Groups 

of Industries, 1921 436 

15. Fuel used in the Manufacturing Industries of Canada, by Provinces, 1921 437 

6. Localization in Manufacturing Industries 437-443 

16. Statistics of Manufactures, by Cities, Towns, and Villages of 1,000 Population 

and over, 1920 438-443 

3. Typical Individual Manufactures 443-459 

1. Flour Milling 444-446 

17. Production and Export of Wheat Flour, by Months, during the Crop Year 

ending August 31, 1923 446 

2. The Boot and Shoe Industry 446-449 

3. The Woollen Industry 449-452 

4. The Iron and Steel Industry 452-456 

5. Chemical and Allied Industries 456-459 

9. Construction 459-462 

1. Relation of Construction Industry to General Business Conditions 459-461 

1. Cost of Materials and Value of Products in the Construction Industries as reported 

to the Industrial Census, 1920-1921 460 

2. Employees, and Salaries and Wages Disbursed in the Construction Industries, as 

reported to the Industrial Census, 1920-1921 

3. Value of General Construction completed by Classes of Work, 1921 461 

2. Construction in Transportation and Public Utility Industries 461 

3. Contracts Awarded 461-462 

4. Value of Construction Contracts awarded in Canada, 1918-1923, according to 

the compilation of MacLean Building Reports, Ltd 

4. Building Permits 462 

5. Values of Building Permits Taken out in 35 Cities for the calendar years 1918- 

1923 462 

VIII. TRADE AND COMMERCE. 
1. External Trade 463-579 

1. Historical Sketch of External Trade and Tariffs 463-465 

2. The Commercial Intelligence Service 465-466 

3. Statistics of External Trade 466-554 

1. Aggregate External Trade of Canada, 1868-1923 470 



Xll 

VIII. TRADE AND COMMERCE continued. PAGE. 

1. External Trade concluded. 

2. Ratio of Exports to Imports and Value per Capita of Exports, Imports and 

Total Trade, 1868-1923 ................................. ................ 

3. Movement of Coin and Bullion, 1868-1918 .................................. 4 ^ 

4. Duties Collected on Exports, 1868-1892, and on Imports for Home Consumption, 

1868-1923 ............................................................. 473 

5 Exports to the United Kingdom, United States and to other Countries, of Mer 

chandise, the produce of Canada, 1868-1923 ............................... 474 

6. Imports from the United Kingdom, United States, and from other Countries 

of Merchandise entered for Home Consumption, 1868-1923 ................. 475 

7. Percentage Proportions of Imports from United Kingdom and United States 

respectively, to Totals of Dutiable and Free in the 23 fiscal years 1901-1923. . 476 

8. Average Ad Valorem Rates of Duty Collected on Imports from the United 

Kingdom, United States, and all Countries in the 56 fiscal years 1868-1923 . . . 476 

9. Imports for Home Consumption of Certain Raw Materials used in Canadian 

Manufactures, 1902-1923 ................... ... ....... . - . ..... . 

10. Exports to the United Kingdom, to the United States and to all Countries by 

Classes of Merchandise, the Produce of Canada, by Values and Percentages, 
19201923 ......................................... 478 

11. Imports from the United Kingdom, from the United States and from all Count 

ries, by Classes of Merchandise entered for Home Consumption, by Values and 
Percentages, 1920-1923 ................................. - - ..... .-. 

12. Exports of Canada to the United Kingdom, United States and all Countries, m 

Quantities and Values, by Classes of Home Produce in the 4 fiscal years 1920- 

1923 ................................................. 480-505 

13. Imports of Canada from the United Kingdom, the United States and all Count 

ries, in Quantities and Values, by Classes entered for Consumption, in the 4 

fiscal years 1920-1923 ................................ - : 506-537 

14. Imports (Dutiable and Free) and Exports of Canadian and Foreign Produce, by 

Main Classes, during the fiscal years ended March 31, 1914, 1919-1922 ....... 538-539 

15. External Trade of Canada, by Main Groups and Degrees of Manufacture, 

according to Origin, year ended March 31, 1922 ........................ . 540-541 

16. Summary of the Trade of Canada, by Main Groups, compiled on a Classinca- 

tion according to Purpose, fiscal year ended March 31, 1922 ............ ..... 542-54b 

17. Value of Total Exports and Imports entered for Consumption and the ] 

Collected thereon at certain Ports, during fiscal years ended March 31, 1922 

and 1923 ........................................................... 547-048 

18. Imports of Canada, by values entered for Consumption, from the British Empire 

and Foreign Countries under the General, Preferential, and Treaty Hate 
Tariffs in the 2 fiscal years 1921-1922 ....................... ......... 

19. Aggregate Trade of Canada, by Countries, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 

1Qv> ........................................ SOU OOl 





20. Values of Export s of Home Produce from Canada to the British Empire and to 

Foreign Countries in the 5 fiscal years 1919-1923 .................. ........ 

21. Values of Imports into Canada of Merchandise entered for Consumption from 

the British Empire and from Foreign Counties, in the 5 fiscal years 1919 

22. Value of Merchandise Imported into and Exported from Canada through the 

United States during the fiscal years ended March 31, 1921-1922 ............. 

4. Canadian-West Indian Trade .................................................. 554-556 

23. Value of Imports and Exports from and to British and Foreign West Indies, 

190123 ............................................. ooo 

24. Values of Exports (Domestic and Foreign) to the British and Foreign West 

Indies, by Countries, during fiscal years 1921-1923 ........... . ... . . . ---- . 

25. Values of Imports entered for Home Consumption (Dutiable and Free) from the 

British and Foreign West Indies, by Countries, during the fiscal years 1921-1923 

5. Statistics of the United Kingdom Import and United States Export Trade in Food 

Commodities ........................................................... 6d ~ 

26. Quantities and Values of Selected Animal and Agricultural Food Products 

imported into the United Kingdom, by Countries whence imported, during the 

5 calendar years 1917-1921 ......................... . ........... 57-561 

27. Quantities and Values of Animal and Agricultural Products exported from the 

United States to principal countries, for the year ended June 30, 1917, and the 
calendar years 1918-1919-1920 and 1921 .................................. 50 

2. Internal Trade .............................................................. 58 - (i12 

"iSO 

1 . Interprovincial Trade ..................................................... 

28. Railway Traffic Movement of Wheat in Canada and its provinces, in tons, for 

the calendar yea> -1 1 !- ! ........................................ _ OSL 

2. Grain Trade Statistics ......................................................... 581-594 

29. Number and Storage Capacity of Grain Klvators in the I; irs 1913-1923.. 580-587 

30. Qua., d during the fiscal 121-1923.. ...... j*-&Wl 

31. Quantities of drain Jnsi><-cted during the fiscal larch 31, I .tM 1-592 

32. Shipments of Grain by Vessels from Fort William and Port Arthur, for the navi- 

gati. 1921-1922 ...................... . . . - - . . - ...... 

33. Shipments of Grain by Vessels and all-Rail Route, from Fort William and I ort 

Arthur, for the crop y id August 31, I l-l 1922... ................ - - 

34. Canadian Grain handl . tors in the East, by crop years endin* 

August 31, 1918-1 )22 ................................ ...... 

35. Canadian Grain handled in Public Elevators in the East, by Classes of Ports, 

during the crop year ending August 31, 1922 ................................ 



Xlll 

VIII. TRADE AND COMMERCE concluded. PAQB. 

2. Internal Trade concluded. 

3. Marketing of Live Stock and Animal Products 594-604 

36. Animals on Farms and Killed or Sold by Farmers in Canada, by censal years, 

1871-1921 596 

37. Index Numbers of Animals on Farms in Canada, from 1918 to 1922 596 

38. Live Stock Marketed through Stock Yards, Packers, etc., in several provinces 

of Canada, 1922 597-598 

39. Grading of Live Stock marketed at the Stock Yards of Canada, by provinces, 

calendar year 1922 598 

40. Receipts and Disposition of Live Stock at Principal Markets in Canada, calendar 

years 1921 and 1922 600 

41. Principal Statistics of the Slaughtering and Meat Packing Industry of Canada 

for censal years 1871-1921 601 

42. Live Stock slaughtered at Canadian Inspected Establishments, by months, 1921- 

1922 601 

43. Total and per capita Consumption of Meats in Canada, per annum, calendar 

years 1919-1922 602 

44. Summary of Interprovincial and Export Shipments of Meats for fiscal year 1922 603 

4. Cold Storage 604-606 

45. Cold Storage Warehouses in Canada, 1923 604-605 

46. Stocks of Food on hand in Cold Storage and in process of cure, by Months and 

Commodities, 1922 606 

5. Coal . 606-608 

47. Distribution of Coal through Retail Dealers, by Provinces, 1921 and 1922. . . . . 607 

48. Yearly Average Retail Prices of Coal in Canada, by Principal Municipalities, 

1920-1921-1922 607-608 

6. Bounties, Patents, Copyrights, and Trade Marks 608-612 

49. Bounties paid in Canada on Crude Petroleum, 1905-1923 609 

50. Number of Canadian Patentees, by province of residence, for the fiscal years 

1913-1923 610 

51. Statistics of Patents applied for, granted, etc., fiscal years 1919-1923 611 

52. Statistics of Copyrights, Trade Marks, etc., fiscal years 1919-1923 612 

IX. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

1. Government Control over Agencies of Transpo-tation and Communication. . . . 614-616 

The Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada 615-616 

2. Steam Railways 616-637 

1. Historical Sketch 616-623 

2. Statistics of Steam Railways. 623-637 

1. Record of Steam Railway Mileage, June 30, 1835-1919, and December 31, 

1919-1922 623 

2. Steam Railway Mileage, by provinces, June 30, 1916-1919 arid December 31, 

1919-1922 624 

3. Capital Liability of Steam Railways, June 30, 1876-1919, and December 31, 

1919-1922 624 

4. Mileage, Capital Liability, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Railways, 

for the calendar year 1921 625 

5. Mileage, Capital Liability, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Railways, 

for the calendar year 1922 626 

6. Steam Railway Statistics, years ended June 30, 1901-1919 and for the calendar 

years 1919-1922 . 627 

7. Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Railways per mile of line and per train 

< mile for years ended June 30, 1909-1919 and for calendar years 1919-1922. . . 627 

8. Distribution of Operating Expenses of Steam Railways for the calendar years 

1919-1922 628 

9. Summary Analysis of Statistics of Passenger and Freight Services and Receipts, 

1910-1922 628-629 

10. Number of Steam Railway Employees, Amount of Salaries and Wages and 

Ratios of latter to Gross Earnings and Operating Expenses for years ended 

June 30, 1907-1919 and for calendar years 1919-1922 629 

11. Mileage and Rolling Stock of Steam Railways for years ended June 30, 1918 

and 1919, and for calendar years 1919-1922 630 

12. Commodities hauled as Freight on Steam Railways during the calendar years 

1920, 1921 and 1922 630-631 

13. Areas of Land Subsidies Granted to Steam Railways by the Dominion and 

Provincial Governments up to December 31, 1922 632 

14. Railway Bonds Guaranteed by Dominion and Provincial Governments 633 

15. Analysis of the Total Financial Aid given to Steam Railways up to December 

^ 31, 1922 633 

16. Cost of Construction, Working Expenses, and Revenue of Canadian Government 

Railways for the fiscal years 1868-1900, 1901-1922 and before Confederation.. 633-634 

17. Capital Expenditure on Government Railways to March 31, 1922 634 

18. Number of Passengers, Employees and others killed and injured on Steam 

Railways, for the years ended June 30, 1888-1919, and for calendar years 
1919-1922 635 

19. Number of Persons killed and injured on Steam Railways, for the calendar years 

1920 T 1922 635-636 

20. Canadian National Railways Train Traffic Statistics for years ended December 

31, 1920, 1921 and 1922 636-637 



XIV 

IX. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS continued. PAGE. 

3. Electric Railways ............................................. ......... 637-642 

21. Summary Statistics of Electric Railway Operation, years ended June 30, 1901- 

1919, and for calendar years 1919-1922 ................................... 

22. Mileage and Equipment of Electric Railways for the calendar years 1919-1922. 

23. Capital Liability of Electric Railways, years ended June 30, 1908-1919, and for 

calendar years 1919-1922 ................................... ........ 639 

24. Mileage Operated, Capital, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Electric Rail 

ways in Canada, year ended December 31, 1921 .................. ........ . 

25. Mileage Operated, Capital, Earnings, Operating Expenses, Employees and 

Salaries and Wages of Electric Railways in Canada, year ended December 31, 

1922 ............................................................... 641-642 

26 Number of Passengers, Employees and others killed and injured on Electric 
Railways, years ended June 30, 1894-1919, and for calendar years 1919-1922. 

4. Express Companies ...................................... . - . . . ..... ............. 642-646 

27. Operating Mileage of Express Companies m Canada, by Routes, by .Provinces 

and by Companies, for the calendar years 1919-1922 ................... . . . . 

28. Earnings of Express Companies for the years ended June 30, 1915-1919 and for 

the calendar years 1919-1922 ........................... . . . ... . . ... .... 

29. Operating Expenses of Express Companies for the years ended June 30, 1 

1919, and for the calendar years 1919-1922 .......................... . . . . . - 

30. Business transacted by Express Companies in financial paper for the calendar 

years 1919-1922 ....................................................... 

S Roads and Hi&nways .................................. ..... 646648 

31. Classification oif Canadian Highway and Road Mileages as at October 31, 1922. 647 

32. Statement of progress of the provinces under Canada Highways Act, 1919, to 

March 31, 1922 ........................................................ 

33. Number of Motor Vehicles registered in Canada, by Provinces, 1907-1922 ...... 

34. Types of Motor Cars registered in Canada, by Provinces, 1922 .......... . . . . . 

35. Revenues from the Taxation of the Sale, Distribution and Operation of Motor 

Vehicles, by Provinces, for the calendar year 1922 .......................... 

Motor Vehicle Acts and Regulations in Force ........................................ 651- 

Imports and Exports of Motor Vehicles ............................................. 654-655 

36. Canadian Imports and Exports of Motor Vehicles, fiscal years ended March 31, 

1907-1923 ............................................................. 

37* Summary Statistics of civil Aviation in Canada, calendar years 1921 and 1922. 

38. Civil Aviation Accidents in Canada for the calendar years 1921 and 1922 ....... 

8 Canals ................................................... 657-667 

39. Canals of Canada, Length and Lock Dimensions, 1922 ........ ....... ..... . 658-659 

40. Canal Traffic during the Navigation Seasons of 1921 and 1922, by direction and 

- . .......... OOU 

41. Distribution of T otal Canal Traffic by month s , 1917-1922 .................... 

42. Tonnage of Traffic by Canals and Classes of Products, 1921-1922 ....... ;.- 

43. Principal Articles carried through Canadian Canals during the navigation 

seasons, 1921 and 1922 ............................. .......... ..... ...... 661-6W 

44. Traffic through the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie Canal during the navigation 

seasons 1900-1922, by Nationality of Vessels and Origin of Freight. .... ..... 

45. Traffic through all Canadian Canals during the navigation seasons r 19^^, 

by Nationality of Vessels and Origin of Freight ................. .. .......... 

46. Traffic through individual Canadian Canals during the navigation seasons 

1918-1922 ........................................... 663-0 

47. Total Expenditure and Revenue oif Canals, 1868-1922, and before Confederation 

48. Capital Expenditure for Construction and Enlargement of Canals for the fiscal 

years 1868-1922, and before Confederation ........................ 

49. Traffic through the Panama Canal by Nationality of Vessels, years ended June 

30, 1919-1922 ................................................. v i 

50 Summary of Commercial Traffic through the Panama Canal, years ended June 
30, 1915-1922 



, 

/-> ft > T_ ARfl 

1Pn Seagoing Vessels (exclusive of Coasting Vessels) entered and cleared at Canadian 
ports during the fiscal years 1921 and 1922 ..... ...... ..... . . ...... - 

Sea-going Vessels entered and cleared at the Pnncipal Ports of Canada, fiscal 

i ooo .......... ooy 

53. Sea-going Vessels entered inwards and outwards by countries, 1922 ....... . . . . 670 

54 Sea-going Vessels entered and cleared at Canadian Ports, with Cargo and in 

Ballast, 1901-1922 ............................ .......... ---- ........... 

55 Sea-going and Inland Vessels (exclusive of Coasting \essels) arrived at and 

departed from Canadian Ports, 1901-1922 ............... . . . .... . . . . . .--- 

56. British and Foreign Vessels employed in the Coasting Trade of Canada, 1 

1922 ......................................................... 

57 Canadian and American Vessels trading on Rivers and Lakes between Canada 

and the United States, exclusive of ferriage, 1918-1922 ........ . . .... 

58. Statement showing, by Provinces, the Total Number and Tonnage of all Vessels 

entered and cleared at Canadian Ports during the fiscal year ended March 31, 
1922 ................................................... : 

59. Vessels built and registered in Canada and Vessels sold to other Countries, 

60 Nu S mber e and Net Tonnage of Vessels on the Registry of Shipping of Canada, 
by Provinces, calendar years 1912-1921 ................................... 



XV 

IX. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS-concluded. PAGE. 

9. Shipping and Navigation concluded. 

61. Revenue of the Department of Marine, fiscal years 1917-1922 676 

62. Expenditure of the Department of Marine, fiscal years 1917-1922 676-677 

63. Total Revenue and Expenditure of the Department of Marine, fiscal years 

1868-1922 677 

64. Steamboat Inspection during the fiscal year 1922 678 

65. Number of Seamen Shipped and Discharged at Canadian Ports, calendar years 

1908-1921 679 

66. Canadian Wrecks and Casualties, for 1870-1900, for the years ended June 30, 

1901 to 1917, and for the calendar years 1918-1921 679 

67. Comparative Statement of Marine Danger Signals, fiscal years 1912-1922 679 

Canadian Government Merchant Marine .- 680 

10. Telegraphs 680-685 

68. Summary Statistics of all Canadian Telegraphs, for calendar years 1920 and 1921 681 

69. Telegraph Statistics of Chartered Companies, June 30, 1919, and for the calendar 

years 1919-1921 682 

70. Radio Stations licensed in Canada for the fiscal year 1923 683-684 

71. Canadian Government Steamers equipped with the Radiotelegraph, fiscal year 

1923 685 

72. Business and Cost of Maintenance of Radiotelegraph Stations, for the fiscal years 

1922 and 1923 685 

73. Wireless and Radio Stations in operation in Canada, as at March 31, 1923 685 

11. Telephones 686-688 

74. Progress of Telephones in Canada for years ended June 30, 1917-1919 and for the 

calendar years 1919-1921 686 

75. Number of Telephone Companies in Canada, by Provinces, December 31, 1921. 687 

76. Number of Telephone Companies in Canada, 1911-1921 687 

77. Telephones in use, Mileage of Wire and number of Employees, by Provinces, 

December 31, 1921 687 

78. Telephones in use, Mileage of Wire and Number of Employees, 1911-1921 688 

79. Financial Statistics of Telephone Companies, by Provinces, for the calendar 

year 1921 688 

80. Financial Statistics of Canadian Telephone Companies for the years 1912-1921. 688 

12. The Post Office 689-696 

81. Number of Post Offices in Operation in the several Provinces of Canada, 

March 31, 1922 690 

82. Statistics of Gross Postal Revenue of Offices collecting $10,000 and upwards, for 

the fiscal years 1921 and 1922 691-692 

83. Revenue and Expenditure of the Post Office Department for the quinquennial 

years 1890 to 1910, and for the fiscal years 1911-1922 692-693 

84. Operation of the Money Order System in Canada, fiscal years 1901-1922 693 

85. Money Orders by Provinces, fiscal years 1918-1922 694 

86. Number and Total Values of Postal Notes, fiscal years 1917-1922 695 

87. Issue of Postage Stamps, etc., fiscal years 1921 and 1922. 695 

88. Mail Subsidies and Steamship Subventions, fiscal years 1920-1922 696 

X. LABOUR, WAGES AND PRICES. 
1. Labour 697-732 

1 . Occupations of the People 697-701 

1. Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations in Canada, by Ages, 1911 698 

2. Number of Males and Females ten years of age and over engaged in Gainful 

Occupations, by Provinces, 1881-191 i 698 

3. Numbers and Percentage Distribution by Industries of Persons engaged in 

Gainful Occupations, 1881-1911 699 

4. Percentage Distribution by Sexes of the Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations, 

by Industries and Provinces, 1911 700 

5. Numbers and Percentage Distribution by Nativity, Sex and Industries, of 

Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations, 1911 701 

2. Dominion Department of Labour 701-704 

3. Canada and the International Labour Organization 704-707 

Dominion-Provincial Conference relative to obligations of Canada under Labour 
Sections of Peace Treaties 706-707 

4. Organized Labour in Canada 707-715 

6. Membership of Trade Unions in Canada, 1911-1922 713 

7. International Trade Unions operating in Canada 713-714 

8. Non-international Trade Unions operating in Canada 715 

5. Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada 715-716 

9. Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada, 1922-23 716 

6. Employers Liability and Workmen s Compensation in Canada 716-721 

10. Provisions of Employers Liability and Workmen s Compensation Laws in the 

various Provinces in 1923 718-721 

7. Trade Disputes Strikes and Lockouts 722-727 

11. Record of Trade Disputes by years, 1901-1922 722 

12. Trade Disputes by Industries, 1922 724 

13. Trade Disputes by Causes and Results, 1922 725 

14. Trade Disputes by Months, 1920, 1921, and 1922 726 

15. Trade Disputes by Methods of Settlement, 1922 726-727 



XVI 

X. LABOUR, WAGES AND PRICES concluded. PAQE. 

. Labour concluded. 

8. Employment and Unemployment 728-732 

16. Index Numbers of Employment as reported by Employers, by Industries, as 

at the end of each month, January, 1921 to October, 1923 730 

17. Percentages by Provinces of Unemployment in Trade Unions, 1915-1923 732 

2. Wages 732-743 

18. Index Numbers of Rates of Wages for Various Classes of Labour in Canada, 

1901-1923 733 

19. Rates of Wages and Hours of Labour of Employees of Steam Railways in 

Canada, 1921, 1922 and 1923 734 

20. Wages and Hours of Labour of Employees in and about Coal Mines in Canada, 

1921, 1922 and 1923 734-735 

21. Samples of Wages and Hours of Labour for Various Factory Trades in Canada, 

1921, 1922 and 1923 735-736 

22. Samples of Wages and Hours of Labour for Unskilled Factory Labour in Canada, 

1921, 1922 and 1923 737 

23. Wages per Hour and Hours Worked per Week in Leading Trades in Canadian 

Cities, 1921, 1922 and 1923 737-738 

24. Median Weekly Wages in Manufacturing Industries, 1915-1921 739 

25. Weekly Wages of Employees in Canadian Manufacturing Industries, 1920 and 

1921 739-740 

26. Wage Earners Classified by Groups of Industries and of Wages, 1920 and 1921. 740 
Minimum Wages of Female Employees 741-743 

27. Minimum Weekly Wages for Experienced Female Adults 742-743 

3. Prices 743-756 

1. Wholesale Prices 744-751 

28. Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices in Canada, 1890-1921 746-748 

29. Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices, by Groups of Commodities and by Months, 

l!] 9-1921 748 

30. Weighted General Index Numbers, 1919-1922 749 

31. Weighted Index Numbers by Groups, 1922 749 

32. Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices by Origins and Degree of Manufacture, by 

Months, 1919-1921 749-750 

2. Retail Prices 752-756 

33. Index Numbers of Changes in the Cost of Living in Canada, Based upon Weighted 

Retail Prices, 1910-1923 752-753 

34. Prices and Index Numbers of a Family Budget of Staple Foods, Fuel, Lighting 

and Rent in 60 Cities in Canada, 1913-1921, and by Months for 1922 754-755 

35. Index Numbers of a Family Budget of Staple Foods, Fuel, Lighting, and 

Rent, in Canada, by Provinces and Months, 1922 756 

XI. FINAMCE. 
1. Public Finance 757-808 

1. Dominion Public Finance 757-780 

1. Balance Sheet of the Dominion of Canada, as at March 31, 1923 762 

2. Receipts and Disbursements, fiscal years ended March 31, 1919-1923 763-764 

3. Detailed Receipts on Consolidated Fund Account, 1919-1923 764 

4. Detailed Expenditure on Consolidated Fund Account, 1919-1923 765 

5. Principal Items of Receipts of Canada on Consolidated Fund Account, 1868-1923 766 

6. Principal Items of Dominion Expenditure, 1868-1923 767-769 

7. Population and Revenue and Expenditure per head, 1868-1923 770 

War Tar Revenue 770-772 

8. War Tax Revenue during the fiscal years ended March 31, 1915-1923 770 

9. War Tax Revenue collected by the Customs and Excise Department, 

by Provinces, during the fiscal years ended March 31, 1922 and 1923 771-772 

10. Statement showing Amounts Collected under the Income War Tax Act and the 

Business Profits War Tax Act, by provinces, for the fiscal years ended March 31, 

1922 and 1923 772 

Inland Revenue . 773-775 

11. Excise and Other Inland Revenues for the fiscal years 1918-1923. .. . ! . . * . . . . . . 774 

12. Number of Excise Licenses issued during the fiscal years 1918-1923 774 

13. Statistics of Distillation for the fiscal years 1919-1923 774 

14. Quantities of Spirits, Malt Liquor, Malt and Tobacco taken out of Bond for 

Consumption, in fiscal years 1918-1923 775 

15. Consumption per head of Spirits, Wine, Beer and Tobacco, and amount of 

Excise and Customs Duties per head, in the fiscal years 1918-1923 775 

Provincial Subsides 775-776 

16. Subsidies and Other Payments of Dominion to Provincial Governments, 1919- 

1923 77Q 

17. Total of Subsidy Allowances from July 1, 1867 to March 31, 1923. . . .......... 776 

National Debt 776-780 

18. Summary of the Public Debt of Canada, March 31, 1917-1923. .... 778 

19. Details of the Assets of the Public Debt of Canada, March 31, 1920-1923. . 778 

20. Details of the Gross Liabilities of Canada, March 31, 1920-1923 778 

21. Funded Debt Payable in London, New York and Canada, together with temped 

rary loans as at March 31, 1923 778-779 

22. Public Debt of Canada, July 1, 1867 to March 31, 1923. . . . . ." 780 



XV11 

XI. FINANCE continued. PAGE. 

1. Public Finance concluded. 

2. Provincial Public Finance 781-793 

23. Statement showing the or iinary Revenues and Expenditures of the Provincial 

Governments, for their respective fiscal years ending 1869-1922 783-785 

24. Annual Ordinary Receipts and Expenditures of the Provincial Governments, per 

head of population, 1919-1921 785 

25. Classified Summary Statement of Ordinary Receipts of Provincial Governments 

for their respective fiscal years 1917-1921 786-787 

26. Classified Summary Statemen of Ordinary Expenditures of Provincial Govern 

ments for their respective fis-.al years 1917-1921 788-791 

27. Combined Itemized Summary Statement of Ordinary Receipts and Expenditures 

of all Provincial Governments, for their respective fiscal years 1917-1921 790-791 

28. Assets and Liabilities of the Provincial Governments at the close of their respect 

ive fiscal years ended in 1921 792-793 

3. Municipal Public Finance 794-805 

29. Summary, by Provinces, of Municipal Statistics of Principal Interest of Cities of 

10,000 population and over, for the calendar year 1920 796-797 

30. Expenditures, Ordinary and Extraordinary, of Cities of 10,000 population and 

over, for the calendar year 1920 798-799 

31. Receipts, Ordinary and Extraordinary, of Cities of 10,000 population and 

over for the calendar year 1920 800 

32. Assets and Liabilities of Cities of 10,000 population and over for the calendar 

year 1920 801 

33. Summary, by Provinces, of Statistics of Principal Interest of Urban Municipali 

ties of 3,000 to 10,000 population, for the calendar year 1919 802-803 

34. Summary, by Provinces, of Statistics of Principal Interest, of Urban Municipali 

ties of 1,000 to 3,000 population, for the calendar year 1920 804-805 

4. National Wealth and Income 806-808 

35. Estimated National Wealth of Canada, 1920 806-807 

36. Amount of Income Assessed for the purposes of Income War Tax, by Provinces, 

for the fiscal years ended March 31, 192: 1923 808 

37. Number of Individual and Corporate Tax t tyers, by size of Incomes and amount 

of Taxes paid under the Income War Tax Act, fiscal years ended March 31, 

1922 and 1923 808 

2. Currency and Banking, Loan and Trust Companies 808-835 

1. Canada s Monetary System 888-814 

38. Coinage at the Ottawa Branch of the Royal Mint in the calendar years 1920-1922. . . 810 

39. Gold Coinages of the Ottawa Branch of the Royal Mint, 1938-1922 810 

40. Composition of Canadian Gold Reserves, December, 31, 1905-1922 810 

41. Circulation in Canada of Silver and Bronze Coin, December 31, 1901-1922 811 

42. Dominion Notes Circulation and Reserves at June 30, 1890-1922 812 

43. Denominations of Dominion Notes in Circulation, March 31, 1918-1923 812 

44. Statistics of Bank Note Circulation, 1892-1922 813 

45. Circulating Medium in hands of the Public, 1900-1922 814 

2. Banking in Canada 815-833 

46. Historical Summary showing Development of the Canadian Banking Business, 

calendar years 1867-1922 818-819 

47. Assets of Chartered Banks, for calendar years 1919-1922 820 

48. Liabilities of Chartered Banks, for calendar years 1919-1922 821 

49. Assets of each of the Chartered Banks of Canada, December 30, 1922 822 

50. Liabilities of each of the Chartered Banks of Canada, December 30, 1922 823 

51. Deposits in -Chartered Banks in Canada and elsewhere, for the calendar years, 

1918-1922 . . . . 824 

52. Loans of Chartered Banks in Canada and elsewhere, for the calendar years 

1918-1922 824 

53. Bank Reserves, with Liabilities, 1892-1922 825-826 

54. Ratio of Bank Reserves to Net Liabilities, 1892-1922 826-827 

55. Number of Branches of Banks in Canada, by Provinces, 1868, 1902, 1905, 

1915-1922 827 

56. Number and Location of Branches of Chartered Banks, as at December 30, 1922 828 

57. Number of Branches of Canadian Chartered Banks in other countries, with their 

Location, December 30, 1922 829 

58. Amount of Exchanges of the Clearing Houses of Chartered Banks in 16 leading 

cities, for the calendar years 1918-1922 829 

59. Canadian Bank Insolvencies since 1867 830 

60. Bank Absorptions in Canada since 1867 830-831 

61. Deposits with Government and other Savings Banks, as at June 30, 1868- 

1906, and March 31, 1907-1923 832 

62. Business of the Post Office Savings Banks, March 31, 1918-1923 833 

63. Business of the Dominion Government Savings Banks, March 31, 1918-1923. . . 833 

64. Total Business of Post Office and Dominion Government Savings Banks, March 

31, 1918-1923 833 

3. Loan and Trust Companies 833-835 

65. Liabilities and Assets of Loan Companies, 1914-1922 834 

66. Liabilities and Assets of Trust Companies, 1914-1922 834-835 

62373 B 



xvni 



XI. FINANCE concluded. PAGE. 

3. Insurance ............................................................. 

1. Fire Insurance ............................................................... 

67 Fire Insurance in Force, Premiums Received, Losses Paid and Percentage of 

Losses to Premiums, 1869-1922. . ........... . . . . ......................... ! 

68. Fire Insurance Business transacted in Canada, 1921 ......................... c 

69. Fire Insurance Business transacted in Canada, 1922 ................... . ..... 841-844 

70. Assets of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance, or Fire Insurance and other 

classes of Insurance, and Assets in Canada of Companies other than Canadian 
transacting such business in Canada, 1918-1922 ............................ 844-845 

71. Liabilities of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance, or Fire Insurance and 
" other classes of Insurance, and Liabilities in Canada of Companies other than 

Canadian transacting such business in Canada, 1918-1922 ................... S4j 

72. Cash Income and Expenditure of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance or 

Fire Insurance and other classes of Insurance, and Cash Income and Expendi 
ture in Canada of Companies other than Canadian transacting such business 
in Canada, 1918-1922 ..................... . ...... ; ..... . - -.- 

73. Amount of Net Premiums written and Net Losses incurred in Canada, by 

Provinces, by Canadian, British and Foreign Companies transacting Fire 
Insurance Business, 1921 and 1922 ...................... . ................ 

74. Dominion and Provincial Fire Insurance in Canada, 1921 and 1 

75 Fire Insurance carried on property in Canada in 1921 under section 129 of the 
Insurance Act, 1917, by Companies, Associations or Underwriters not licensed 
to transact business in Canada ........................................... 

2. Life Insurance ............................................................... 849 ~ 8 

76. Life Insurance in Force and Effected in Canada, 1869-1922 ................... 

77. Life Insurance in Force and Effected in Canada, 1921 ........................ 

78. Life Insurance in Force and Effected in Canada, 1922 ........................ 

79. Progress of Life Insurance in Canada, 1918-1922 ............................ 

80. Insurance Death-rate in Canada, 1918-1921 ............. .... . . ...... . ---- 

81 Assets of Canadian Life Companies and Assets in Canada of Life Companies other 

than Canadian Companies, 1918-1922 ..... ... . . ... ......... ,- - 

82. Liabilities of Canadian Life Companies and Liabilities in Canada of Life Com- 

panics other than Canadian Companies, 1918-1922. . . . ..... ....... 

83 Cash Income and Expenditure of Canadian Life Companies and Cash Income i 

Expenditure in Canada of Life Companies other than Canadian Companies, 

1918-1922 ........................................... 859-86 

84. Life Insurance on the Assessment Plan, 1918-1922 . . . 861 

85. Dominion and Provincial Life Insurance in Canada, 1921 and 1922 ............ 

O/2O QfiA 

3. Miscellaneous Insurance .................................................... 

86 Insurance Other than Fire and Life, 1922 ............... ............. 

87 Income and Expenditure, and Assets and Liabilities of Canadian Companies 

doing only Insurance Business other than Fire and Life, 1922. .............. 

88. Income and Expenditure in Canada of Companies other than Canadian doing 

only Insurance business other than Fire and Life, I 1 22... . . ---- . . .... . ..... 

89. Dominion and Provincial Insurance in Canada, other than Fire and Life, 19 

90. Dominion and Provincial Insurance in Canada, other than * ire and Life, 1921 and 

i no ) ...................................... 

itf" ............. 866-867 

4. Government Annuities ..................................................... 

91. Government Annuities Fund Statement, March 31, 1922 and 1923 

92! Valuation on March 31, 1922 and 1923, of Annuity Contracts issued pursuant 

to the Government Annuities Act, 1908 ................................... 

4. Commercial^Failures^. _ . ^ -^ &> p rovinc e s ; and in Newfoundland for the 

calendar years 1921 and 1922 ..... ................ .......... 

94. Commercial Failures in Canada, by Branches of Business, "M0-l22. ^. . . ... 

95. Commercial Failures in Canada, by Provinces and Classes, for 1 g(jg 

96 C^usefof FaUures in Canada and the United States, by numbers and percentages, 
years ended December 31, 1921 and 1922 ..... ...... R - v 

97. Commercial Failures and Business Confidence in Canada, 1 8?1 

98. Commercial Failures and Business Confidence in Canada, 1^922. (Dun) . . 

99. Assignments under the Bankruptcy Act, by Months, 1920-1923 ............... 



1. 



XII. EDUCATION. 874-887 

-^yof Education in Canada.- by Provinces; 1922, or Latest Year ^^ 
2. Nero Schools, Teachers and Pupils Yn Canada, by Provinces/ iooi, 1906, 

3 TlMn 1 T&35 !tt?S^Bj* Quebec, Ontario and 

Manitoba^ 1901. 1906, 1911. 1916-1922, Saskatchewan and Alberta, .1 Ui,, ^^ 

4 Numberof Teachers and Pupiis i n Roman Catholic Classical Colleges in Quol,,, , 

5 NuTber oT T^ 88 . 

6 NSSVTi^aS^^&tiii^n Schools inOntario iwi, ifc^ 



1922 



XIX 

XII. EDUCATION concluded . PAGE. 

1. General Education concluded. 

7 Number of Teachers and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools in 

Saskatchewan, 1908, 1011, 1916-1922 ..................................... 883 

8. Number of Teachers and Pupils in High Schools in British Columbia, 1901, 1906, 

1911, 1916-1922 .................................................... : . 

9. Receipts and Expenditure for Public Education in Canada, by Provinces, 1901 , 

1906, 1911, 1916-1922 .................................................. 883-887 

10. Average Annual Salaries of School Teachers, by Provinces, 1921-1922, or latest 

Year Reported ................. > .................................... 

2. Vocational and Technical Education .......................................... 888-889 

11. Vocational Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada, year ended June 30, 1922. . 



3. Higher Education 

12. Universities of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees ......... 891-893 

13. Universities of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff in the Various Faculties, 

1921-1922 ............................................................. 

14. Universities of Canada: Number of Students in the Various Faculties, 1921-1922 894-895 

15. Universities of Canada: Number of Students by Academic Years and Number 

of Degrees Conferred, 1921-1922 ......................................... 

16. Universities of Canada: Financial Statistics, 1921-1922 ...................... 897-89 

: 17. Colleges of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees ............ 898-900 

. 18. Professional and Affiliated Colleges of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff and 

ft Students, 1921-1922 ...................................... . .............. 900-901 

19. Colleges of Canada: Financial Statistics, 1921-1922 ......................... 902-903 

XIII. ADMINISTRATION. 

1. Public Lands .................................................................. 904-910 

1. Dominion Lands ............................................................. 904-907 

1. Disposition of the Surveyed Areas in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 

Jan. 1, 1923 ..................................................... .--- 905 

2. Homestead entries on Dominion Lands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta 

and British Columbia ................................................. 

3. Homestead entries in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, 

by Nationalities, made during the fiscal years 1917-1922 .................... 

4. Receipts of Patents and Homestead entries in the fiscal years 1917-1922 ....... 907 

5. Land Sales by Railway Companies having Government Land Grants, and by 

the Hudson s Bay Company, in the fiscal years 1921-23 .................. 

2. Provincial Public Lands .................................... ................... 907-910 

2. Public Defence ................................................................ 911-915 

1. Militia Forces ............. ................................................... 911-913 

6. Permanent and Non-permanent Active Militia in Canada, 1923 ............... 912 

7. Money voted by Parliament for the Militia, for the fiscal years ended March 31, 

1921-24 ............................................................... 

2. The Natal Service ............................................................ 913 

3. The Air Board ............................................................... 914 

4. The Royal Military College .................................................... 914 

3. Public Health and Public Benevolence ........................................ 915-925 

1. Dominion Department of Health ............................................... 917-919 

2. Other Public Health Activities ................................................. 919-925 

1. Prince Edward Island .......................................... .. .................. 919 

2. Nova Scotia Department of Health ................................................. 

3. New Brunswick Department of Health ...................................... ........ 

4. Quebec Bureau of Health .......................................................... 920 

5. Ontario Board of Health .......................................................... 921 

6. Manitoba Board of Health ........................................................ 921 

7. Saskatchewan Bureau of Health .................................................... 

8. Alberta Department of Health .................................................... 

9. British Columbia Board of Health .................................................. 

10. The Canadian Red Cross Society ................................................... 

1 1 . Victorian Order of Nurses ........................................................ 

12. Mothers Allowances ............................................................. 

8. Mothers Allowances in Canada, 1922-23 ..................................... 

4. Public Works. ................................................................ 925-928 

9. Dimensions of Graving Docks owned by the Dominion Government ....... .... 926 

10. Dimensions and Cost of Graving Docks subsidized under the Dry Dock Subsidies 

Act, 1910 ............................................................. 926 

11. Expenditure and Revenue of Public Works Department, for the fiscal years 

1917-22 ............................................................... 027 

Harbour Commissions ................................................................ 927 

5. The Indians of Canada .................................................. 928-931 

12. Indian Population of Canada, 1871-1921 ................................... 930 

13. Attendance of Pupils at Indian Schools, by Provinces, fiscal year ended March 

31, 1922 .............................................................. 930 

14. Acreage and Value of Indian Lands, by Provinces, 1922 ...................... 930 

15. Area and Yield of Field Crops of Indians, by Provinces, 1922 ................. 

16. Numbers of Farm Live Stock of Indians, with Total Values, by Provinces, 1922 

17. Sources and Values of Income of Indians, 1922 ............................. 931 



XX 

XIII. ADMINISTRATION-concluded. 

6. Department of Soldiers Civil Re-establishment . 932-938 

18. Number of Pensions in Force on March 31, 1923, by relationship of Dependants 

and Rank of Disabled, and Annual Liability Incurred thereon 934 

19.. Scale of Annual Pensions Granted to Dependants of deceased Sailors and Soldiers 
of the Canadian Naval Forces and Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective 

on September 1, 1923 935 

20. Scale of Annual Pensions to Disabled Sailors and Soldiers of the Canadian Naval 

Forces and Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective for years commencing 

Sept. 1, 1921, 1922 and 1923, under the Pension Act 936-937 

7. Miscellaneous Administration , 938-960 

1. The Soldiers Settlement Board 938-939 

2. Scientific and Industrial Research in Canada 939-942 

The Research Council of Canada 940-941 

The National Research Institute 941-942 

3. Department of Secretary of State 942-945 

21. Number of Companies Incorporated under the Companies Act and the amending 

Acts during the calendar years 1900-07, and for the fiscal years ended March 

31, 1908-1922. 943 

22. Naturalization in Canada, by Principal Nationalities, effected under the Natural 

ization Acts 1914-1920, during calendar years 1916-22 944 

4. National Gallery 94,5-94(5 

5. Royal Canadian Mounted Police 946-947 

23. Strength and Distribution of Royal Canadian Mounted Police on September 30, 

1922 947 

6. The Civil Service of Canada 947-948 

24. Employees of the Civil Service of Canada in Ottawa and outside of Ottawa,. as 

at December 31, 1921 948 

7. Judicial and Penitentiary Statistics 948-959 

25. Convictions by Groups of Criminal Offences, and Total Convictions for Minor 

Offences, 1876-1922, with proportion to Population 950 

26. Charges, Convictions and Percentages of Acquittals for Indictable Offences, by 

Provinces, 1920, 1921 and 1922 951 

27. Indictable Offences by Classes, during years ended September 30, 1920, 1921, 

1922. 951-952 

28. Charges, Acquittals, Convictions and Sentences in respect of Indictable Offences 

1915-22 952 

29. Classification of Persons Convicted of Indictable Offences, 1916-1922 953 

30. Convictions and Sentences for all Offences, by Provinces, 1911-1922 954 

31. Indictable and Summary Convictions, by Classes of Offences, 1918-1920 955 

32. Convictions for Drunkenness for the fivefyears 1918-1922 956 

33. Juvenile Criminals Convicted of Major Offences, by Classes of Offence, 1922, 

with Total and Yearly Average for the Period 1885-1922 956 

34. Population of Penal Institutions, 1918-1922 957 

Penitentiaries 957-959 

35. Movements of Convicts, 1916-1922 958 

36. Number of Deaths, Escapes, Pardons and Paroles, 1916-1922 958 

37. Age of Convicts, 1915-1922 958 

38. Classification of Convicts, 1916-1922 959 

8. Divorces in Canada. . * 

39. Statistics of Divorces Granted in Canada, 1901-1922 960 

XIV. SOURCES OF STATISTICAL AND OTHER INFORMATION RELATIVE TO 

CANADA. 

1. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics - 961-969 

2. Acts administered by Dominion Departments 969-971 

3. Publications of Dominion Departments : 971-979 

4. Publications of Provincial Departments 979-986 

1. Prince Ed-ward Island 979 

2. Nova Scotia 979 

3. New Brunswick 979 

4. Quebec 979-981 

5. Ontario 981-983 

6. Manitoba 983 

7. Saskatchewan 984 

8. Alberta 984 

9. British Columbia 984-986 

10. Yukon Territory 986 

5. Select Bibliography of the History of Canada 986-989 



XXI 

XV. THE ANNUAL REGISTER, 1922-23. 

1. Dominion Legislation 990-995 

1 1922 990-993 

2. 1923 993-995 

2. Provincial Legislation, 1922 995-1006 

Prince Edward Island 995-996 

Nova Scotia 996-997 

New Brunswick 997-998 

Quebec 998-999 

Ontario. . 999-1001 

Manitoba 1001-1002 

Saskatchewan 1002-1003 

Alberta 1003-1004 

British Columbia 1005-1006 

3. Principal Events of the Years 1922-1923 1006-1010 

General Economic Conference ^?J? 

Conference at Washington re Rush-Bagot Treaty 1006-1007 

Signing of Trade Agreement between Canada and France 1007 

Third Assembly of the League of Nations 1007 

Fourth Assembly of the League of Nations 

Imperial Conference 

Provincial General Elections 

The Economic and Financial Years 1922 and 1923 1008-1009 

Obituary 1809-1010 

4. Extracts from the Canada Gazette 1011-1015 

Privy Councillors, 1923 

Lieutenant-Governors, 1923 

New Members of the House of Commons, 1922-23 

Cabinet Ministers, 1923 

Judicial Appointments, 1922-23 1011-1012 

Commissions, 1922-23 1012-10 o 

Imperial Honours and Decorations 

Day of General Thanksgiving . 

SPECIAL ARTICLES IN CANADA YEAR BOOK 1913-1921. 

(Not repeated in this Edition). 

Fifty Years of Canadian Progress, 1867 to 1917. By ERNEST H. GODFREY, F.S.S.. 

Editor, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa 1918 

History of the Greit War. By Brig.-General E. A. CRCIKSHANK, LL.D., F.R.S.C., 
Director of the Historical Section, General Staff, Department of Militia and 
Defence, Ottawa. With appendices 1M9 *-* 

Reconstruction in Canada. By S. A. CUDMORE, B.A. (Tor.), M.A. (Oxon.), F.S.S., 
F.R. Econ. Soc., Editor Canada Year Book, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Ottawa 1920 1-64 

LIST OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS. 

Map of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland Facing Preface 

Map : Geology of Eastern Canada 

Map : Geology of Western Canada 

Map of Canada showing Normal Mean Temperature and Precipitation in January Facing p. 

Map of Canada showing Normal Mean Temperature and Precipitation in July Facing p. 

Map: The Two Canadas in 1791 

Map: Canada at Confederation, 1867 73 

Map: Canada in 1870 

Map: Canada in 1872 74 

Map: Canada in 1905 74 

Diagram: Index Numbers of Average Prices of Field Crops, 1909-1922 

Diagram: Variation in Production and Average Value of Lumber, 1908-1921 

Diagram: Pulp wood Production, Manufacture and Export 

Diagram: Pulpwood Consumption, by Provinces, 1920-1921 

Diagram: Pulp Manufactured, by Provinces, 1920-1921 

Diagram: Paper Produced, by Provinces, 1920-1921 

Map: Dominion of Canada (Southern) Showing Origin of Coal Supply, 1922 

Diagram: Annual Consumption of Coal in Canada, 1901-1921 

Diagram: Aggregate External Trade of Canada, 1901-1923 Facing p. 470 

Diagram: Movement of Canadian Wheat Crop, 1921-1922 

Diagram: Cattle Receipts and Prices at Toronto, Montreal, and Winnipeg, 1920-1921- 

1922 599 

Diagram: Twelve Years of Trade Unionism in Canada 

Diagram: Estimated Time Loss in Working Days, by Groups of Industries, 1901-1922. 
Diagram: Index Numbers of Employment as reported by Employers and Trade Unions, 

1920-1923 

Diagram: The Course of Wholesale Prices in Canada, 1890-1921 

Diagram: Prices of Raw and Finished Materials, 1919-1921 751 

Diagram: Weighted and Unweighted Index Numbers of Prices, 1919-1921 751 

Diagram : Organization of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



XX11 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA. 

Area of the Dominion of Canada in square miles: Land, 3, 603,909; Water, 125,756; Total, 3,729,665. 





Items. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1896. 


1901. 




F.stimated population . ... No. 


3,689,287 


4,324,810 


4,833,239 


5,086,000 


5,371,315 




Immigration . No. 


27,773 


47,991 


82,165 


16,835 


49,149 




Agriculture 1 
Wheat acres 


1,646,781 


2,363,554 


2,701,213 




4,224,542 




bush. 

$ 
Oats . acre;- 


16,723,873 
16,993,265 


32,350,269 
38,820,323 


42,223,372 
31,667,529 
3,961,356 


- 


55,572,368 
36,122,039 
5,367,655 




bush. 
$ 
Barley acres 


42,489,453 
15,966,310 


70,493,131 
23,967,655 


83,428,202 
31,702,717 
868,464 


- 


151,497,407 
51,509,118 
871,800 




bush. 
1 

Corn . asr< s 


11,496,038 

N.I 70, 735 


16,844,868 
11,791,408 


17,222,795 
8,611,397 
195,101 


: 


22,224,366 
8,889,746 
360,758 




bush. 
$ 
Potatoes acres- 


3,803,830 
2,883,14c 
403,102 


0,025,142 
5,415,085 
464,289 


10,711,380 
5,034,348 
450,190 


- 


25,875,919 
11,902,923 
448,743 




bush. 
- 
Hay and Clover acre? 


47,330,187 
15.211,774 
3,650,419 


55,268,227 
13,288,510 
4,458,349 


53,490,857 
21,396,34? 
5,931,548 


- 


55,362,635 
13,842,658 
(i,. 543, 423 




tons 

i.-ld Crops 
Total Area Acree 


3,818,641 
38,869,900 


5,055,811 
40,446,480 


7,693,733 
69,243,597 


- 


7,852,731 
85,625,315 




- 

Live Stock 
Horses No 


836,743 


1,059,358 


1,470,572 




194,953,420 

1,577,493 




$ 
Milch Cows No. 


1,251,20!. 


1,595,800 


1,857,112 


- 


118,279,419 
2,408,677 




$ 
Other Cattle No. 
S 
Sheep . No. 


1,373,081 
3,155,509 


1,919,189 
3,048,678 


2,263,474 
2,562,781 


- 


69,237,970 
3,167,174 
54,197,341 

2,510.2:(!i 




5 


1,366,083 


1,207,61!. 


1,733,850 





10,490,594 
2,353,828 




- 
Total value . . . S 


i 









16,445,702 
268,651,026 




Dairying 
Cheese factory . . . . Ib. 










220,833,469 




- 
R utter creamery . . . . . Ib. 


1,601,738 


5,464,454 


9,784,28 





22,221,430 
36,066,739 




Miscellaneous dairy products. . S 
Total value of dairy products | 

Fisheries 
Total value . $ 


7,573,199 


341,478 
15,817,162 


913,591 
18,877,874 


20,407,424 


7,240,972 
269,520 

29,731,922 
25,737,153 




Minerals 
Gold oz. 


105,187 


03,524 


45,01* 


133,262 


1,167,216 





Silver . ...... oz. 


2,174,412 


1,313.15/; 
358 


930,614 
414,523 


2,754,774 
3,205,34c 


24,128,503 
5,539,192 






Copper Ib. 





347, 27P 
3,260,424- 


409,549 
9,529,401 


2,149,503 
9,393.012 


3,265,354 

37, 8-7. OH- 




Lefd . Ib. 





,798 

204,800- 


1,226,703 
88,665 


1,021,960 
24,199,1177 


6,091 

.51.900,958 





f 

Xickol Ib. 


- 


8,216 s 

839,477 


3,857 
4,835,347 


71,1511 

:i.397,1K5 


2,249.3X7 
9,189,047 




- 

Pi" iron ton?- 


- 


498,2Sfi 


2,4.M,20S 


1. 188,990 


4,494,523 

27: 




* 
tons 


1,063,742 


1(6,192 

1,537.100 


338,901 
3,577,746 


1,12! 

3,745,711- 


3,512.92:* 
6,4^ 


- 


$ 

( Vmont brl. 


1,763,4233 


2,688,621 
69,8432 


7.019,425 
93,475 


7,226,46? 
149.090 


12,699,243 

450. : . . I 




$ 

Total value $ 


; 


81,909= 
10,221, 255< 


108,561 
18,976,616 


201,651 
22,474,256 


660,030 
65,797,911 

















i The figures of field crops (1871-1911), are for the preceding years. 1887. 1874. 1886. 



XX111 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA. 

Area of the Dominion of Canada in square miles: Land, 3,603,9C9; Water, 125, 76; Total, 3,729,665. 



1906. 


1911. 


1916. 


1919. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923.1 




6,171,000 


7,206,643 


8,035,584 


8,478,546 


8,631,475 


8,788,483 


8,966,834 


9,146,456 


1 


189,064 


311,084 


48,537 


57,702 


117,336 


148,477 


89,999 


72,887 


2 




8,864,154 


15,369,709 


19,125,968 


18,232,374 


23,261,224 


22,422,693 


22,671,864 


3 


_ 


132,077,547 


262,781,000 


193,260,400 


263,189,300 


300,858,100 


399,786,400 


474,199,000 




_ 


104,816,825 


344,096,400 


457,722,000 


427,357,300 


242,936,000 


339,419,000 


316,606,700 




_ 


8,656,179 


10,996,487 


14,952,114 


15,849,928 


16,949,029 


14, 541, 229 


13,727,067 


4 


_ 


245,393,425 


410,211,000 


394,387,000 


530,709,700 


426,232,900 


491,239,000 


537,733,300 




_ 


86,796,130 


210,957,500 


317,097,000 


280,115,400 


146,395,300 


185,455,000 


177,704,400 




_ 


1,283,094 


1,802,996 


2,645,509 


2,551,919 


2,795,665 


2,599,520 


2,784,571 


5 


_ 


28,848,310 


42,770,000 


56,389,400 


63,310,550 


59,709,100 


71,865,300 


76,997,800 




_ 


14,653,697 


35,024,000 


69,330,300 


52,821,400 


28,254,150 


33,335,300 


32,055,700 




_ 


293,951 


173,000 


264,607 


291,650 


296,866 


318,397 


317,729 


6 


_ 


14,417,599 


6,282,000 


16,940.500 


14,334,800 


14,904,000 


13,798,000 


13,608,000 




_ 


5,774,039 


6,747,000 


22,080,000 


16,593,400 


12,317,000 


11,509,700 


12,466,000 




_ 


464,504 


472,992 


818.767 


784,544 


701,912 


683.594 


560, 942 


7 


_ 


55,461,478 


63,297,000 


75,344.940 s 


80,298,840 : 


64,407,6003 


55,745,300 


56, 460,000 s 




_ 


27,426,765 


50,982,300 


118,894,200 


129,803,300 


82,147,600 


50,320,000 


57,076,800 




_ 


8,289,407 


7,821,257 


10,595,383 


10,379,292 


10,614,951 


10,001,667 


9,725,602 


8 


_ 


10,406,367 


14,527,000 


16,348,000 


13,338,700 


11,366,100 


14,488,200 


14,844,900 




- 


90,115,531 


168,547,900 


338,713,200 


348,166,200 


267,764,200 


194,950,000 


102,882,000 








38,930,333 


53,049,640 


52,830,865 


59,635,346 


57,189,681 


56,569,794 




- 


384,513,795 


888,494,900 


1,537,170,100 


1,455,244,050 


931,863,67V 


982,293,200 


891,755,200 






2,598,958 


3,246,430 


3,667,369 


3,400,352 


3,813,921 


3,648,871 


3,530,641 


9 


- 


381,915,505 


418,686,000 


435,070,000 


361,328,000 


314,764,000 


264,043,000 


223,154,000 




- 


2,595,255 


2,835,532 


3,548,437 


3,530,238 


3,736,832 


3,745,804 


3,659,365 


10 


- 


109,575,!>26 


198,896,000 


327,814,000 


281,675,000 


190,157,000 


179,141,000 


173,015,000 







3,930,828 


3,763,155 


6,536,574 


5,947,142 


6,469,373 


5,974,065 


5,586,866 


11 


- 


86,278,490 


204,477,000 


381,007,000 


279,825 100 


183,649,000 


156,441,000 


143,458,000 




- 


2,174,300 


2,025,030 


3,421,958 


3,720,783 


3,675,860 


3,263,525 


2,753,860 


12 


_ 


10,701,691 


20,927,000 


50,402,000 


37,263,000 


23,308,000 


24,962,000 


21,321,000 




_ 


3,634,778 


3,484,982 


4,040,070 


3,516.678 


3,904,895 


3,915,684 


4,405,316 


13 


- 


26,986,621 


60,700,000 


102,309,000 


81,155,000 


54,842,000 


57,300,000 


52,312,000 




- 


615,457,833 


903,686,000 


1,296,602,000 


1,041,246,000 


766,720,000 


681,887,000 


613,260,000 




204,788,583 


199,904,205 


192,968,597 


166,421,871 


149,201,856 


162,117,494 


135,821,116 


_ 


14 


23,597,639 


21,587,124 


35,512,622 


44,586,168 


39,100,872 


28,710,030 


21,824,760 


- 




45,930,294 


64,698,165 


82,564,130 


103,899,707 


111,691,718 


128,744,610 


152,501,900 


- 


IS 


10,949,062 


15,645,845 


20,966,355 


56,371,985 


63,625,203 


48,135,439 


53,453,282 


- 




910,842 


1,814,871 


- 


34,238,449 


43,610,416 


35,078,548 


29,694,004 


- 


16 


35,457,543 


39,047,840 


- 


135,196,602 


146,336,491 


111,921,017 


104,972,046 


- 




36,279,485 


34,667,872 


35,860,708 


58,508,479 2 


49,241, 339 2 


34,931,935- 


41,800,210- 


- 




556,415 


473,159 


930,492 


766,764 


765,007 


926,32!.i 


1,263,364 


1,179,501 


1 


11,502,120 


9,781,077 


19,234,976 


15,853,478 


15,814,098 


19,148,9i 


26,116,050 


24,382,001 




8,473,379 


32,559,044 


25,459,741 


16,020,657 


13,330,357 


13,543,198 


18,581,439 


18,864,00( 


18 


5,659,455 


17,355,272 


16,717,121 


17,802,474 


13,450,330 


8,485,355 


12,576,758 


10,944,00( 




55,609,888 


55,648,011 


117,150,028 


75,053,581 


81,600,691 


47,620,820 


42,879,818 


86,312,001 


19 


10,720,474 


6,886,998 


31,867,150 


14,028,265 


14,244,217 


...953,555 


5,738,177 


12,515,000 




54,608,217 


23,784,969 


41,497,615 


43,827,699 


35,953,717 


66,679,592 


93,307.171 


112,600,000 





3,089,187 


827,717 


3,532,692 


3,053,037 


3,214,262 


3,828,742 


5,817,702 


7,882,000 




21,490,955 


34,098,744 


82,958,564 


44,544,883 


61,335,706 


19,293,060 


17,597,123 


61,444,000 


1 


8,948,834 


10,229,623 


29,035,498 


17,817,953 


24,534,282 


6,752,571 


6,158,993 


18,433,000 




598,411 


917,535 


1,169,257 


917,781 


1,090,396 


665,676 


428,923 


880,018 


! 


7,955,136 


12,307,125 


16,750,898 


24,577,589 


30,319,024 


17,307,576 


8,819,242 


- 




9,762,601 


11,323,388 


14,483,395 


13,681,218 


16,631,954 


15,057,495 


15,157,431 


17,132,531 


!3 


19,732,019 


26,467,646 


38,817,481 


54,413,349 


80,693,723 


72,451,656 


65,518,497 


74,269.000 




2,128,374 


5,692,915 


5,369,560 


4,495,257 


6,651,980 


5,752,885 


6,943,372 


7.662.00C 


i 


3,170,859 


7,644,537 


6,547,728 


9,802,433 


14,798,070 


14,195,143 


15,438,481 


14,291,000 




79,386,697 


103,230,994 


177,201,534 


176,686,390 


277,859,665 


171,923,342 


184,297,242 


214,102,000 





1 The figures for 1923 are subject to revision. - Calendar years. 3 Cwt. 



XXIV 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA continued. 





Items. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1896. 


1901. 




Manufactures 1 
Employees No. 


187,942 


254,894 


272,033 




339,173 




Capital . . . . $ 


77,964,020 


164,957,423 


353,213,000 


_ 


446,916,487 




Salaries and wages $ 


40,851,00!! 


59,401,70:; 


79,234,311 


_ 


113,249,350 




Products $ 


221,617,773 


309,731,867 


368,696,723 


_ 


481,053,375 




Trade- 
Exports 2 . . 8 


57,630,024 


83,944,701 


88,671,738 


109,707,80c, 


177,431,386 




Imports 3 $ 


84,214,388 


90,488,329 


111.533,954 


105,361,161 


177,930,919 




Total .. $ 


141,844,412 


174,433,030 


200,205,692 


215,068,916 


355,362,305 




Sxports, domestic 
Wheat bush . 


1,748,977 


2,523,673 


2,108,216 


9,919,54: 


9, 739.75S 


- 


$ 

Wheat flour brl. 


1,981,917 
306,339 


2, 593, 820 


1,583,084 
296,784 


5,771,01 ! 
186, 71t 


6,871,939 
1,118,700 




$ 
Oats bush. 


1,609,84(, 
542,386 


2,173,108 
2,926,635 


1,388,578 
260,560 


718,433 
968,13 . 


4,015,226 
8,155,063 




- 
Hay . tons 


231,227 

23,487 


1,791,873 
168,381 


129,917 
65,083 


273,S(>1 
214,640 


2,490,521 

252,977 




* 
Bacon and hams, shoulders cwt. 
and sides $ 


290,217 
103,444 
1,018,918 


1,813,208 
103,547 
758,334 


559.48S 
75,541 

628, 46S 


1,976,431 
537,361 
4,381,968 


2,097,882 
1,055,495 
11,778,446 




Butter . Ib. 


15,439,266 


17, 649. 4U1 


3,768,101 


5,889,241 


16,335,528 




$ 
Cheese . . . Ib. 


3,065,234 
8,271,439 


3,573,034 
49,255,523 


602,175 
106,202,140 


1,052,08!) 
164,689,123 


3,295,663 
195,926,697 




$ 

Gold* $ 


1,109,906 
163,037 


5,510,443 

767,318 


9,508,800 
554,126 


13,956,571 
1,099,053 


20,696,951 
24,445,156 




Silver oz. 








2,508,233 


4,022,019 




$ 
Copper 6 Ib . 


595,261 
6,246,000 


34,494 
39,604,000 


238,367 
10,994,498 


1,595,548 
3,575,482 


2,420,750 
26,345,776 




Nickel... . Ib. 


120,121 


150,412 


505,196 
5,352,043 


194,771 
6,996,540 


2,659,261 
9,537,558 


- 


- 
Coal tons 


318,287 


420,055 


240,499 
833,684 


486,651 
1,025,060 


958,365 
1,888,538 


. 


$ 

Vegetable products (except 
chemicals, fibres and wood) f 
Animals and their products 
(except chemicals and fibres) $ 
Fibres, textiles and textile pro 
ducts . . . $ 


662,451 


..123,091 


2,916,465 
13,742,557 
36,399,140 

872,628 


3,249,069 
14,606,735 
48,763,906 
2,104,013 


5,307,060 
25,541,567 
68,465,332 
1,880,539 




Wood, wood products and paper $ 
Iron and its products . $ 




- 


25,351,085 
556 , 527 


28,772,187 
1,188,254 


33,099,915 

3,778,897 





Non-ferrous metals and their 
products . . .... $ 






1,618,955 


3,843,475 


33,395,096 




Non-metallic minerals and their 
products $ 







3,988,584 


4,368,013 


7,356,324 




Chemicals and allied products $ 
All other commodities $ 


- 


- 


851,211 
5,291,051 


481,661 
5,579,561 


791,975 
3,121,741 


20 


Total exports, domestic $ 

Imports for consumption 
Vegetable products (except 
chemicals, fibres and wood). $ 
Animals and their products 
(except chemicals and fibres) $ 
Fibres, textiles and textile pro 
ducts . . . . $ 


57,630,024 


83,944,701 


88,671,738 

24,212,140 
8,080,862 
28,670,141 


109,707,805 

22,742,835 
7,599,802 
27,421,519 


177,431,386 

38,036,757 
14,022,896 
37,284,752 


. 


Wood, wood products and paper $ 
Iron and its products. . . . $ 


- 


- 


5,203,490 
15,142,615 


4,787,288 
13,393,762 


8,196,901 
29,955,936 




Non-ferrous metals and their 
products $ 






3,810,626 


2,967,439 


7,159,142 




Non-metallic minerals and 
their products (except chemi 
cals) $ 






14,139,024 


13,736,879 


21,255,403 


W W 

a-. 01 


Chemicals and allied products. $ 
All other commodities $ 


- 


- 


3,697,810 

8,577,246 


3,840,806 
8,870,831 


5,692,5(14 
16,326,568 




Total imports $ 


84,214,388 


90,488,329 


111,533,954 


105,361,161 


177,930,919 




Steam Railways 
Miles in operation No 


2,695 


7,331 


13,888 


16,270 


18,140 


- 


Capital $ 


257,035,188 


284, 41 9, 2 .): 


632,0iil. Ill 


697,212,941 


816,110,837 




Passengers No. 


5,190,416 


6,943,671 


13, 222, otlS 


13,059,023 


18,385,722 




Freight s tons 


5,670,836 7 


12,065,323 


21,753,021 


24,248,294 


36,999,371 




learnings $ 


19 470 539 


27,987,509 


48,192,099 


50,374 295 


72 898 749 





Expenses... S 


15,775,532 


20,121,418 


34,960,449 


34,893,337 


50.368.726 



The statistics of manufactures in 1871, 1881, 1919, 1920 and 1921, include works employing fewer 
than five hands, while those of 1891, 1901 and 1911 are for works employing five hands and over, except 
in the case of butter and cheese factories, flour and grist mills, electric light plants, lumber, lath and 



XXV 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA continued. 



1906. 


1911. 


1916. 


1919. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923.8 




383,920 


515,203 




682,483 


685,349 


517,141 






I 


833,916,155 


1,247,583,609 





3,230,686,368 


3,443,276,053 


3,210,709,288 








2 


162,155,578 


241,008,416 





689,435,709 


816,055,139 


581,402,385 





- 


3 


706,446,578 


1,165,975,639 


- 


3,520,731,589 


4,024,739,463 


2,747,926,675 


- 


- 


i 


235,483,956 


274,316,553 


741,610,638 


1,216,443,806 


1,239,492,098 


1,189,163,701 


740,240,680 


931,451,443 


.-> 


283,740,280 


452,724,603 


508,201,134 


919,711,705 


1,064,528,123 


1,240,158,882 


747,804,332 


802,465,043 


6 


519,224,236 


727,041,156 


1,249,811,772 


2,136,155,511 


2,304,020,221 


2,429,322,583 


1,488,045,012 


1,733,916,486 




40,399,402 


45,802,115 


157,745,469 


41,808,897 


77,978,037 


129,215,157 


136,489,238 


215,074,566 


1 


33,658,391 


45,521,134 


172,896,445 


96,985,056 


185,044,806 


310,952,138 


179,990,730 


252,145,805 




1,532,014 


3,049,046 


6,400,214 


9,205,439 


8,863,068 


6,017,032 


7,414,282 


10,227,060 


I 


6,179,825 


13,854,790 


35,767,044 


99,931,659 


94,262,928 


66,520,490 


53,478,150 


60,075,426 




2,700,303 


5,431,662 


26,816,322 


17,879,783 


10,768,872 


14,321,048 


36,195,127 


29,022,347 




1,083,347 


2,144,846 


14,637,849 


15,193,527 


9,349,455 


14,152,033 


18,717,105 


14,533,015 




206,714 


326,132 


255,407 


492,208 


218,561 


179,398 


31,287 


58,300 


io 


1,529,941 


2,723,291 


5,849,426 


7,666,491 


4,087,670 


4,210,594 


650,379 


927,143 




1,029,079 


598,745 


1,536,517 


1,246,888 


2,236,426 


982,338 


992,080 


1,015,901 


u 


12,086,868 


8,526,332 


27,090,113 


40,242,175 


70,123,580 


31,492,407 


23,012,480 


22,536,397 




34,031,525 


3,142,682 


3,441,183 


13,659,157 


17,612,605 


9,739,414 


8,430,591 


21,994,578 


13 


7,075,539 


744,288 


1,018,769 


6,140,864 


9,844,359 


5,128,831 


3,224,390 


8,243,138 




215,834,543 


181,895,724 


168,961,583 


152,207,037 


126,395,777 


133,620,340 


133,849,800 


114,549,900 


: 1 


24,433,169 


20,739,507 


26,690,500 


35,223,983 


36,336,863 


37,146,722 


25,440,322 


20,828,234 




12,991,916 


5,344,465 


16,870,394 


9,202,033 


5,974,334 


3,038,779 


2,532,050 


5,449,469 


14 


7,261,527 


33,731,010 


27,794,566 


19,759,478 


12,379,642 


13,331,050 


13,601,420 


17,111,416 




4,310,528 


17,269,168 


14,298,351 


19,519,642 


14,255,601 


11,127,432 


8,711,304 


11,458,992 


U 


44,282,348 


55,005,342 


111,046,300 


65,612,400 


42,003,300 


36,167,900 


10,333,900 


21,451,300 


: 


7,148,633 


5,575,033 


14,670,073 


8,684,191 


5,253,218 


4,336,972 


1,029,417 


2,035,511 




23,959,841 


34,767,523 


70,443,000 


79,164,400 


44,140,700 


47,018,300 


10,904,700 


42,628,500 


17 


2,166,936 


3,842,332 


7,714,769 


11,170,359 


9,039,221 


9,405,291 


2,689,702 


8,880,641 




1,820,511 


2,315,171 


1,971,124 


1,8*.;, 639 


2,120,138 


2,277,202 


1,953,053 


2,089,438 


18 


4,643,198 


6,014,095 


6,032,765 


10,169,722 


13,183,666 


16,501,478 


13,182,440 


12,956,615 




55,828,252 


84,556,886 


257,249,193 


288,893,218 


416,122,771 


482,924,672 


317,578,963 


407,760,092 


[f 


84,570,644 


69,693,263 


138,375,083 


244,990,826 


314,017,944 


188,359,937 


135,798,720 


135,841,642 


20 


2,602,903 


1,818,931 


15,097,691 


28,030,381 


34,028,314 


18,783,884 


4,585,987 


7,850,843 


21 


45,716,762 


56,334,695 


83,116,282 


154,509,154 


213,913,944 


284,561,478 


179,925,887 


228,756,205 


22 


4,705,296 


9,884,346 


66,127,099 


81,910,926 


81,785,829 


76,500,741 


28,312,272 


51,137,912 


28 


28,455,786 


34,000,996 


66,036,542 


79,260,732 


54,976,413 


45,939,377 


27,885,996 


44,358,037 


\A 


7,817,475 


10,038,493 


11,879,741 


26,662,304 


30,342,926 


40,121,892 


22,616,684 


27,646,704 


28 


1,784,800 


2,900,379 


15,948,480 


56,799,799 


22,581,049 


19,582,051 


9,506,170 


14,046,940 


26 


4,002,038 


5,088,564 


87,780,527 


255,326,466 


71,722,908 


32,389,669 


14,030,001 


14,053,068 


27 


235,483,956 


274,316,553 


741,610,638 


1,216,443,806 


1,239,492,098 


1,189,163,701 


740,240 680 


931,451,443 




50,330,667 


79,214,342 


95,426,024 


157,506,654 


242,075,389 


261,081,364 


172,665,523 


161,669,784 


28 


23,616,835 


30,671,908 


38,657,514 


41,505,094 


95,098,743 


61,722,390 


46,645,789 


46,736,774 


29 


59,292,868 


87,916,282 


96,191,485 


178,190,241 


231,559,877 


243,608,342 


139,997,137 


170,146,958 


n 


14,341,947 


26,851,936 


18,277,420 


35,399,852 


43,183,267 


57,449,384 


35,791,487 


35,845,544 


;i 


49,436,840 


91,968,180 


92,065,895 


192,527,377 


186,319,876 


245,625,703 


110,210,539 


138,724,455 


ta 


17,527,922 


27,655,874 


29,448,661 


41,649,431 


52,103,913 


55,553,902 


29,773,413 


37,492,604 


B 


33,757,284 


53,335,826 


53,427,531 


135/250, 417 


121,956,176 


206,095,113 


137,604,140 


139,919,012 


14 


8,251,378 


12,489,776 


19,258,326 


34,282,647 


29,886,102 


36,334,612 


24,630,333 


25,793,101 


us 


27,184,539 


42,620,479 


65,448,278 


103,399,992 


62,344,780 


72,688,072 


50,485,971 


46,136,811 


-.., 


283,740,280 


452,724,603 


508,201,134 


919,711,705 


1,064,528,123 


1,210,158,882 


747,804,332 


802,465,043 




21,353 


2o,400 


37,434 


38,896 


39,384 


39,771 


39,773 


_ 


17 


1,065,881,629 


1,528,689,201 


1,893,125,774 


2,036,165,606 


2,170,030,128 


2,164,687,636 


2,159,277,131 


_ 


:s 


27,989,782 


37,097,718 


43,503,459 


43,754,194 


51,318,422 


46,793,251 


44,383.620 


- 


19 


57,966,713 


79,884,282 


109,659,088 


116,699,572 


127,429,154 


103,131,132 


108,530,518 


- 


} 


125,322,865 


188,733,494 


261,888,654 


382,976,901 


492,101,104 


458,008,891 


440,687,128 





41 


87,129,434 


131,034,785 


180,542,259 


341,866,509 


478,248,154 


422,581,205 


393,927,406 


- 


42 



shingle mills, lime kilns, brick and tile works and fish canneries. ^Exports of domestic merchandise only. 
* Imports of merchandise for home consumption. 4 The figures for 1919 are for gold exported to foreign 
countries only. 6 Copper, fine, contained in ore, matte, regulus, etc. 6 Year 1876. 7 Year 1875. 
The figures for 1923 are subject to revision. 

623730 



XXVI 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA concluded. 





Items. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1896. 


1901. 


1 


Electric Railways 1 
Miles in operation No. 










675 




Capital $ 





_ 


_ 


__ 






Passengers No. 


_ 


_, 


_ 





120,934,656 


. 


Freight tons 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


287,926 


- 


Earnings $ 


__ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


5,768,283 


6 


Expenses $ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3,435,162 


: 


Canals 
Passengers carried No. 


100,377 


118,136 


146,336 


151,342 


190,428 




Freight tons 


. 3,955,621 


2,853,230 


2,902,526 


7,991,073 


5,665,259 




Shipping (sea-going) 
Entered tons 


2,521,573 


4,032,946 


5,273,935 


5,895,360 


7,514,732 


(l 


Cleared . " 


2,594,460 


4,071,391 


5,421,261 


5,563,464 


7,028,330 




Total " 


5,116,033 


8,104,337 


10,695,196 


11,458,824 


14,543,062 


: 



Telegraphs, Government, miles of line 
Telegraphs, other, miles of line 




1,947 


2,699 
27,866 


2,786 
28,949 


5,744 
30,194 





Telephones . No. 


_ 


_ 






63,192 




Motor vehicles . . " 


_ 


_ 


_ 









Postal- 
Money orders issued . . $ 


4,546,434 


7,725,212 


12,478,178 


13,081,861 


17,956,258 


[I 


Revenue . . . . ... $ 


803,637 


1,344,970 


2,515,823 


2,971,653 


3,421,192 




Expenditure ... . . $ 


994,876 


1,876,658 


3,161,676 


3,752,805 


3,837,376 


- 


Dominion Finance 
Revenue .... S 


19,335,561 


39,635,298 


38,579,311 


36,618,591 


53,514,701 





Eipeuditure $ 


15,633,083 


35,503,554 


36,343,568 


36,949,143 


46,866,368 




Gross debt $ 


115,492,683 


199,861,537 


289,899,230 


325,717,537 


354,732,433 




Assets $ 


37,786,165 


44,465,757 


52,090,199 


67,220,104 


86,252,429 




Net debt $ 


77,707,518 


155,395,780 


337,809,031 


358,497,433 


368,480,004 




Chartered Banks 
Capital paid up . . . . $ 


37,095,340 


59,534,977 


60,700,697 


62,043,173 


67,035,615 




Assets $ 


125,273,631 


200,613,879 


269,307,032 


320,937,643 


531,829,324 


i ; 


Liabilities (excluding capital 
and reserves) $ 


80,250,974 


127,176,249 


187,332,325 


232,338,086 


420,003,743 


- 


Deposits*. . $ 


56,287,391 


94,346,481 


148,396,968 


193,616,049 


349,573,327 




Savings Banks 
Deposits in Post Office $ 


2,497,260 


6,208,227 


21,738,648 


28,932,930 


39,950,813 






2,072,037 


9,628,445 


17,661,378 


17,866,389 


16,098,144 




Special $ 


5,766,712 


7,685,888 


10,982,232 


14,459,833 


19,125,097 




Loan Companies 4 


8,392,464 


73,906,638 


125,041,146 


143,887,377 


158,523,307 




Liabilities $ 


8,392,464 


71, 965, Ol- 


123,915,704 


143,296,284 


158,523,307 






2,399,136 


lS, 460, 268 


18,482,959 


19,404,878 


20,756 910 




Trust Companies 
Shareholders assets $ 










_ 


1 


Investments 6n trnst account. . S 
Dominion Fire Insurance 
Amount at risk, Dec. 31 $ 


228,453,784 


462,210,968 


759,602,191 


845,574,352 


1,038,687,619 


! 


Premium income for year t 


2,321,716 


3,827,116 


6,168,716 


7,075,850 


9,650,348 




Provincial Fire Insurance 
Amount at risk Dec 31. . . $ 














Premium income for year .... S 





_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




Dominion Tjfe Insurance 


45,825,935 


103,290,932 


261,475,229 


327,814,465 


463,769,034 




Premium income for year . S 


1,852,974 


3,094,689 


8,417,702 


10,604,577 


15,189,854 


1 


Provincial Life Insurance- 
Amount at risk Dec 31 $ 








_ 


_ 


. 

4 | 


Premium income for year $ 
Education- 


~ 


891,000 


995,000 




1,083,000 


i 


No, of Teachers " 


13,559 


18,016 


23,718 





27,126 


i ! 


Total Public Expenditure. . . $ 






_ 


- 


11,014,925 

















i Calendar years 1920-1922. 2 Including amounts deposited elsewhere than in Canada from 1901-1922. 
Active assets only. Including Building Societies and Trust Companies (1871-1911). Motor 
vehicles in 6 provinces numbered 2,130 in 1907. The figures for 1923 are subject to revision. 



XXV11 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA concluded. 



1906. 


1911. 


1916. 


1919. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923. 




814 

237,655,074 
506,024 
10,966,871 
6,675,037 


1,224 
111,532,347 
426,296,792 
1,228,362 
20,356,952 
12,096,134 


1,674 
154,895,584 
580,094,167 
1,936,674 
27,416,285 
18,099,906 


1,696 
171,894,556 
686,124,263 
2,474,892 
35,696,532 
26,839,070 


1,699 
170,826,404 
804,711,333 
2,691,150 
47,047,246 
37,242,483 


1,687 
177,187,436 
719,305,441 
2,285,886 
44,536,833 
35,945,316 


1,724 
188,258,974 
738,908,949 
2,445,425 
49,660,485 
35,986,872 


- 


o o* ** co to H 


256,500 
10,523,185 


304,904 
38,030,353 


263,648 
23,583,491 


262,056 
9,995,266 


230,468 
8,735,383 


230,129 
9,407,021 


219,519 
10,026,055 


220,592 
11,199,434 


- 


8,895,353 
7,948,076 
16,843,429 


11,919,339 
10,377,847 
22,297,186 


12,616,927 
12,210,723 
24,827,656 


11,694,613 
13,566,780 
25,261,393 


12,010,374 
13,234,380 
25,244,754 


12,516,503 
12,400,226 
24,916,729 


13,620,183 
13,974,287 
27,594,470 


17,095,883 
17,182,454 
34,278,337 


10 


6,829 
31,506 

5_ 


8,446 
33,905 
302,759 
21,519 


10,699 
38,552 
548,421 
123,464 


11,428 
37,771 
724,500 
341,316 


11.454 
40,939 
856,266 
407,064 


11,207 
41,577 
902,090 
465,378 


11,455 
41,641 
944,029 
513,821 


- 




37,355,673 
5,993,343 
4,921,577 


70,614,862 
9,146,952 
7,954,223 


94,469,871 
18,858,410 
16,009,139 


142,375,809 
21,602,713 
19,273,584 


159,224,937 
24,449,917 
20,774,385 


173,523,322 
26,331,119 
24,661,262 


139,914,186 
26,554,538 
28,121,425 


143,055,120 
29,262,233 
27,794,502 


: 



80,139,360 
67,240,641 

392,269,680 
125,226,702 
267,042,978 


117,780.410 

87,774,198 
474,941,487 
134,899,435 
340,042,052 


172,147,838 
130,350,727 

936,987,802 
321,831,631 
615,156,171 


312,946,747 
232,731,283 

2,460,183,021 
647,598.2023 
1,812,584,819 


349,746,335 
303,843,930 

3,041,529,587 
792,660,9633 
2,248,868,624 


434,386,537 
361,118,145 

2,902,482,117 
561,603,133 
2,340,878,983 


381,952,387 
347,560,691 

2,902,347,137 
480,211,336 3 
2,422,135,801 


394,614,900 
332,293,732 

2,888,827,237 
435,050,3683 
2,453,776,869 


tO tO 1 K 

H-OCOOO 


91,035,604 
878,512,076 


103,009,250 
1,303,131,260 


113,175,353 
1,839,286,709 


115,004,960 
2,754,568,118 


123,617,120 
3,064,133,843 


129,096,339 

2,841,782,079 


125,456,485 
2,638,776,483 


124,373,293 
2,643,773,986 




713,790,553 
605.968,513 


1,097,661,393 
980,433,788 


1,596,905,337 
1,418,035,429 


2,495,582,568 
2,189,428,885 


2,784,068,698 
2,438,079,792 


2,556,454,190 
2,264,586,736 


2,364,822,657 
2,120,997,030 


2,436,587,628 
2,107,606,111 




45,736,488 
16,174,134 
27,393,194 


43,330,579 
14,655,564 
34,770,386 


40,008,418 
13,520,009 
40,405,037 


41,654,920 
11,402,098 
46,799,877 


31,605,594 
10,729,218 
53,118,053 


29,010,619 
10,150,189 
58,576,775 


24,837,181 
9,829,653 
58,292,920 


22,357,268 
9,247,121 
59,327,961 


to to to 

00 --J C7> 


232,076,447 
232,076,447 
23,046,194 


389,701,988 
389,701,988 
33,742,513 


70,872,297 
70,872,297 
8,987,720 


74,520,021 
74,520,021 
9,347,096 


90,413,261 
90,413,261 
15,257,840 


96,698,809 
96,698,809 
15,868,926 


102,493,145 
100,403,652 
16,910,558 


- 


w co to 

i- O 


_ 


- 


7,826,943 
47,669,243 


10,007,941 
73,133,017 


10,224,252 
73,704,706 


10,238,236 
88,036,507 


10,353,243 
101,078,205 


- 


CO CO 
COM 


1,443,902,244 
14,687,963 


2,279,868,346 
20,575,255 


3,720,058,236 

27,783,852 

849,915,678 


4,923,024,381 
40,031,474 

1,004,942,977 


5,969,872,278 
50,527,937 

1,054,105,011 


6,020,513,832 
312,564 

1,269,764,435 


6,348,637,436 
48,168,310 

1,036,200,959 


- 


.. 

3 


- 


- 


3,902,504 


4,302,492 


5,216,795 


5,545,549 


4,890,627 


- 


i 


656,260,900 
22,364,456 


950,220,771 
31,619,626 


1,422,179,632 
48,093,105 


2,187,837,317 
74,708,509 


2,657,0?5,493 

90,218,047 


2,934,843,848 
99,015,081 


3,171,388,996 
107,104,091 


- 


IS 

: 


- 


_ 


348,097,229 
5,311,003 


223,853,792 
4,407,833 


174,740,215 
3,282,669 


222,871,178 
4,389,008 


175,380,201 
4,329,716 


- 


10 

u 


1,173,009 
32,250 
16,368,244 


1,356,879 
40,516 
37,971,374 


1,622,351 
50,307 
57,362,734 


1,738,977 
53,990 
74,843,138 


1,812,618 
55,733 
76,835,089 


1,869,643 
56,607 
112,976,543 


1,950,000 
59,312 
114,711,249 


- 


ta 

4:-. 

M 



NOTE. 

In the foregoing Summary the statistics of immigration, fisheries (1871-1916), trade, shipping, the 
Post Office, the public debt, revenue and expenditure and the Post Office and Government Savings Banks 
relate to the fiscal years ended June 30 up to 1906, and from that on to the years ended March 31. Agricul 
tural, dairying, fisheries (1918-22), mineral, manufacturing, banking, insurance, loan and trust companies 
statistics relate to the calendar years and railway statistics to the years ended June 30, 1871-1919, and to 
the calendar years 1920-1922. Canal statistics are those of the navigation seasons. The telegraph statistics 
relate to the fiscal years for Government lines and to the calendar years for other lines. 



ERRATA. 

P. 5. Table 1. The land and water areas of Saskatchewan are 243,381 and 8,319 sq. 

miles respectively, instead of 242,808 and 8,892. The corresponding areas of 

Canada are 3,603,909 and 125,756 instead of 3,603,336 and 126,329, as given 

in the table. 
P. 25. The longitude of Saskatoon seismological station should be 106" 30 W. instead 

of 106 40 W. 
The registration of the Victoria Station should be correct to .1 sec. instead of 

correct to + 1 sec. 
P. 171. Table 30. The urban population of Canada in 1921 should be 4,352,442 

instead of 4,352,402. 



XXVI, 1 



I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

I. GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES. 
1. General Description. 

Situation. The Dominion of Canada comprises the whole northern half of 
the North American continent except the United States territory of Alaska, and 
Labrador, a dependency of the island colony of Newfoundland. It is bounded on 
the west by the Pacific ocean and Alaska, the boundary with which was in part 
determined by the award of the Alaska Boundary Tribunal signed at Washington, 
Oct. 20, 1903; on the south by the 49th parallel, the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence 
river and additional lines set om by the Ashburton Treaty, signed Aug. 9, 1842; 
and on the east by the Atlantic ocean, the gulf of St. Lawrence, the undefined 
Labrador boundary and Davis strait. Northern boundaries have yet to be fixed 
by further exploration, but cape Columbia in north latitude 83 5 is the most 
northerly known point of land in the Dominion. The southernmost point is Middle 
island in lake Erie, in north latitude 41 41 , while from east to west the Dominion 
extends from about west longitude 57 the approximate boundary with New 
foundland to west longitude 141, the boundary with Alaska. Canadian territory 
thus extends over about 84 of longitude and 42 of latitude. 

Area. The area of the Dominion (including an estimate of 500,000 square 
miles for the provisional district of Franklin) is 3,729,665 square miles, a figure 
which may be compared with that of 3,743,529 for the United States and its depen 
dent territories, 3,800,000 the total area of Europe, 2,974,581 the total area of 
Australia, 3,913,560 the total area of China inclusive of dependencies, 3,275,510 
the area of Brazil, 1,802,577 the area of India, 121,633 the area of the United King 
dom and 13,419,046, the total area of the British Empire. By comparison with 
the last two figures Canada is seen to be over 30 times as large as the United King 
dom and to comprise almost 28 p.c. of the total area of the British Empire. 

Political Subdivisions. Canada is divided from east to west into the follow 
ing provinces: the Atlantic Maritime provinces of Prince Edward Island, Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, all three comparatively small in area; Quebec, covering 
a strip south of the St. Lawrence and the whole territory north of the St. Lawrence 
and east of the Ottawa to Hudson strait; Ontario, extending northward from the 
Great Lakes to Hudson bay; Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, the provinces 
of the interior continental plain, extending from 49 to 60 north latitude; and 
British Columbia, the province of the western mountain and Pacific coast region, 
also extending from 49 to 60. North of the 60th parallel of latitude the country 
is divided into the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, the latter area 
composed of the provisional districts of Mackenzie, Keewatin and Franklin. In 
actual area the three Maritime provinces, covering a total land area of 51,163 
square miles, make up but 1 -4 p.c. of the total land area of the country. Quebec, 
the largest in area of all the provinces, and Ontario cover 19-45 and 10-15 p.c. 
of the country s aggregate land area respectively. The four western provinces, 
taken in order as one proceeds west, constitute 6 4, 6 7, 7 and 9 8 p.c., the Yukon 
5 7 p.c., Franklin 13 8 p.c., Keewatin 5 7 p.c. and Mackenzie 13 9 p.c. of the land 
area of the Dominion. A brief description of each of the provinces is appended. 

Prince Edward Island. This, the smallest province of the Dominion, lies at 
the south of the gulf of St. Lawrence and is separated from the mainland of the 
623731 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



continent by Northumberland strait. It is 150 miles in length and varies from 4 
miles to 30 in width, covering an area of 2,184 square miles, some 200 square miles 
more than the state of Delaware and slightly more than half the area of the island 
of Jamaica in the British West Indies. Its rich red soil and red sandstone formations 
make up a distinctive and even topography, no point in the island attaining a 
greater altitude than 311 feet above sea level. A climate tempered by the surround 
ing waters of the gulf and yet free from the rigours of Atlantic storms, combined 
with numerous rivers, sheltered harbours and rolling plains, offers great induce 
ments to the pursuit of agriculture and of fishing. The province is noted for its 
predominance in the fox-farming industry, its lobster canneries, and its production 
of oats and potatoes. 

Nova Scotia. The province of Nova Scotia is 386 miles in length by from 50 
to 100 miles in width, a long and rather narrow strip of land lying parallel to the 
Maine and New Brunswick coast and joined to the latter by the isthmus of Chig- 
necto. It includes at its north the island of Cape Breton, which is separated from 
the mainland by the strait of Canso. The total area of the province is 21,428 square 
miles, a little over 2,000 square miles less than the combined area of Belgium and 
Holland, with which Nova Scotia may very well be compared as to climate, natural 
resources and accessibility. Cape Breton island, at the mouth of the gulf of St. 
Lawrence and sheltering Prince Edward Island from the Atlantic, is roughly 100 
miles in length with an extreme breadth of 87 miles, its area of 3,120 square miles 
enclosing the salt water lakes of Bras d Or, connected with the sea at the north by 
two natural channels and at the south by the St. Peter s ship canal. The ridge 
of mountainous country running through the centre of the Nova Scotian mainland 
divides it roughly into two slopes, that facing the Atlantic being generally rocky, 
barren and open to the sweep of Atlantic storms, while the other, facing the bay of 
Fundy and the gulf of St. Lawrence, consists for the most part of arable and fertile- 
plains and river valleys, and is noted for its general farming and fruit farming 
districts. The Atlantic coast is deeply indented with numerous excellent harbours. 

New Brunswick. With a total area of 27,985 square miles, New Brunswick 
may be compared to Scotland with its area of 30,405 square miles. The conform 
ation of the province is also rather similar to that of Scotland, for the country, 
although not mountainous, is diversified by the occurrence of a great number of 
low hills and valleys. While New Brunswick is essentially a part of the mainland, 
the bay of Chaleur at the north, the gulf of St. Lawrence and Northumberland 
strait at the east, the bay of Fundy at the south and Passamaquoddy bay at the 
southwest, provide the province with a very extensive sea coast. Although 
larger in area than Nova Scotia, New Brunswick does not cover as many degrees 
of latitude as does the former, its most southern point being a little south of 
45 north latitude and its most northern a little north of 48, while Nova Scotia 
extends roughly from the 43rd to the 47th parallel. To its southwest is a group 
of islands belonging to the province, the most important being Campobello with an 
area of 115,000 acres, Grand Manan with an area of 37,000 acres and the \Vc.-i 
Isles, with an area of 8,000 acres. The soil of these islands, similar to much of 
that on the mainland, is generally fertile, but only a small proportion of it is under 
cultivation. New Brunswick has been well called the best watered country in the 
world; its numerous rivers provide access to extensive lumbering areas in its interior 
and to many of the most attractive hunting and fishing resorts in the Dominion. 

Quebec. Quebec might with considerable accuracy be included among the 
Maritime provinces, for the gulf of St. Lawrence is really a part of the Athmtir, 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



while salt water washes the coasts of the province for many miles on its northern 
and western borders. Besides including a narrow strip of land between the St. 
Lawrence and the international and New Brunswick boundaries, Quebec extends 
northward from the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers to Hudson strait, covering 
over 17 of latitude and an area of 706,834 square miles. The combined areas of 
France, Germany, Sweden and Italy are some 7,000 square miles less than the area 
of Quebec. Apart from its importance as the threshold of Canada and the gate 
way through which ocean navigation must pass on its way to the interior of the 
continent, Quebec is also noted for its natural resources. The untold timber limits 
of its northern areas form the basis for a great pulp and paper industry of the present 
and the future. Its rivers, many of them as yet comparatively unknown, may be 
harnessed to supply over one-third of the electric power available in Canada. Its 
mineral deposits, particularly those of asbestos, have long been known for their 
quality and extent, and the fisheries of the St. Lawrence river and gulf are equally 
famuiar. Agriculturally, the climate and soil of the St. Lawrence shores and the 
plains of the Eastern Townships make the province eminently fitted for general 
farming operations. 

Ontario. The province of Ontario is the section of the Dominion contained 
between the great international lakes and Hudson bay and between the western 
boundary of Quebec and the eastern limits of Manitoba. Its most southern point 
is in north latitude 41 41 and its most northern in north latitude 56 48 . The 
total area comprised within its limits is 407,262 square miles, of which its water 
area of 41,382 square miles forms the unusually large percentage of 10-16. The 
province is a little more than 8,000 square miles less in area than are France and 
Germany together, and when compared with the states to the south Ontario is 
found to be almost equal in extent to the combined area of the six New England 
states, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
and Wisconsin. Many varieties of climate and soil are encountered, from the 
distinctively southern conditions found along the shores of lake Erie to the infinitely 
diverse ones of Hudson and James bay. Ontario, of all the provinces of Canada, 
is the centre of the country s manufacturing life, owing to its abundant water power 
resources and its proximity to the coal fields of Pennsylvania, but the many natural 
resources of its rural districts are not on this account neglected. Mining in the 
Sudbury, Cobalt and Porcupine districts is a thriving industry, the nickel coming 
from the Sudbury field amounting to three-fourths of the world s consumption; 
fruit farming in the Niagara district and general farming throughout the entire 
central part of the province are carried on extensively under unusually favourable 
conditions, while timber and furs are the most important products of the far north. 

Manitoba. Manitoba, the most easterly of the prairie provinces and also the 
oldest in point of settlement, extends roughly from a line joining the west coast of 
Hudson bay and the lake of the Woods to a line approximating closely to the 102nd 
meridian west from Greenwich. On the north and south it is bounded by the 60th 
and 49th parallels of latitude respectively. The total area of Manitoba is 251,832 
square miles. This area may be compared to that of the United Kingdom 
with its area of 121,633 square miles, and Manitoba is seen to be 8,566 square 
miles greater than twice the total area of the British Isles. The province is typically 
an agricultural one, its southern plains being specially adapted to this form of 
industry. Its northern districts, with a topography very different from that o 
its prairies, are of importance in the production of copper ore and of timber products 

62373 H 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



Saskatchewan. The central prairie province, contained within the western 
boundary of Manitoba, the 49th and 60th parallels of latitude, and the 110th meri 
dian, covers an area of 251,700 square miles, but slightly less than that of Mani 
toba, and greater by 5,000 square miles than the combined areas of the United 
Kingdom and Norway. The country consists for the most part of the open rolling 
prairie at an average altitude of 1,500 feet above sea-level, while in the north it 
assumes a more broken aspect and is as yet but slightly developed. The climate 
is quite different from that of eastern Canada, with less precipitation and perhaps 
slightly more severe features than are encountered in many other parts of the 
country, but it is nevertheless most favourable to plant and animal growth. The 
northern districts are abundantly watered by lakes and rivers and are rich in coal 
and timber resources. 

Alberta. Lying between Saskatchewan on the east and the Rocky mountains 
and the 120th meridian on the west, and bounded on the north and south by the 
Northwest Territories and the United States respectively, is the province of Alberta. 
Its area is slightly greater than that of Saskatchewan or Manitoba, comprising a 
total of 255,285 square ni les, a little more than the combined areas of Germany 
and Bulgaria. Formerly an almost exclusively ranching country, it has now become 
a great wheat producing region, the frontier of the grain growing area now approx 
imating to the line of the foot-hills of the Rockies. In the southwest, considerable 
coal and oil mining are carried on; lumbering is important in the more mountainous 
western parts and in the north, where some ranching is still pursued in the less 
populous sections. The climate of Alberta is a particularly favourable one, less 
severe in summer than more eastern parts of the country and tempered in winter by 
the "Chinook" winds from the Pacific. 

British Columbia. The province of British Columbia is in some respects the 
most favoured part of Canada. Within its boundaries are reproduced all the 
varied climates of the Dominion and almost every natural feature, whije some of 
its climatic and geographical conditions afe peculiar to the province. Extending 
from the Rockies to the Pacific and from the 49th to the 60th parallel of latitude, 
its limits contain an area of 355,855 square miles, more than three limes the area 
of Italy, slightly less than three times the area of the United Kingdom and but 
slightly less than the combined area of the United Kingdom, Norway and Italy. 
The many islands of the Pacific coast, notably Vancouver island with an area of 
about 13,500 square miles and the Queen Charlotte group, are included in the 
province and are remarkable for their temperate climate and abundant natural 
resources. Mention need hardly be made of the mineral resources, the great lumber 
trade, the fisheries and the agriculture of British Columbia. 

Yukon and Northwest Territories. The vast area of 1,449,300 square miles is 
included within the boundaries of Canada s northern subdivisions, tihe Yukon 
Territory and the three provisional districts of the Northwest Territories. This is 
almost twelve times the area of the United Kingdom, nearly half the area of the 
United States and more than the combined areas of the Argentine Republic and 
Chile in South America. Much of these northern regions is uninhabited, large 
areas of them even unexplored, but none the less they are of considerable potential 
economic value, owing to their possibilities in agricultural and pastoral production, 
to their mineral deposits such as the Yukon gold fields, as well as to their forest 
resources and their furs. 



PHYSIOGRAPHY 



Summary of Land and Water Area. For the convenience of the reader, 
the total land and water area of the Dominion, and its distribution into provinces 
and territories, is shown in Table 1. 

1. Land and Water Area of Canada by Provinces and Territories as in 1923. 



Provinces. 


Land. 


Water. 


Total 
Land and 
Water. 


Prince Edward Island. . . . . . 


sq. miles. 
2,184 


sq. miles. 


sq. miles. 
2,184 


Nova Scotia 


21,068 


360 


21,428 


New B runswick 


27,911 


74 


27,985 


8uebec 


690,865 


15,969 


706,834 


ntario 


365,880 


41,382 


407,262 


Manitoba . . 


231,926 


19,906 


251,832 


Saskatchewan . . . 


242,808 


8,892 


251,700 


Alberta 


252,925 


2,360 


255,285 


British Columbia . . 


353,416 


2,439 


355,855 


Yukon . . 


206,427 


649 


207,076 


Northwest Territories 
Franklin 


500,000 




500,000 


Keewatin 


205,973 


6,851 


212,824 


Mackenzie 


501,953 


27,447 


529,400 










Total . 


3,603,336 


126,399 


3,729,665 











The water area is exclusive of Hudson bay, Ungava bay, the bay of Fundy, 
the gulf of St. Lawrence and all other tidal waters, excepting that portion of the 
river St. Lawrence which is between Pointe-des-Monts and the foot of lake St. 
Peter, in Quebec. 

2. Physiography. 

Topography. -The topographic features of the present surface of the American 
continent admit of its division, in Canada, into several physiographic provinces. 
The exposed surface of the old pre-Cambrian continent forms one of the largest 
divisions and has been called the Canadian Shield, the Archaean Peneplain and, in 
its southern portion, the Laurentian Highland. The mountainous country of the 
west constitutes the Cordilleras, while the mountains of eastern United States, in 
their continuation across the border, form the Appalachian highlands of eastern 
Canada. The Great Plains, with various subdivisions, occupy the area between 
the mountainous area of the west and the great, roughened surface of the Canadian 
Shield. The St. Lawrence lowland lies between the Laurentian and Appalachian 
highlands. Within the borders of the Canadian Shield an area on the southern 
margin of Hudson bay has been referred to as the "clay belt." It occupies a part 
of the basin that was submerged during the glacial period and covered with a coating 
of clay which smoothed over its inequalities and concealed most of the underlying 
rocks. Since its emergence the surface has been but slightly altered by drainage 
channels cut across it. 

Canadian Shield. The portion of the pre-Cambrian continent whose 
exposed surface still forms a large part of Canada, has an area of about two and 
a half million square miles. Its northern border crosses the Arctic archipelago, 
the eastern lies beyond Baffin island and Labrador and reaches the depressed area 
occupied by the St. Lawrence river, a short spur or point crossing this valley at the 
outlet of lake Ontario to join the Adirondack mountains in New York. The south 
ern boundary runs from the spur West to Georgian bay, skirts the north shore of 



6 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 

lake Huron and sweeps almost entirely around the ancient depressed area occupied 
by lake Superior. The western edge, from the lake of the Woods and lake Winnipeg, 
bears northwest to the western end of lake Athabaska, and passes through the basins 
occupied by Great Slave and Great Bear lakes, reaching the Arctic ocean east of 
the Mackenzie River delta. In detail, the surface features of the Canadian Shield 
are irregular; but, viewed broadly, it has the conformation of a great plain, depressed 
toward the centre and in the north and slightly elevated along the eastern and 
southern borders, where it presents a somewhat steep outward slope. The general 
elevation < n the eastern portion is under 2,000 feet, and over the larger part of the 
plain is about 1,000 feet. The highest portion is along the northeastern margin 
where it presents a steep face to the sea, rising to a maximum altitude of about 
6,000 feet. 

Appalachian Region. The continuation of the Green mountains of Vermont 
into Canada may be traced in the Notre Dame mountains, which approach the 
St. Lawrence below Quebec and, continuing with more easterly trend, form the 
highland of the Gaspe peninsula. Over a large part of the region these hills hardly 
attain the dignity of mountains, but peaks rising 3,500 feet above the nearby coast 
are found in the Gaspe peninsula. The continuation of the White mountains of 
New Hampshire is found in the highlands of Maine and New Brunswick, the conti 
nuity being shown quite plainly by the rock-folding and other evidences of the 
great earth movements which caused the topography. An additional ridge appar 
ently forms the present province of Nova Scotia, and although the highlands of 
that province in few places rise to elevations greater than 1,500 feet, the rock struc 
ture indicates that it was a mountainous country at no very remote geological 
period. 

St. Lawrence Lowlands. The southern interior of the continent consists 
of a plain of low relief, bordered on the east by the Appalachian mountains, on 
the west by the Cordilleran mountaifl systems, and on the north by the 
Laurentian plateau. This plain, in its Canadian portion, is known as the St. 
Lawrence lowlands, ani extends from a short distance below Quebec city to lake 
Huron, with a length of 600 miles and an area of 35,000 square miles. To the 
northeast it becomes reduced in width, and in the vicinity of Quebec is represented 
by a narrow plateau or shelf on each side of the St. Lawrence river. The triangular 
area beyond, in which is the island of Anticosti, is structurally related to the central 
lowlands. The St. Lawrence lowlands may be divided into three sections: (1) the 
St. Lawrence river plain, separated from (2) the Eastern Ontario basin, by a point 
of crystalline rocks, and (3) the Ontario peninsula, a slightly more elevated plain 
whose eastern border is a steep escarpment, the eastern outcrop of a heavy lime 
stone bed which underlies the western peninsula. 

Great Plains. -A great area, including many diverse features, lies to the 
east of the Cordilleras. The portion that is included under the term Great Plains 
extends from the southwestern edge of the ancient surface forming the Canadian 
Shield, to the eastern edge of the mountainous region of the Cordilleras. In the 
belt traversed by the railway lines a three-fold division into pra rie steppes, rising 
one above the other, is clearly recognizable, though the divisions are not distinguish 
able in the region farther north to which the term prairie is not applicable. For the 
purpose of description these three divisions are adopted and a fourth is added for 
the broken hilly country of the foot-hills. The first or eastern division comprises 
the plain lying between the Canadian Shield and the plateau formed of Cretaceous 



RIVERS AND LAKES 



sediments; the second extends from the edge of this plateau westward to the erosion 
remnants of former Tertiary deposits; and the third stretches from this line west 
ward to the foot-hills. North of the prairie country these distinctions are less 
noticeable, and divisions two and three become merged into one. 

Cordilleran Region. The western part of the American continent is more 
or less mountainous. The Andean chain, which extends throughout the length 
of South America and broadens out in the United States and in Canada, has an 
average width of over 500 miles. This region, covering about 600,000 square 
miles in Canada, is the most elevated in the Dominion, many of the summits reach 
ing heights of 10,000 feet, with occasional peaks over 13,000 feet above sea level. 
The mountainous tract forming the Cordilleras can be divided broadly into three 
parallel bands; a series of plateaus and mountains, comprised in the Columbia, 
Interior, Cassiar and Yukon systems forming the central part, referred to as the 
Central Belt; another series of parallel ridges east of the central plateaus, formed 
of fault rocks and folds and including the Rocky and Arctic systems, known as the 
Eastern Belt; and a third division between the plateau country and the Pacific, 
composed of the Pacific and Insular systems, called the Western Belt. 

Following is a list of the principal named Canadian Cordilleran peaks exceeding 
12.000 feet in elevation: 



Name. 


Elevation. 


N.I 


>at. 


W.L 


ong. 


Range. 


Alberta 
\lberta 


feet. 
12,000 


52 


14 


117 


36 


Rocky mtns. 




12,000 


51 


48 


116 


56 




The Twins 


12,085 


52 


13 


117 


12 




British Columbia 


13,068 


53 


07 


119 


08 


H 


Yukon 


14,900 


60 


18 


140 


28 


St. Elias mtns. 


Cook 


13,700 


60 


10 


139 


59 






16,400 


60 


21 


139 


02 






16,971 


60 


35 


140 


39 






19,539 


60 


51 


140 


21 






17,147 


61 


01 


140 


28 






14,253 


60 


36 


140 


13 






13,860 


60 


19 


140 


52 




St Elias 


18,000 


60 


18 


140 


57 




Steele 


16,644 


61 


06 


140 


19 




Strickland 


13,818 


61 


14 


140 


45 






15,617 


60 


21 


139 


42 




Walsh 


14,498 


61 


00 


140 


00 




Wood 


15,885 


61 


14 


140 


31 



















3. Rivers and Lakes. 

General. The waterways of Canada constitute not only one of its most 
remarkable geographic features but one of the most vital elements of its national 
existence. The water area of 126,329 square miles is unusually large, constituting 
almost 3| p.c. of the total area of the country, whereas the water area of the United 
States forms but slightly more than 1| p.c. of its area. The Great Lakes, with 
the St. Lawrence river, form the most important system of waterways on the conti 
nent and one of the most notable fresh water transportation routes in the world. 
Their value in facilitating the cheap and speedy shipment of grain from the prairie 
provinces cannot be overestimated. These lakes never freeze over, but usually 
most of their harbours are closed by ice about the middle of December and remain 
frozen over until the end of March or the beginning of April. 



8 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



Drainage Basins. The great drainage basins of Canada are the Atlantic 
(554,000 square miles), the Hudson bay (1,486,000 square miles), the Arctic 
(1,290,000 square miles), the Pacific (387,300 square miles), and the gulf of Mexico 
(12,365 square miles). Table 2 indicates the drainage areas of the more important 
rivers. 

2. Drainage Basins of Canada. 



Drainage Basins. 


Area 
Drained. 


Drainage Basins. 


Area 
Drained. 


Atlantic Basin. 

Hamilton 


Sq, miles. 
29,100 


Hudson Bay Basin concluded. 
Kazan 


Sq. miles. 
39 700 


Miramichi 


5,400 


Dubawnt 


18 iOO 


St. John 


21 500 






St. Lawrence 


309,500 


Total 


1 A0 IUU) 


Saguenay 


35 900 






St. Maurice 


16 200 


P-K ifip Racln 




French 


8,000 


Yukon 


IA.C. ano 


Nipigon 


9,000 




9A fiOO 


Ottawa 


56,700 


Stewart 


91 000 


Lifevre 


3,500 


Felly 


91 300 


Gatineau 


9,100 


Lewes 


3n 100 






White 


i 1 ; ooo 


Total 


554,000 


Alsek 


11 200 






Taku 


7 600 


Hudson Bay Basin. 




Stikine 


20 300 


Koksoak 


62,400 


Nass .... 


7 400 


George 


20,000 


Skeena 


in QOO 


Big 


26, 300 


Fraser 


Q1 700 


Eastmain 


25,500 


Thompson 


91 800 


Rupert 


15,700 


Nechako 


1 s ! 700 


Broadback 


9,800 


B lackwater 


5 600 


Nottaway 


29,800 


Quesnel 


4 500 


Moose 


42,100 


Chilcotin 


7 500 


Abitibi 


11,300 


Columbia 


39 300 


Missinaibi 


10,600 


Kootenay 


15 500 


Albany 


59,800 


Okanagan 


6 000 


Kenoga mi 


20,700 


Kettle 


3 160 


Attawapiskat 


18,700 


Pend d Oreille 


1 100 


Winisk 


24 100 






Severn 


38,600 


Total 


387 <{00 


Hayes 


28 000 






Nelson 


370 800 


\rriit Ravin 




Winnipeg 


44 000 


Backs 


47 500 


English 


20,600 1 


Coppermine 


oq 100 


Red 


63,400 


Mackenzie 


682 000 


Assiniboine 


52,600 


Liard 


100 700 


Saskatchewan 


158,800 


Hay... 


25 700 


North Saskatchewan 


54,700 


Peace 


117 100 


South Saskatchewan 


65,500 


Athabaska 


58 900 


Red Deer . . 


18 300 






Bow 


11,100 


Total 


1 290 000 


Belly 


8 900 ! 






Churchill 


115 500 


Gulf of Mexico Basin 


12 365 











NOTE. Owing to overlapping, the totals of each drainage basin do not represent an addition of the 
drainage areas as given. Tributaries and sub-tributaries are indicated by indentation of the names. The 
Gulf of Mexico basin is that part of the southern area of the prairie provinces drained by the Missouri and 
Mississippi rivers and their tributaries. 

St. Lawrence River System. Most important of the lakes and rivers of 
Canada is the chain of the Great Lakes with their connecting rivers, the St. Law 
rence river and its tributaries. This chain is called the St. Lawrence River system. 
The Great Lakes, separating the province of Ontario from the United States and 
connected by a series of canals with the St. Lawrence river, allow vessels drawing 
not over 14 feet of water to proceed from the Atlantic ocean to the interior of the 
Dominion as far as Fort \Villiam and Port Arthur, twin cities situated on lake 
Superior, practically half way across the continent. 

Other River Systems. Apart from the St. Lawrence, the great waterway 
of the eastern half of the Dominion, other systems also merit some attention. The 



RIVERS AND LAKES 



Saskatchewan river, for example, flowing eastward from the Rocky mountains to 
lake Winnipeg and thence northward by the Nelson river into Hudson bay, drains 
a great part of the plains of the western provinces. In the north, the Mackenzie 
river, with its tributaries the Slave, Liard, Athabaska and Peace rivers, follows 
the northerly slope of the Great Plain and empties into the Arctic ocean, its waters 
having traversed in all a distance of 2,525 miles. The Yukon river also, drain 
ing a great part of the Yukon territory, flows northward through Alaska into the 
Behring sea after a course of 2,300 miles. The Fraser, Columbia, Skeena and 
Stikine rivers flow into the Pacific ocean after draining the western slopes of the 
mountains of British Columbia. Table 3 gives the lengths of the principal rivers 
with their tributaries, classified- according to the course taken by their waters. 

3. Lengths of Principal Rivers and Tributaries in Canada. 



Names. 



Miles. 



Names. 



Miles. 



Flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. 



Hamilton (to head of Ashuanipi) 

Natashkwan 

Rornaine 

Moisie 

St. Marguerite 

St. John.. 

M iramichi 

St. Lawrence (to head of St. Louis) . 

M anikuagan 

Outarde 

BersimiS; 

Saguenay ( to head of Peribonka) . 

Peribonka 

M istassini 

Ashwapmuchuan 

Chaudiere 

St. M aurice 

Mattawin 

St. Francis 

Richelieu 

Ottawa 

North 

Rouge 

North Nation . . . 

Lievre 

Gatineau 

Coulonge 

Dumoine 

South Nation 

M ississippi . f 

Madawaska 

Petawawa 

M oira 

Trent 

Grand 

Thames 

French (to head of Sturgeon) 

Sturgeon 

Spanish 

M ississagi 

Thessalon -. 

Nipigon (to head of Ombabika) . . 



Flowing into Hudson Bay. 

Hayes 

Nelson (to lake Winnipeg) 

Nelson (to head of Bow) 

Red (to head of lake Traverse) 

Red (to head of Sheyenne) 

Assiniboine , 

Souris 

Qu Appelle 

Winnipeg (to head of Firesteel) 

English 



350 
220 
270 
210 
130 
390 
135 
,900 
310 
270 
240 
405 
280 
185 
165 
120 
325 
100 
165 
210 
685 

70 
115 

60 
205 
240 
135 

80 

90 
105 
130 

95 

60 
150 
140 
135 
180 
110 
153 
140 

40 
130 



300 
390 
,660 
355 
545 
450 
450 
270 
475 
330 



Flowing Into Hudson Bay concluded. 

Nelson (to head of Bow) concluded. 

Saskatchewan (to head of Bow) 

North Saskatchewan 

South Saskatchewan (to head of Bow) 

Bow 

Belly 

Red Deer 

Churchill 

Beaver 

Kazan 

Dubawnt 

Severn 

Winisk 

Attawapiskat 

Albany (to head of Cat river) 

M oose (to head of M attagami) 

Mattagami 

Abitibi 

M issinaibi 

Harricanaw 

Nottaway (to head of \Vaswanipi) 

Waswanipi 

Rupert 

Eastmain 

Big 

Great Whale 

Leaf 

Koksoak (to head of Kaniapiskau) 

Kaniapiskau 

George 



Flowing into the Pacific Ocean. 

Columbia (total) 

Columbia (in Canada) 

Kootenay 

Fraser 

Thompson (to head of North Thompson) 

North Thompson 

South Thompson 

Chilcotin 

Blackwater 

Nechako 

Stuart 

Skeena 

Nass 

Stikine 

Alsek 

Yukon (mouth to head of Nisutlin) . 
Yukon (Int. boundary to head of Nisutlin) 

Stewart 

White - 

Pelly 

Macmillan 

Lewes . . , 



1,205 
760 
865 
315 
180 
385 

1,000 
305 
455 
580 
420 
295 
465 
610 
340 
275 
340 
265 
250 
400 
190 
380 
375 
520 
365 
295 
535 
445 
365 



1,150 
465 
400 
695 
270 
185 
120 
145 
140 
255 
220 
335 
205 
335 
260 
1,765 
7 655 
320 
185 
330 
200 
338 



10 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



3. Lengths of Principal Rivers and Tributaries in Canada concluded. 



Names. 



Flowing Into the Arctic Ocean. 

Mackenzie (to head of Finlay) . . 

Peel 

Arctic Red 

Liard 

Fort Nelson 

Athabaska 

Pembina 

Slave... 



Miles. 



2,525 
365 
230 
550 
260 
765 
210 
265 



Names. 



Flowing Into the Arctic Ocean con. 



Mackenzie concluded. 
Peace (to head of Finlay). 

Finlay 

Parsnip 

Smoky 

Little Smoky 

Coppermine 

Backs. . . 



Miles. 



1,065 
250 
145 
245 
185 
525 
605 



NOTE. In the above table the tributaries and sub-tributaries are indicated by indentation of the 
names. Thus the Ottawa and other rivers are shown as tributary to the St. Lawrence, and the Gatineau 
and other rivers as tributary to the Ottawa. 

The Great Lakes. Table 4 shows the length, breadth, area, elevation 
above sea-level and maximum depth of each of the Great Lakes. 

4. Area, Elevation and Depth of the Great Lakes. 



Lakes. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Maximum 
depth. 


Area. 


Elevation 
above 
sea-level. 


Name. 

Superior 


miles. 
383 


miles. 
160 


feet. 
1 180 


square 
miles. 
31,810 


feet. 
602-29 


Michigan 


320 


118 


870 


22 400 


581-13 


Huron 


247 


10 


750 


23 010 


581-13 


St. Clair 


26 


24 


23 


460 


575 62 


Erie 


241 


57 


210 


9 940 


572-52 


Ontario 


180 


53 


738 


7 540 


246-17 















Lake Superior, with its area of 31,810 square miles, is the largest body of fresh 
water in the world. As the international boundary between Canada and the 
United States passes through the centre of lakes Superor, Huron, Erie and Ontario, 
only half of the areas of these lakes given m the above statement is Canadian. 
The whole of lake Michigan is within United States territory. From the western 
end of lake Superior to the mouth of the St. Lawrence there is, with the aid of the 
canal system, a continuous navigable waterway. The total length of the St. Law 
rence river from the head of the St. Louis river to the Pointe-des-Monts, at the 
entrance of the gulf of St. Lawrence, is 1,900 miles. The tributaries of the St. 
Lawrence, several of which have themselves important tributaries, include the 
Ottawa river, 685 miles long, the St. Maurice river, 325 miles long, and the Sa.gue- 
nay (to head of Peribonka), 405 miles long. 

Other Inland Waters. In addition to the Great Lakes there are large 
bodies of inland water in other parts of Canada. Of these only the following prin 
cipal lakes, with their respective areas, need be mentioned here: in Quebec, lake 
Mistassini (975 square miles); in Ontario, lake Nipigon (1,730 square miles); m 
Manitoba, lake Winnipeg (9,459 square miles), lake Winnipegosis (2,086 square 
miles) and lake Manitoba (1,817 square miles); in Saskatchewan, Reindeer lake 
(2,436 square miles); in Alberta, lake Athabaska (2,842 square miles). All these 
are within the boundaries of the provinces as at present constituted, and are exclu 
sive of lakes situated in the Northwest Territories, as, for instance Great Bear 
lake (11,821 square miles) and Great Slave lake (10,719 square miles) in the district 
of Mackenzie. 



RIVERS AND LAKES 



11 



Table 5 gives a list of the principal lakes of Canada by provinces, with the 
area of each in square miles. The table corresponds with the delimitation of the 
provinces as altered by the Boundary Extension Acts, 1912 (2 Geo. V, cc. 32, 40 

and 45). 

5. Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes by Provinces. 



Names of Lakes. 


Areas. 


Names of Lakes. 


Areas. 


Nova Scotia 
Bras d Or 


Square 
Miles. 
230 


Quebec concluded . 
Waswanipi 


Square 

Miles. 
100 


Little Bras d Or 


130 


Whitefish 


19 










Total 


360 


Total 


11,330 


New Brunswick 


74 


Ontario 
Abitibi, portion in Ontario 


331 






Bald . 


2 






Balsam . . 


17 




25 


Buckhorn . . 


14 




392 


Cameron . 


6 




319 


Couchiching 


19 




331 


Deer 


7 




g 


Dog 


61 




17 


Eagle 


128 


Burnt 


56 


Erie, portion in Ontario 


5,018 




3 


George portion in Ontario 


11 


Chibougamau 


138 


Huron, including Georgian bay, portion 






478 


in Ontario 


14,331 


.Evans 


231 


La Croix, portion in Ontario 


23 




59 


Lansdowne . 


98 


Gull 


125 


Long 


75 




57 


Manitou, Manitou island 


38 




245 


Mille Lacs Lac de 


104 




306 


Mud 


13 




87 


Muskoka . 


54 




65 


Namakan, portion in Ontario 


19 




441 


Nipigon . . 


1,730 




117 


s ipissing . 


330 




220 


Ontario, portion in Ontario 


3,727 




16 


Panache . 


35 




113 


Pigeon .... . 


15 




87 


Rainy, portion in Ontario 


260 




14 


Rice 


27 


Melville 


1 298 


St Clair, portion in Ontario 


257 


M emphremagog part in Quebec 


28 


St. Francis, river St. Lawrence, part 


24 


Menihek 


112 


St. Joseph 


245 


~\] into 


735 


Saganaga, portion in Ontario 


21 


Mishikamua 


612 


Sandy 


245 


V ishikamats 


122 


Seul 


392 




975 


Simcoe 


271 




206 


Scugog 


39 




56 


Stony 


19 


i^ichikum . . 


208 


Sturgeon, English river 


106 




g 


Sturgeon, Victoria county 


18 




56 


Superior, portion in Ontario 


11,178 


Olga 


50 


Timagami 


90 


Ossokmanuan 


131 


Tirniskaming, part 


52 


Papineau 


5 


Trout, English river 


134 


Patamisk 


44 


Trout, Severn river 


233 


Payne 


747 


Wanapi tei 


45 


Petitsikapau 


94 


Woods, lake of the, part in Ontario 


1,325 


Pipmaukin 


100 







Pletipi 


138 


Total 


41,188 


Quinze, Lac des .... . ... 


46 






Richmond 


269 


Manitoba 






13 


Atikameg . 


90 




59 


Cedar 


285 




350 


Cormorant . 


141 




56 


Dauphin 


200 


St Peter 


130 


Dog 


64 


Sandgirt 


106 


Ebb-and-flow 


39 


Simon 


12 


Etawney 


625 




65 


Gods 


319 




29 


Granville . . 


392 


Thirty-one Mile 


23 


Island . 


551 


Two Mountains 


63 


Kiskitto 


69 




270 


Kiskittogisu 


122 


Wakonichi . . 


44 


Manitoba.. 


1,817 



12 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF C AX ADA 



5. Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes by Provinces. concluded. 



Names of Lakes. 


Areas. 


Names of Lakes. 


Areas. 


Manitoba concluded . 
Moose 


Square 
M iles. 
552 


British Columbia 
Adams 


Square 

Miles. 

CO 


Namew, part 


12 


Atlin part 


001 


North Indian 


184 


Babine 


Oflfi 


Neultin, part 


76 


Chilko 




Playgreen 


224 


Harrison 




Reed 


86 


Kootenay 


99O 


Red Deer, west of lake Winnipegosis 


86 


Lower Arrow 


64 


Reindeer, part 


134 


Okanagan 


i^ 


St. Martin 


125 


Owikano 


as 


Setting 


58 


Quesnel 


147 


Shoal 


102 


Shuswap 




South Indian 


1,531 


Stuart 


220 


Swan 


84 


Tacla 




Todatara, part 


156 


Tagish part 


91 


Waterhen 


83 






Wekusko.. 


83 


"Upper Arrow 


QQ 


Winnipeg 


9 459 






Winnipegosis 


2,086 


Total 


2 4.1Q 


Woods, lake of the, part 


60 










XT *U 4. T 




Total 


19,895 


Aberdeen 


514 






Aylmer.. . 


612 


Saskatchewan 




Baker 


1 029 


Amisk 


111 


Clinton-Colden 


fi74 


Athabaska, part 


1,801 


Dubawnt 


1 654 


Buffalo 


281 


Franklin 


122 


Candle 


150 


Garry 


Q80 


Chaplin. .. 


66 


Gras Lac de 


(,74 


Cree 


406 


Great Bear 


11 821 


Cumberland 


166 


Great Slave 


10 719 


Dove 


242 


Kaminuriak 


368 


Ile-a-la-Crosse 


187 


M acdougall 


318 


Johnston 


131 


Maguse 


490 


Last Mountain 


98 


Martre Lac la 


1 225 


Little Quill 


70 


M ackay 


980 


Manitou 


67 


Nueltin part 


230 


Montreal 


138 


Nutarawit 


343 


Namew, part 


54 


Pelly 


331 


Plonge, Lac la. .. 


38.3 


Schultz 


123 


Quill 


163 


Thoalintoa 


184 


Red Deer, on Red Deer river 


97 


Xodatara part 


52 


Reindeer, part 


2,302 


Yathkyed 


858 


Ronge, Lac la . 


343 






White Loon 


97 


Total 


34.301 


Witchikan 


70 






Wollaston 


906 


Yukon 








Aishihik 


107 


Total ... 


8,329 


Atlin part 


12 


Alberta 




Kluane 


184 


Athabaska, part 


1,041 


Kusawa 


56 


Beaver 


89 




87 


Biche, Lac la 


125 


Marsh 


32 


Buffalo 


55 




48 


Claire 


404 


Teslin part 


123 


Lesser Slave ; 


480 






Pakowki 


72 


Total 


649 


Sullivan 


94 














Total 


3,360 


Canada 


120,925 











4. Islands. 

The northern and western coasts of Canada are fringed by islands, while along 
the eastern coast and in the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence river a smaller 
number of important islands are found. Those on the north are mostly within 
the Arctic circle, but include several situated as far south as James bay; they are 
included in the provisional districts of Franklin and Keewatin. Baffin, Victoria 
and Ellesmere are the largest of the northern islands, with areas estimated 
at 211,000, 74,000 and 76,600 square miles respectively. On the Pacific coast, 



GEOLOGICAL DIVISIONS 13 

south of the Alaskan boundary at Dixon entrance, are the Queen Charlotte islands 
(4,000 square miles) and Vancouver island (13,500 square miles), besides innumer 
able smaller islands. Manitoulin island in lake Huron and the Thousand Islands 
in the St. Lawrence at its outlet from lake Ontario are among the most important 
islands of our inland waters. On the eastern borders of the Dominion are the 
island of Anticosti, Prince Edward Island, one of the nine provinces, Cape Breton 
island and the Magdalen islands. 



II. GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. 1 
1. Historical Outline and Geological Divisions. 

Introduction. While politically and economically Canada is a new country, 
from the geological point of view its central and eastern parts are of extreme old 
age, forming probably the largest area of Archaean or pre-Cambrian rocks in the 
world. At the same time comparatively recent geological events have rejuvenated 
the region, impressing upon it many of the characteristics of youth, as a result of 
which the Dominion presents impressive contrasts in geological structure and 
physical features. 

When the officials of the Geological Survey commenced to study the geology 
of eastern Canada they found that the more ancient and crystalline rocks, the 
nucleus or protaxis about which the remainder of the continent was built up, extended 
north-eastwards and north-westwards on each side of James bay and Hudson 
bay. The American geologist Dana called this Canadian Archaean with its spread 
ing arms a V-formation, but when it became evident that the ancient rocks extended 
also along the north side of Hudson bay, the Viennese geologist, Suess, gave to 
this vast area the name of the Canadian Shield, a- term which has been accepted 
by subsequent writers. In the centre of the Shield there was at least in early tunes 
a depression filled by a shallow sea and now occupied by Hudson bay. 

A second Archaean protaxis is situated 500 miles south-west of the edge of 
the Shield, that of the Selkirk and Gold Range mountains in British Columbia. 
This is long, narrow, and somewhat interrupted, running from south-east to north 
west parallel to the coast. The debris resulting from the destruction of the 
mountainous Archaean areas piled up in the shallow seas around, and on their flanks 
and in the wide trough between them marine Palaeozoic rocks were laid down. 
Later, Mesozoic sediments were deposited upon them, practically completing the 
outline of Canada and extending south into \\hat is now the United States. 

Together with this growth in area went the upheaval of mountains, first in 
Archaean times, when apparently the whole surface of the Shield was covered by 
great mountain chains, next at the end of the Palaeozoic age, along the south 
eastern and south-western sides, and finally at the end of the Mesozoic era, when 
the Rocky mountains were elevated on the margin of the shallow interior sea. 
Outside of this area of mountain-building the rocks are fairly level and undisturbed, 
showing comparatively stable conditions throughout the continent. 

Historical Outline. Since more than half of Canada is covered by Archaean 
or pre-Cambrian formations, these must first be considered. The lowest rocks are 

Adapted from articles by R. W. Brock, M.A., LL.D., University of British Columbia, and Wyatt 
Malcolm, M.A., Dept. of Mines, Ottawa, in the Canada Year Book, 1921. 



14 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 






I s 

s 



I I 3 

.0 



bti t> 
y ^ 



or ? %t~&5 ?>v 5 ~o 9 ^ DP-" 

5 I w ll ^! I f ^ I -t 1 ,1 1 

Oj (j-!a,K4. -55. Q. ^ Q ^o o (j Q 

I 




GEOLOGICAL DIVISIONS 15 

the Laurentian granites and gneisses, which latter, though once believed to be 
sedimentary, are now known to be deep-seated eruptive rocks, which pushed up as 
molten material into the cold rocks above, lifting them as domes and themselves 
solidifying slowly far below the surface. These great domes of gneiss and granite, 
known as batholiths, are the commonest structure of the Archaean region. 

Though the Laurentian rocks are the lowest, they are not the oldest, as the 
Keewatin rocks were already cold and solid at the period when they were heaved 
upward upon the shoulders of the Laurentian. The Keewatin rocks also consist 
chiefly of eruptive rocks, lava flows and volcanic ash now metamorphosed into 
greenstones and schists. With them are found in many places thick deposits of 
ordinary sediments, now changed into gneiss or mica-schist, together with the band 
ed jasper and iron ore of the iron formation. 

Much marble or crystalline limestone is also found in the Grenville series of 
the southern Archaean, which is probably of the same age as the Keewatin. During 
that period thousands of feet of lava, ashes, mud and sand were laid down on a 
sea-bottom that has utterly vanished. This was followed by the eruption of the 
domes of gneiss, lifting the earlier rocks into great mountain ranges, which were 
afterwards worn down to stumps, disclosing their foundations of granite and gneiss 
enclosed in a rude network of Keewatin schist. 

The next formation, the Huronian, consists of a great sheet of boulder clay 
or tillite formed by wide-spread glaciers, and masses of water-formed sediments, now 
slate or quartzite or limestone. In many places the Huronian rocks still lie nearly 
flat on the worn surfaces of the older rocks, but in others they were caught in 
mountain-building operations and squeezed and rolled out into schists. The 
Animikie or Uppermost Huronian is also made up of sediments, very modern in 
appearance. 

The Keweenawan is the concluding formation of the Canadian Archaean, 
resulting from another outburst of volcanic activity. Thousands of feet of lava, 
ash rocks, coarse sandstones and conglomerates were piled up on various parts of 
the old continent. Keweenawtn intrusives are considered the source of the ores 
of silver, nickel and copper mined on a great scale in northern Ontario. Altogether, 
more than half of the Dominion owes its present configuration to forms shaped in 
the Archaean rocks though overlaid and sometimes obscured by later activities. 

Palaeozoic formations are all well represented in Canada, limestones, shales 
and sandstones of its various ages (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian and 
Carboniferous) contributing to the shaping of the country. These in many places 
lie almost undisturbed, but in far eastern Canada, where the Palaeozoic ended with 
the Appalachian mountain-building period, they are crumpled into great folds or 
torn asunder with profound faults. The Carboniferous of the Atlantic coast is 
valuable for its important coal-beds. 

The Mesozoic in its earlier formations (Triassic, Jurassic) is poorly represented 
in Canada, but its later formation, the Cretaceous, is of great importance, both for 
extent and economic features, its crumbling sandstones and shales underlying the 
prairies of western Canada and containing beds of coal at many places. During 
the Laramie period, a transition era between the Mesozoic and the Tertiary, were 
elevated the Rocky mountains, the latest and therefore the highest of the mountain 
ranges of Canada. 

By this tune the continent was complete within its main outlines; but during 
the Tertiary, sediments were deposited in several small western basins, while in 
southern British Columbia volcanic eruptions covered thousands of square miles 



16 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



fc^^itti*" 1 }^^ 

&te^#%ffii^&?^fb> 




GEOLOGICAL DIVISIONS. 17 

with lava or ashes. Thereafter the climate grew colder, and with the Pleistocene 
or Quaternary began the Glacial Period, which continued for a long time but was 
relieved by at least one inter-glacial period characterized by a warm climate. At 
the close of the Glacial Period the surface of the northern part of the continent 
had been profoundly modified, "the vast accumulations of loose materials, due to ages 
of weathering, being scoured away from the central parts of the glaciated areas, 
leaving bare rounded surfaces of fresh rock, while nearer the edges of the ice-sheets 
boulder clay was spread out or long loops of moraine were heaped up, blocking 
the valleys and transforming the whole system of drainage". During the subse 
quent thawing of the ice-sheets, the melting ice in the upper part of the valleys of 
the northward-flowing Canadian rivers formed glacial lakes in which sheets of silt 
or sand were deposited, forming what are now thousands of square miles of the 
most fertile lands of Canada. Also, as a consequence of the heavy load of ice, 
which at some points was two miles thick, the land sank some hundreds of feet, 
leaving thousands of square miles beneath the sea when the ice-sheets began to 
thaw. Relieved of its burden of ice, the sunken portions of the continent rose 
again, exposing wide belts of marine clay on the coastal plains. Many of the richest 
soils and the flattest plains of Canada owe their fertility and their smoothness to 
the process just described. Thus the geologically recent episode of the Ice Age 
"modified the old topography and hydrography of Canada, giving to one of the 
oldest lands under the sun its singularly youthful aspect". 

Geological Divisions. As a result of the process of geological development 
just described, the Canada of to-day may be divided into five main regions, each 
with distinctive characteristics of formation and present resources. A generally 
accepted division is as follows: 

1. The Appalachian or Acadian region, occupying the Maritime provinces 
and the mountainous south-eastern side of the province of Quebec. 

2. The Canadian Shield or Laurentian Plateau, the vast upland surround 
ing Hudson bay and stretching through twenty degrees of latitude to the 
Arctic circle and in places four or five degrees beyond it. 

3. The St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec and Ontario, extending 
south-west from the city of Quebec to the Detroit river. 

4. The Interior Continental Plain, contained between the western edge 
of the Canadian Shield and the Rocky mountains. 

5. The Cordilleran region, extending from the Rocky mountains to the 
Pacific coast. 

In addition two other less important regions may also be noted: 1. The 
Arctic Archipelago, including the islands of the Arctic ocean north of Hudson bay 
and 2. The Lowlands of James and Hudson bays. These last two regions, while 
distinct as to formation and peculiarities, are yet of insufficient importance and 
interest to warrant the further more detailed mention given to the five principal 
regions. 

Appalachian Region. The Appalachian region occupies the hi ly part of 
southeastern Quebec and the Maritime provinces. Here during remote geological 
ages the sedimentary beds of limestone, sandstone and shale that had been deposited 
beneath the sea were folded into mountain ranges, hardened, and intruded by igneous 
rocks. During long succeeding ages these mountains have been subdued, and little 
is left that may be regarded as mountains except the Notre Dame range of Quebec 
with a general elevation of 1,000 to 2,000 feet and with peaks rising above 3,500 

623732 



18 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 



feet, the broken hilly country of the northwestern part of New Brunswick, a section 
of this province bordering the bay of Fundy, and a central ridge in Nova Scotia. 

In the ordinary processes of erosion much of the loosened material resulting 
from rock decay was carried seaward, and in recent times glaciation denuded a 
great deal of the more elevated sections of country, leaving barely enough soil 
to support a forest growth. 

In some places sediments have been deposited subsequently to the great folding 
processes of earlier ages; they are unaltered, easily attacked by weathering agencies 
and are overlain by an ample depth of soil. The soils of Prince Edward Island, 
the Annapolis-Cornwallis valley and other sections are derived from these sand 
stones and shales of later deposition, the shales producing the clayey constituents 
and the sandstones yielding the sand that renders the soil porous and tillable. 
Calcareous slates have in places such as in Carleton and York counties, New Bruns 
wick, broken down into fertile soils. In eastern Quebec sufficient soil has been 
retained in the valleys to render the land arable. The great fertility of the reclaimed 
marshes of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is due to the fine silt deposited by the 
tides by which they were formerly submerged. 

In Canada the Appalachian extension is found to possess many of the minerals 
which have placed some of the eastern States in the foremost rank of mineral and 
industrial districts of the world. Important deposits of coal, gypsum, and gold are 
mined in Nova Scotia. Of lesser but still considerable importance are the iron, 
stone and building material industries; manganese, antimony, tripolite and barite 
are also mined, and some attention has been paid to copper. The principal minerals 
of New Brunswick are gypsum, iron, coal, stone for building purposes and grind 
stones, clays, antimony, manganese, mineral water and oil-bearing shales. Natural 
gas is also a commercial product. The chief asbestos mines of the world are situated 
in the southeastern part of the province of Quebec, where there are also important 
deposits of chrome iron ore, copper and pyjite. Iron ores and gold also occur. 

St. Lawrence Lowlands. The St. Lawrence lowlands consist of the gener 
ally level, arable land south of the Laurentian plateau. This lies on both sides of 
the St. Lawrence above Quebec, reaching south to the international boundary, 
occupies the eastern part of Ontario, east of a line running southward from a point 
about 50 miles west of Ottawa, and forms that portion of Ontario lying southwest 
of a line extending from Kingston to Georgian bay. 

These lowlands are among the most fertile of Canada s agricultural sections. 
They are underlain by flat-lying shales and limestones which yield readily to 
weathering. The physiographic features are favourable, and the residual material 
derived from the decomposition of limestones and shales results in a fertile, calcar 
eous, clayey soil. The loose surface deposits are of great depth, in places exceeding 
200 feet. 

The region was overridden by the great glacier, but the glaciation had apparently 
slight denuding effect on this part of the country, and served to mix the loose mate 
rials resulting from the weathering of the shales and limestones, and contributed 
the potash-bearing ingredients transported from the granitic areas of the Laurentian 
plateau. 

In its mineral deposits the area is very similar to the state of New York, its 
Palaeozoic rocks containing frequent occurrences of petroleum, natural gas, salt, 
gypsum and other non-metallic minerals. In addition, clay products, cement 
and other building materials are produced in large quantities. 



GEOLOGICAL DIVISIONS. 19 

Laurentian Plateau. North of the valley of the St. Lawrence, from New 
foundland to beyond the lake of the Woods, and enclosing Hudson bay like a 
huge V, is an area of pre-Cambrian rocks, estimated to cover 2,000,000 square 
miles, or over one-half of Canada. 

The plateau is underlain by hardened sediments and igneous rocks. The 
latter are much more widespread than the former, however, and granitic types 
predominate. Considerable inequalities of surface have been augmented by glacial 
action and a further effect of glaciation was the denuding of much of this region 
of its soil. Generally speaking, therefore, the physiographic and soil conditions 
are not favourable to agricultural pursuits. Over a great part of the area, how 
ever, sufficient soil has been retained to support a forest growth, although insuffi 
cient for agriculture. Within the plateau there are some valleys where areas of 
softer rock have afforded a greater abundance of soil that has not been removed 
by glaciation, and beautiful cultivated fields lend a pleasing contrast to the surround 
ing forest. In places the sediments deposited in the basins of glacial lakes have 
reduced the inequalities of the surface and produced large level areas of arable land. 
Interesting examples of these are furnished by the Clay Belt of northern Ontario 
and Quebec, traversed by the Canadian National railway, and by the flat section 
of country along the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway a few miles north 
of Sudbury. 

The rocks of this pre-Cambrian formation are remarkable for the variety of 
useful and valuable minerals they contain. Iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, 
gold, platinum, lead, zinc, arsenic, pyrite, mica, apatite, graphite, feldspar, quartz, 
corundum, talc, actinolite, the rare earths, ornamental stones and gems, building 
materials, etc., are all found, and are, or have been, profitably mined. Most of the 
other minerals, both common and rare, that are used in the arts have been found. 
Diamonds have not been located, but from their discovery in glacial drift from 
this area, it is altogether probable that they occur. 

A tongue of these pre-Cambrian rocks extends into New York state and supports 
some large and varied mineral industries. Another extension crosses over from 
Canada into Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. In it are located the Michigan 
copper mines and the great lake Superior iron ranges. Along the southern edge of 
the pre-Cambrian in Canada there are the copper and gold deposits of Saskatchewan 
and Manitoba, the gold ranges of the lake of the Woods, the silver of Thunder bay, 
a succession of iron ranges occurring at intervals from Minnesota to the province 
of Quebec, the copper rocks of Michipicoten and Bruce Mines, the Sudbury copper- 
nickel deposits (probably the largest high-grade ore bodies in the world), the Mont 
real river and Cobalt silver areas, the world-famous Porcupine and other gold 
deposits, the corundum deposits of eastern Ontario, the magnetites of eastern 
Ontario and Quebec and their large apatite-mica deposits. In the far north about 
Coronation gulf, are rocks that will warrant prospecting, since they bear native 
copper very similar to the great Michigan occurrences. 

Interior Continental Plain. The greater portions of Manitoba and Saskat 
chewan that lie outside of the pre-Cambrian and the province of Alberta are pre 
eminently agricultural, the flat-lying shales and sandstones having weathered down 
into the clays and clay loams which have made the plains one of the great wheat 
producing districts of the world. The greatest proportion of the surface deposits 
is derived from these underlying rocks. Some large stretches of the region, how 
ever, were submerged by glacial lakes in which fine silts and clays, carried down 
from the surrounding land and introduced by glacial streams, were deposited. Such 

62373 2i 



20 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

is the very fertile Red River valley. This is a part of the bed of a great lake that 
extended from the Laurentian plateau west to the Manitoba escarpment ; it reached 
southward into the United States and northward 100 miles beyond lake "Winnipeg. 

The sedimentary rocks which underlie the greater part of the Interior Plain 
are chiefly of Cretaceous age and contain coal, building stones, clays, some of them 
high grade and cement materials. Natural gas over wide areas and under gmit, 
pressure has been tapped in northern Alberta, and some oil has been encountered in the 
southwest. The lower sandstones of the Cretaceous along the Athabaska river, 
where they come to the surface, are for miles saturated with bitumen. These tar 
sands will probably average 12 per cent in maltha or asphaltum. Recent prospect 
ing has discovered oil at Pouce CoupS on the Peace river, and at Fort Norman, 
on the Mackenzie river, near the Arctic circle. At other points in the Devonian 
rocks of the Mackenzie basin oil indications occur. The lignites of the eastern 
plains are useful for local purposes, and highly bituminized coals are found as the 
mountains are approached. Vast areas are underlain by lignite beds in Saskat 
chewan and Alberta, and the reserves of bituminous coal in Alberta are enormous. 
Gold is found in a number of the rivers coming from the mountains. Gypsum is 
quarried in Manitoba and important deposits also occur in Northern Alberta. 
Beds of salt have been discovered by drilling near McMurray, Northern Alberta. 

Cordilleran Region. The Cordilleran belt in South America, in Mexico, 
and in the western States, is recognized as one of the greatest mining regions of the 
world, noted principally for its wealth in gold, silver, copper and lead. The Cor 
dilleras stand unparalleled in the world for the continuity, extent and variety of 
their mineral resources. In Canada and in Alaska this belt maintains its reputa 
tion, although in both, for the greater part, it is unprospected. In Canada the belt 
has a length of 1,300 miles and a width of 400 miles. It is pre-eminently a great 
mining region. Its rocks range from the oldest formations to the youngest; vulcan- 
ism and mountain building processes have repeatedly been active. The chief 
products of its lode mines in Canada are copper, gold, silver, lead and zinc. The 
Yukon territory is noted for its production of placer gold and is now attracting 
attention with rich silver ores. In addition to these minerals there are, within the 
same region, enormous resources of coal of excellent quality, varying from lignite 
to anthracite, and conveniently distributed. 

The surface of the region is generally mountainous, though the interior section 
is reduced to an elevated plateau. Agricultural pursuits are therefore limited to 
the valleys. In these there are numerous terraces composed of silt carried down 
by streams issuing from former glaciers, the latter acting as eroding agents on the 
underlying rocks. These valley deposits are fertile and are well adapted to fruit 
culture. 

2. Economic Geology of Canada, 1922. l 

The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the most important reports 
and articles treating of the economic geology of Canada published during 1922. 
Brief notes are given on the contents of the most important reports. This paper 
also indicates where detailed information regarding the mineral resources of the 
country may be obtained, since the articles referred to, although recently published, 
do not necessarily contain the best and most complete information on the subject. 

Contributed by Wyatt Malcolm, M.A., Geological Survey, Canada. 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY OF CANADA. 21 

The numbers appearing after the names of writers or articles refer to the publishers 
listed at the end. 

Asbestos. Asbestos of the chrysotile variety is found at an elevation of 2,800 
feet above the railway 3 miles north of Arrowhead, British Columbia. It occurs, 
according to M. F. Bancroft 1 , in a belt of serpentine derived by alteration from a 
dyke of basic igneous rock. Slip fibre 4 to 5 inches long is found and cross fibre 
^ to f of an inch long. An interesting description by W. A. Rukeyser of the Quebec 
asbestos deposits appears in the Engineering and Mining Journal-Press. 

Coal. Field investigations are continued from year to year with a view to 
broadening our knowledge of the extensive coal fields of Canada. During the 
year the results of investigations by J. D. Mackenzie, J. R. Marshall and W. L. 
Uglow in the Cumberland coal field, British Columbia 5 , the Kananaskis area, 
Alberta, 1 and the North Thompson River area, British Columbia, 1 5 respectively, 
were published. A well illustrated detailed report by John A. Allan on the Drum- 
heller coal field, the source of an important supply of domestic fuel, appeared as 
one of a series of publications issued by the Scientific and Industrial Research 
Council of Alberta. This Council also published in its second annual report the 
results of analyses and boiler tests, and notes on storage and utilization of Alberta 
coals. 

Copper. An interesting and unusual type of copper deposit at the Drum 
Lummon mine on the west coast of British Columbia is described by V. Dolmage. 1 
The ore, which consists- of chalcocite, bornite and chalcopyrite, occurs in pegmatite 
dykes near their contact with the altered quartz diorite of the Coast Range bath- 
olith. Chalcocite and bornite in nearly equal proportions constitute over 90 p.c. 
of the ore minerals. The ores also carry gold and silver. Copper deposits on 
Lasqueti island are described by J. D. Mackenzie. 1 

Iron. Interest has been manifested for several years in the Belcher islands, 
Hudson bay, as a source of iron ore. As a result of investigations made in 1921, 
G. A. Young 1 reports that the iron-formation consists of five bands in which highly 
ferruginous zones 10 to 50 feet thick occur. Although no deposits of commercial 
value under existing conditions were seen, four representative samples gave on 
analysis 35-42 per cent to 44-96 per cent of metallic iron. A paper by F. Hille 4 
on the Mattawin iron range, Ontario, contains notes on the character of the ore 
and the commercial possibilities of the deposit. The iron ore deposits of Deroche 
and adjoining townships are briefly described by S. Brunton 1 and a brief description 
by W. H. Collins of the geological features of the various types of iron ores of 
Ontario appears in the Canadian Mining Journal. 

Gold. Gold continues to hold a position of increasing importance in Canada s 
mineral industry, and as a result the gold deposits receive considerable attention 
from economic geologists. In a report entitled Ontario Gold Deposits, their 
Character, Distribution and Productiveness" 3 , P. E. Hopkins presents concisely a 
wealth of information regarding the mode of occurrence of the gold deposits of 
Ontario and the extent of mining operations. C. W. Knight, in presenting a study 
of the Lightning River gold area, Ontario, 3 directs the prospector to the search for 
gold in the vicinity of feldspar porphyry and quartz porphyry intrusives. 

J. C. Murray in a paper on the Shear Zones of Porcupine 4 points to the fact 
that not only do the ores occur in the vicinity of porphyry intrusives, but that 
shearing and deformation are essential to the localization of the ore bodies. The 
gold deposits of the Larder Lake area lie, according to H. C. Cooke 1 , within bodies 
of dolomite which were formed by the alteration of other rocks along sheared zones. 



22 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

The gold occurs as thin leaflets in the free state in fine fractures in quartz of the 
quartz veins cutting the dolomite. The gold is of later age than the quartz and 
the pyrite and it is stated that absolutely no connection exists between the concen 
tration of pyrite, the only sulphide in the rock, and the gold content. 

Reports appeared during the year on other areas in Ontario where gold has 
been discovered and development work done. Among these are reports on the 
Goudreau area 1 3 by E. Thomson and A. G. Burrows, on the Schreiber area 3 by 
P. E. Hopkins, on the Boston-Skead area 3 by A. G. Burrows and P. E. Hopkins, on 
the Wanapitei area 1 by T. T. Quirke, and on the Black River area 3 by D. G. H. 
Wright. There were reports also by B. R. MacKay on the placers of the Chaudiere 
River basin, Quebec 1 , and by H. C. Cooke on the Rice Lake area, Manitoba 1 . 

Investigations made by W. A. Johnston in the Cariboo district, British Colum 
bia, 1 5 show that there is still a large amount of gold in this district that is recover 
able by dredging. The placers of Cedar creek, which have yielded considerable 
gold during the last year, are described by W. A. Johnston 4 , the gold-quartz veins 
of the Bridge River area, British Columbia 1 , by W. S. McCann, the quartz veins 
of the Barkerville area by W. L. Uglow 5 , and the Surf Inlet mine by V. Dolmage 1 . 

Nickel. A concise description of the Shebandowan, Ontario, nickel-copper 
deposits is given by J. G. Cross 4 . The ore occurs in lenses 2 to 20 feet wide and 
carries nickel, copper, and cobalt, and quite an appreciable amount of rare me tals 
of the platinum group. The nickel-copper deposits of the Oiseau River area, Mani 
toba, consist, according to H. C. Cooke 1 , of pyrrhotite carrying more or less pent- 
landite and chalcopyrite. The deposits are found as irregularly shaped accumula 
tions, or segregations, within a gabbro sill near what was originally its base. 

Oil-shale. Oil-shales are shales carrying organic matter from which oil can 
be obtained by retorting. They arouse increasing interest as the possible exhaustion 
of the world s petroleum resources forces itself upon public attention. The oil- 
shales of Canada that have attracted greatest attention are those of southeastern 
New Brunswick. A report on a detailed investigation made by W. J. Wright on 
a deposit at Albert Mines 1 contains descriptions of the geological formations and 
their structural features, the results of analyses of many samples, and suggestions 
as to how to test further the commercial possibilities of the deposit. There are 
other deposits in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, but no detailed work was done 
on them. The results of experimental work in retorting the shales of the Rosevale 
area are presented by W. S. McCann 1 . 

Petroleum. Considerable information was published 1 during 1922 on the 
geology of Mackenzie River basin, more particularly in its relation to the petroleum 
possibilities of that part of Canada. A detailed description is given by A. E. 
Cameron of the sedimentary formations underlying the area to the southwest of 
Great Slave lake, an area drained by Hay and Buffalo rivers. E. J. Whittaker 
reports on geological observations made between Great Slave lake and Simpson, 
M. Y. Williams on the geology east of Mackenzie river between Simpson and 
Wrigley and G. S. Hume on the geology of North Nahanni and Root rivers west 
of the Mackenzie. General structural features of Mackenzie basin are described 
by D. B. Dowling. 

A consideration of the utilization of the bituminous sands of Athabaska river 
is presented by S. C. Ells in the summary report of the Mines Branch, Department 
of Mines, Ottawa, and by K. A. Clark in the second annual report of the 
Scientific and Industrial Research Council of Alberta. 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY OF CANADA. 23 

The Department of Lands, British Columbia, published a report by John A. 
Dresser on the results of borings made by the provincial government for oil near 
Peace river northwest of Hudson Hope. Five borings were made, but only a trace 
of oil was obtained. Suggestions are given in the report as to locations for further 
exploratory drilling. 

Silver. The Salmon River area, British Columbia, has recently been forced 
upon the attention of the mining public by the big dividends paid by the Premier 
mine. The ore deposits, which have been described by S. J. Schofield and G. 
Hanson, 1 are rich in silver and gold. The ore was deposited in fissures and shear 
zones from solutions emanating from the intrusive granite magma of the Coas< 
Range batholith. The deposits were afterwards to some extent enriched by 
secondary action. 

The results of a re-study by C. W. Knight of the Cobalt mining district were 
published in the Engineering and Mining Journal-Press. In summing up, the writer 
states that it is not likely that operations in Cobalt will ever again reach their past 
magnitude, but maintains that mining will doubtless be carried on for generations 
in or around Cobalt, or in the outlying areas of Gowganda, South Lorrain, Casey,. 
Montreal river and elsewhere in the district. In this connection it is interesting 
to know that work in South Lorrain has been revived and very rich silver ore is 
being mined. Another point of interest is the evidence presented by J. M. Bell in 
the Bulletin of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy of oxidation having taken 
place to a depth of at least 420 feet. A further contribution to the geology of 
Cobalt is made by A. R. Whitman in the University of California publications; it 
is claimed that the ores were deposited in joints developed as a result of folding 
subsequent to the solidification of the diabase and that they were derived from 
the diabase sheet itself, transported, and deposited through diffusion in relatively 
stagnant water. A consideration by E. S. Bastin of the nature of the silver- 
depositing solutions at Cobalt appears in Bulletin 735 of the United States 
Geological Survey. 

Further studies by W.. E. Cockfield 1 in the Mayo district, Yukon, show that 
the argentiferous lead ores of Davidson mountains are very similar to those of 
Keno hill although not quite so rich in silver. Other reports on silver producing 
areas are made by A. G. Burrows on Gowganda, 3 by G. Hanson on Upper Kitzault 
river, 1 and by A. L. Parsons on the Thunder Bay area. 3 

Miscellaneous. F. J. Alcock 1 describes in considerable detail the geology of 
the lead-zinc deposits of Lemieux township, Quebec. The lead and zinc minerals 
occur in veins cutting Devonian shales and limestones and are thought to be genetic 
ally related to deep-seated intrusives. The feldspar deposits in the Ottawa district 
are described in a paper by N. B. Davis 5 , who directs attention to a deposit in Derry 
township where a fine grade of cream or buff coloured feldspar is produced. 

H. S. Spence is the author of two valuable monographs published in 1922, 
one on talc and soapstone in Canada, and one on barium and strontium in Canada. 2 
These monographs contain descriptions of the known occurrences of the minerals 
in Canada, of the methods of mining and preparing the minerals for the market, 
and of their uses. A report by J. Keele and L. H. Cole presents the results of investi 
gations into the character and extent of the structural materials to be found along 
the St. Lawrence river between Prescott and Lachine. 2 

Preliminary statements regarding investigations on the alkali deposits of 
western Canada and mineral pigments in eastern Canada have been made respect 
ively by L. H. Cole and H. Frechette. 2 J. Keele describes in the Transactions of 



24 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

the Royal Society of Canada the occurrence of certain clays and sands in the basin 
of Moose river, Ontario, that are thought to be of Cretaceous age; some of the clays 
are high grade refractories. H. V. Ellsworth, in describing the radium-bearing 
pegmatites of Ontario 1 , states that radium and thorium minerals occur in the pegma 
tites in relatively great abundance, so disseminated that it appears improbable that 
concentrations will be found sufficiently large and rich to be of commercial value. 
In addition to the above, much valuable information on the development of 
the mining industry is contained in the annual reports of the various provincial 
departments of mines. 

SOURCES OF REPORTS AND ARTICLES REFERRED TO ix THE TEXT: Geological Survey, Ottnwa. 2 Min->3 
Branch, Department of Mines, Ottawa. "Department of Mines, Toronto, Ontario. " Canadian Mining 
Journal, Gardenvale, Quebec. 5 Canadian Institute of Minine and Metallurgy, Drummond Building 
Montreal, Quebec. 



III. SEISMOLOGY IN CANADA. 1 

Seismology the branch of science which treats of earthquakes has received 
considerable attention in Canada during recent years. It has been generally 
recognized that earthquakes are frequent in regions of adjustment of strata and 
are characteristic of the newer mountain and coast regions where abrupt changes 
in level are present. Seismological researches, while recording their location, 
duration and intensity, seek to determine particular causes. They ascertain the 
physical properties of the earth s crust and interior as revealed by the peculiarities 
of the recorded waves after their passage through the earth. Instruments as 
developed by seismological research for the better recording of earth tremors are 
being used commercially in many ways, not the least important being for the 
mapping out of underground densities in order to locate minerals and oil without 
frequent and expensive borings. 

During the years for which records are available, Canada has been but slightly 
affected by earthquakes. Historically a record shows that the St. Lawrence valley 
was shaken by a great quake in 1663. In 1899 a great disturbance occurred in 
Alaska at Yukatat bay, very close to Canadian territory. Slight shocks are very 
occasionally experienced in British Columbia and along the drainage system from 
the Great Lakes to the sea, but no damage to property or loss of life has been caused 
within the past century. It may be said that no active fault lines of any importance 
are found in Canada. 

At present five seismologic stations, all maintained by the Dominion Govern 
ment, are in active operation in Canada, and are situated at Halifax, Ottawa, 
Toronto, Saskatoon and Victoria. Two of these at Toronto and Victoria are 
under the Meteorological Branch of the Department of Marine and Fisheries, 
while the three remaining stations are controlled by the Dominion Observatory 
Branch of the Department of the Interior, with the assistance and co-operation 
of the universities at Halifax and Saskatoon. 

The records for Toronto and Victoria are published from Toronto, whence 
monthly bulletins are issued to seismological observatories interested, giving full 
details of all quakes as registered. The records for Ottawa, Saskatoon and Halifax 
are published from Ottawa. Monthly bulletins are issued to about 230 seismo 
logical observatories interested giving full details of the quakes as registered. These 

Contributed by Ernest A. Hodgson, M. A., Seismologist, Dominion Observatory, Ottawa. 



THE FLORA OF CANADA. 25 

are supplemented yearly by a publication giving the location of epicentres of all 
earthquakes of which any trace is registered at Ottawa. Data are gathered from 
all the reporting seismological stations of the world. 

Regular research work in seismology is carried on at Ottawa where the full 
time of two seismologists is given to the work of earthquake study alone. The 
reports are issued in the publications of the Dominion Observatory, Ottawa. 

The natural and instrumental data for each station are as follows: 

Halifax. Lat., 44 38 N.; Long., 63 36 W.; Alt., 47-3 ra. Substrata, carbonaceous slate. Equip 
ment Small Mainka Pendulum Seismograph, Mechanical registration. Components N.S., E.W. Mass 
of each 139-3 kgm. Period of each, 10 sec. Damping ratio of each, 6:1. Magnification of each, about 60. 
Time is checked automatically each hour by signal from Western Union Telegraph and is to be depended 
on to one or two seconds. 

Ottawa Lat , 45 23 38* N.; Long., 75 42 57 W ; Alt., 82 m. Substrata, boulder clay over limestone 
(Ordovician) Equipment: (1) Bosch Horizontal Seismographs. Photographic registration. Independent 
components, N.S..E.W. Mass of each 200 gm . Period of each, about 5- 5 sec. Dampingratios.N.S., 2:1,E.W., 
18 1 Magnification of each, 120. (2) Milne-Shaw Horizontal Seismographs. Photographic registration. 
Independent components, N.S., E.W. Mass of each, 1 Ib. Period of each, 12 sec. Damping ratio of each, 
20-1 Magnification of each, 250. (3) Wiechert Vertical Seismograph. Mechanical registration. Mass, 
80 kgm Period, 6 sec. Damping ratio, 20:1. Magnification, about 160. (4) A deformation Instrument. 
Photographic registration. Components, N.S., E.W. Mass of each, about 20 gm. Period of each, about 
36 sec. Undamped. Used for determination of tilt. The time service at Ottawa is that of the Dominion 
Observatory and the registration on the record is kept correct to within 0-2 sec. 

Toronto Lat., 43 40 N.; Long., 79 24 W.; Alt., 115-5 m. Substrata, sand and gravel on boulder 
clay to a depth of about 15 m. then shale over crystalline rock (Laurentian) to a depth of about 335-5 metres. 
Equipment: (1) Milne Seismograph. Photographic registration. E.W. component. Mass, 0-23 kgm. 
Period 18 sec No damping. (2) Milne-Shaw Horizontal Seismographs. Photographic registration 
Independent components, N.S., E.W., Mass of each, 1 Ib. Period of each, 12 sec. Damping ratio of 
eacn, 20:1. Magnification of each, 150. 

Time markings by Toronto Observatory clock. The registration has an error of 2 sec. The time is 
checked by meridian transits. 

Saskatoon Lat., 5208 N.; Long., 106 40 W.: Alt. ,515m. Substrata, clay and sand. Equipment: 
Small Mainka Pendulum Seismograph. Mechanical registraton. Components, N.S., E.W. Mass of 
each, 139-3 kgm. Period of each, approximately 9 sec. Damping ratio of each, 5:1. Magnification of 
each about 60. 

Time by local clock, checked occasionally by telephone with train time. 

Victoria Lat., 48 24 50" N.; Long., 123 19 28" W.; Alt., 67-6 m. Substrata, igneous rock. Equip 
ment: (1) Milne Seismograph. Photographic registration. E.W. comp. Mass, 0-23 kgm. Period, 1! 
sec. No damping. (2) Milne-Shaw Horizontal Seismographs. Photographic registration. Independent 
components, N S , E.W. Mass of each, 1 Ib. Period of each, 12 sec. Damping ratio of each, 20:1. Magni 
fication of each, 250. (3) Wiechert Vertical Seismograph. Mechanical registration. Mass, 80 kgm. 
Period, 5 sec. Magnification, 70. 

Time service of the meteorological station. Registration correct to 1 sec. 



IV. THE FLORA OF CANADA. 1 

Introduction. It is a well known fact that, at a geologically recent period, 
practically the whole of Canada from the Rocky mountains east was covered with 
glacial ice which, slowly advancing southward, reached as far as Central Missouri. 
Whatever vegetation may have flourished in Canada before the glacial period was 
gradually forced to migrate southward as the ice advanced. During this retreat 
many species were no doubt wiped out of existence, but a certain number, belonging 
perhaps largely to types which now are found in the arctic regions, managed to sur 
vive. In fact, we must surmise that, during the glacial period, the vegetation 
immediately in front of the continental ice was arctic in character and that, when 
the glaciation reached its maximum, those parts of the United States which were 
immediately to the south of the ice had a flora similar to that now existing in the 
far north. 

With the return of a warmer climate and the gradual recession of the continental 
ice, vegetation began to move back northward, with the arctic types as a vanguard 

This article, reprinted in slightly abbreviated form from the 1921 Year Book, is a revised and popular 
ized edition of a paper, entitled "Flora of Canada," by the late Mr. J. M. Macoun, C.M.G., FO..8., and 
M. O. Malte, Ph. D., published in Canada Year Book, 1915, and also as Museum Bulletin No. 26, Geological 
Survey, Department of Mines, Ottawa, 1917. 



26 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

followed by more temperate and southern ones. Generally speaking, the Canadian 
flora, as it exists today, may therefore be said to be composed of immigrants that 
took possession of the country after the glacial period and established themselves 
in botanical provinces in accordance with their specific requirements. These botanical 
provinces, generally referred to as zones, are briefly described in the following pages. 

The Arctic Zone. Botanically, the arctic zone is the region lying north of 
the tree line. In Canada it extends far to the south of the arctic circle, especially 
in the eastern parts of the Dominion. Its southern limit is, roughly, a line running 
from the estuary of the Mackenzie river to the mouth of the Churchill river on the 
west coast of Hudson bay. East of Hudson bay, the tree line, i.e., the southern 
boundary of the arctic zone, runs from about lat. 56 on Richmond gulf to the 
mouth of George river on the eastern shore of Ungava bay, and from there in a 
southeasterly direction along the coast of Labrador to Hamilton inlet. South of 
Hamilton inlet a narrow strip along the coast as far south as the strait of Belle Isle 
and extending a short distance to the west from there is also barren of real trees 
and therefore has an arctic aspect. This strip can hardly be included in the arctic 
zone proper, however, although a few arctic plants may be found there; the lack 
of trees and the barren appearance in general are caused by the arctic current 
which flows from the north along the coast and through the strait of Belle Isle. 

The vegetation in the arctic zone is generally of a low-growing and even dwarf 
ed type. The woody plants, even when half a century old or more, reach a very 
inconspicuous height in comparison with their next of kin farther south and are 
often prostrate or even trailing along the ground. In the more northern parts of 
the arctic zone the most conspicuous woody plants are willows and dwarf birches. 
Further south, on the tundra, i.e., the more or less boggy lowlands north of the tree 
line, the woody plants are chiefly represented by members of the blueberry family. 

In respect to herbaceous vegetation, the arctic flora of Canada is very closely 
related to the so-called circumpolar florar in general. Not only are there many 
species in arctic Canada which occur all around the north pole, but in general 
characteristics the Canadian arctic plants are very similar to arctic plants else 
where, particularly to those growing in Greenland and arctic Europe. 

A striking form of growth encountered in many species is the dense, compact, 
bunchy type, which especially is found well developed on rocky ground in the 
northern sections of the arctic zone. This form of growth is characteristic also 
of arid and semi-arid regions in hot climates, and at first sight it may seem strange 
that it should also be found in the arctic. The arctic zone, however, from a plant 
physiological point of view, is somewhat akin to arid regions farther south. In 
the latter regions the bunch growth is generally considered to be associated with 
a shortage of water supply in the ground, and to some extent the same may be 
said of arctic areas. The ground may apparently be well supplied with moisture, 
but the plants relying upon the moisture are often unable to utilize it on account of 
the temperature in the ground being at times so low that the water-absorbing 
parts of the plants are incapable of functioning. 

Compactness of growth is also displayed by a number of plants which, although 
not growing in defined bunches, form dense and often rather extended mats. On 
the other hand, there are quite a number of species which grow neither in bunches 
nor in mats; these are particularly common on the tundra. 

Practically all arctic plants are perennials. Owing to the shortness of the 
season they are often caught by early frost while the blossoms are still undeveloped 
and before their fruit has ripened. Indeed, many species regularly enter the winter 



THE FLORA OF CANADA. 27 

in this condition and hibernate with flower and leaf buds in an advanced stage of 
development. When the returning sun again wakes them up to renewed activity, 
they are therefore ready to spring into blossom over-night, as it were, and to present 
a surprisingly rapid development of vegetative as well as of floral organs. 

The Sub-arctic Forest Zone. The sub-arctic or so-called coniferous forest 
extends, in the east, from the arctic zone southward to a line running approximately 
from Anticosti to the south end of lake Winnipeg. This line is practically identical 
with the northern limits of the white and the red pine. West of lake Winnipeg the 
sub-arctic forest is bounded to the south and west by the prairies and the foot 
hills of the Rocky mountains, respectively. The Gaspe peninsula and sections of 
New Brunswick may also be included in the sub-arctic forest zone. 

The sub-arctic forest, as the name indicates, is decidedly boreal. The trees 
do not reach any imposing height and the number of species which make up the 
forest is small in comparison with the number occurring in the hardwood forest 
zone to the south. The sub-arctic forest is largely coniferous in character, the 
black and white spruce being the dominating trees. Of the other coniferous trees 
the Banksian pine is the most important species. It reaches perfection in the 
western part of the zone and constitutes the chief source of supply of lumber for the 
northern prairie region. The other trees characteristic of the zone in general are 
aspen and balsam poplar, white birch, larch, and balsam fir. Between the gulf 
of St. Lawrence and lake Winnipeg, white cedar, white elm, and ash are occasionally 
met with, but these trees cannot be properly considered as belonging to the sub 
arctic forest. 

Perhaps the most striking characteristic of the sub-arctic forest is the abundance 
of berry shrubs such as gooseberries, currants, blueberries, raspberries, yellow- 
berries, and high-bush cranberries. Another is the remarkable uniformity, in 
general character as well as in species, exhibited throughout the zone. This lack 
of variety is especially marked in the vegetation of the bogs, which are very numer 
ous throughout the zone, the species encountered in the bogs of any one part of 
the zone being characteristic of practically the whole sub-arctic forest. 

The herbaceous flora of the sub-arctic forest is also remarkably uniform through 
out, and hardly a species is found that does not occur either in the arctic zone or 
in the hardwood forest zone to the south. A noteworthy exception to this rule 
is a small water lily, in fact the smallest of the water lillies, which is found in this 
area only. 

The sub-arctic forest zone is as yet almost undisturbed by settlers except in 
some sections of the so-called clay belts of northern Quebec and Ontario. It forms 
a vast reserve of national wealth and may in the future furnish the chief supply 
of wood for the pulp and paper industries in eastern North America. 

The Hardwood Forest Zone. The hardwood forest zone includes all eastern 
Canada south of the sub-arctic forest, with the exception of a small region in south 
ern Ontario. It is characterized chiefly by deciduous trees, the principal ones being 
basswood, sugar maple, red maple, black ash, white ash, white elm, yellow birch, 
red oak, burr oak, and beech. Of the coniferous trees white pine, red pine, hem 
lock, and white cedar are the most important. The underbrush, although very 
variable and made up of a great number of species, is generally rather scanty and 
becomes conspicuous, as a component of the forest, only along its borders or where 
the woods are open. Among the most typical shrubs may be mentioned service 
berry, moosewood, purple flowering raspberry, sumach, poison ivy, and arrow- 
wood. 



28 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

As the rainfall is abundant throughout the zone, the herbaceous vegetation, 
where light and soil conditions are favourable, is rich in both species and individuals. 
In the woods proper it is rather insignificant after the foliage of the trees is fully 
developed. In the spring, however, it is very luxuriant and, especially where the soil 
is rich and deep, there is a magnificient display of beautifully coloured and showy 
flowers, for instance trillium, bellwort, dog s-tooth violet, showy orchis, jack-in-the- 
pulpit, spring beauty, vioiets (blue, yellow and white forms), hepatica, dutchman s 
breeches, squirrel corn, bloodroot, pepper-root, barren strawberry, flowering winter- 
green, blue phlox, etc. Others, less conspicuous but characteristic of the hard 
wood forest s spring flora, are species of sedges, wild ginger, blue cohosh, mitre- 
wort, star flower, showy lady s slipper, etc. Characteristic of the bogs of the zone 
are, among others, various species of orchids and the pitcher-plant. The autumn 
flowers are chiefly members of the composite family, with asters, golden rods, and 
joe-pye in greatest profusion. 

Very characteristic of the hardwood forest zone is the autumnal colouring of 
the leaves of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants which lasts a comparatively long 
time, from about the first week of September to the second week in October, depend 
ent on the dryness of the season. During that period a splendid display of colours 
is exhibited, especially in open, mixed woods where the underbrush is well developed. 
Shades of yellow, golden bronze, red and scarlet are mixed in a gorgeous symphony 
of colours, generally marvellously modulated by the sombre, deep, dark or bluish 
green of the conifers which are dotted among the deciduous trees. No such wealth 
of autumnal colour is met with in any of the other zones. 

The Carolinian Zone. This zone is confined to a small tract of land in 
southern Ontario, bounded to the south by lake Erie and to the north by a line 
running approximately from the northern shore of lake Ontario to Windsor. In 
general physiognomy it is rather similar to the hardwood forest flora just described, 
but differs greatly in its characteristic speeies which are decidedly southern. It 
exhibits a large number of plants, woody as well as herbaceous, which occur no 
where else in Canada. 

The most characteristic trees are the hickories (six species), the oaks (ten 
species), black walnut, chestnut, and sycamore. Less abundant and more local 
in their distribution are the cucumber tree, the tulip tree, the flowering dogwood, 
which all have beautiful and very conspicuous flowers, the papaw, the red mul 
berry, the American crabapple, the sour gum, the sassafrass, and others. 

The herbaceous vegetation is very rich and at least a hundred species which 
occur nowhere else in Canada are found in the zone. A few of the most conspic 
uous ones may be mentioned, viz.: yellow nelumbo or lotus flower, may apple, 
wild lupine, tick trefoil, flowering spurge, swamp rose mallow, wild pansy, prickly 
pear, poke milkweed, wild potato vine, downy phlox, water-leaf, bee balm, fox 
glove, tall bell flower, great lobelia, ironweed, dense button snakeroot, prairie dock, 
cup plant, sunflowers, tall coreopsis, Indian plantain and showy lady s slipper. 

Golden seal and ginseng were at one time abundant but are now practically 
extinct. Indeed a similar fate is also threatening many of the other species charac 
teristic of the zone, on account of the clearing of the land for agricultural purposes. 

The Prairie. Under the general term prairie is understood the vast grass- 
covered area of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. It is 
bounded to the east and north by the sub-arctic forest and to the west by the foot 
hills of the Rocky mountains. 



THE FLORA OF CANADA. 29 

The prairie, which begins a few miles east of Winnipeg, has been subdivided 
into three zones, known as the first, second and third " prairie steppes." These 
steppes are rather indefinite, botanically speaking, and they have one thing in common 
as far as the vegetation is concerned. The luxuriance and general appearance of 
their flora are to a conspicuous degree dependent on the rain and snowfall. In the 
case of the spring vegetation, the rainfall during the previous year and the snow 
fall during the preceding winter are dominant factors, so much so that, in the event 
of lack of sufficient precipitation, the spring flora may in certain years be either 
very poorly represented or even almost entirely absent. The summer and fall 
vegetation are to an equal extent dependent on the present season s precipitation 
and thus it may happen that a district which one year displays a luxuriant growth, 
rich in species and individuals, may in a following year appear almost barren of 
flowering plants. Lack of precipitation is also largely responsible for the fact that 
in some seasons the grass vegetation, so characteristic of the prairie, may remain 
practically at a standstill without heads or seeds being formed. 

First Prairie Steppe. This area includes " the low plain of Manitoba, bounded 
by a line of elevated country^ which commences at the international boundary at 
a point some distance west of Emerson, and extends northwestwardly under the 
names of Pembina, Riding, Duck, Porcupine and Pas mountains." 

The southeastern part of the area so defined differs from the true prairie in 
that it is characterized by many woodland plants which have their home east of 
the Great Lakes but which occur rarely, if at all, between lake Huron and the Mani 
toba border. Among these plants may be mentioned nettle tree, basswood, wild 
plum, hawthorn, Virginia creeper, moonseed, bloodroot, columbine, hog peanut, 
tick trefoil, prickly cucumber, species of gentian, lousewort, Indian paint-brush, 
ox-eye and cone-flower. The flora of this region is distinct from those of the areas 
farther to the northwest. 

The prairie proper of the first prairie steppe is confined chiefly to what is known 
as the Red River valley, i.e., the low, flat plains south and west of Winnipeg. In 
this region trees are met with only in narrow fringes along the rivers, oak, elm, 
poplar, and Manitoba maple being the most abundant. Away from the borders 
of streams the prairie is treeless. It is covered with an abundance of herbaceous 
plants, the most widely represented families being the composite family (asters, 
golden rods, etc.), the rose family, the pea family, the grass family, and the sedge 
family, but the species representing them can hardly be said to be characteristic 
of the zone, as practically all of them are found in suitable localities farther west. 

Second Prairie Steppe. This central region extends westward from the first 
prairie steppe to a line running approximately from the international boundary 
at longitude 103 30 in a northwesterly direction to Battleford. 

The flora is rather diversified and several very different plant associations are 
met with. In the north, where the prairie and the sub-arctic forest meet, the flora 
is composed of species characteristic of both zones, as is also the flora of the north 
ern parts of the third prairie steppe. In the southwestern part of the second prairie 
steppe, i.e., the country southwest of the Moose mountain, in Saskatchewan, the 
vegetation is in many respects similar to that of the drier sections of the third prairie 
steppe. The grass is very short and the vegetation in general of a type adapted 
to regions with a scant precipitation. In places, large sandy tracts exist which 
are covered with a profusion of cactus, and in others there is no vegetation except 
that peculiar to arid land. Considerable broken or park-like country is found 
near the hills forming the boundary between the first and second prairie steppes, 



30 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

and is also met with in the Qu Appelle River valley and in other parts of the zone. 
Poplar and oak are the chief trees of the bluffs and the herbaceous vegetation, as 
may be expected, is made up of a mixture of prairie and woodland forms. 

The major part of the second prairie steppe is true prairie, with no trees except 
in the river valleys. Shrubs occur, generally in low thickets or copses, and very 
frequently in small clumps composed of a single species. On the exposed prairie, 
where their growth always is stunted, snowberry, silver berry, buffalo berry, sask 
atoon, roses, and other species occur. In damp situations meadow sweet is met 
with, and in wet places, such as the borders of ponds and marshes, willows are 
abundant. The herbaceous vegetation varies somewhat with soil conditions but, 
taking the second prairie steppe as a whole, the numerous members of the pea 
family are perhaps the most characteristic flowering plants. 

Third Prairie Steppe. This region includes the rest of the prairie up to the 
foothills of the Rocky mountains. In its northern parts, i.e., north of lat. 52, the 
flora is very similar to that of the second prairie steppe, but in the southern parts it 
is very different. 

Except on Wood mountain and Cypress hills trees occur only along the borders 
of streams in the valleys, and the ponds, marshes, and lakes are not even fringed 
with shrubs. The rivers and creeks flow in deep, narrow valleys and the country 
is broken by coulees and low hills. The precipitation is scant and, as a result, the 
vegetation is often almost desert-like in character. 

Large districts, especially in the Coteau de Missouri belt, are characterized 
by the absence of drainage valleys, the result being that the water in the lakes and 
ponds is generally saline and that numerous alkali flats occur. The vegetation in 
such situations is sparse and largely made up of plants especially fitted for soils 
rich in salt. Indeed, in these inland ponds and marshes, a number of plants thrive 
which normally occur in profusion on the shores of the Atlantic ocean. 

The Rocky Mountains. A great mimber of prairie species are found at 
considerable altitudes in the foothills of the Rocky mountains. On the other hand, 
a number of sub-alpine forms descend practically to the prairie, the resuh being that in 
the foothills, where the two types of vegetation intermingle, the flora is very rich in 
species. As the foothills and the lower slopes are ascended, prairie forms gradually 
disappear and are replaced by mountain species. Vegetation in general becomes 
more luxuriant in appearance, herbaceous plants grow taller, shrubs become an 
important feature in the flora, and finally real forests are reached. 

In the well developed forests on the slopes the trees are largely coniferous, the 
principal ones being lodge-pole pine, whitebark pine, white spruce, balsam fir and 
highest up, larch. Shrubs are few in number, except in open and springy places, 
where bewildering thickets of many species of willows are found. The herbaceous 
vegetation is also rather scant, except along the edges, in open spaces, and along 
brooks and rivulets. In the dense forest, members of the blueberry and winter- 
green families are conspicuous. 

On the grassy slopes above the tree line the herbaceous vegetation again becomes 
very rich hi species, exhibiting the richness and brilliancy of colour in the flowers 
so characteristic of alpine vegetation hi general, until, just below the snow line, 
it takes on an appearance suggestive of arctic vegetation. In fact, many species 
occur on the higher levels in the Rockies which also have their homes in the arctic 
regions, a fact which may be satisfactorily explained, in the words of Darwin, as a 
result of conditions caused by the glacial period, as follows: " As the warmth 
returned (after the glaciation had reached its height) the arctic forms would retreat 



THE FLORA OF CANADA. 31 

northward, closely followed up in their retreat by the productions of the more 
temperate regions. And as the snow melted from the bases of mountains, the 
arctic forms would seize on the cleared and thawed ground, always ascending higher 
and higher, as the warmth increased, whilst their brethren were pursuing their 
northern journey. Hence, when the warmth had fully returned, the same arctic 

species, which had lately lived in a body together in the lowlands would 

be left isolated on distant mountain summits (having been exterminated on all 

lesser heights) and in the arctic regions 

The Selkirk Mountains. While the Rockies may be looked upon as a 
chain of individual mountains, the Selkirk range has more the character of a high- 
level plateau. As a result there are real alpine meadows in the Selkirks whereas, 
in the Rockies, similar plant formations are generally met with on steep slopes. 
Differences in the vegetation of the Rockies and the Selkirks above the tree line 
are -conspicuous and are due largely to the amount of precipitation, the Selkirks 
being favoured with a much more abundant moisture supply. For this reason 
the alpine meadow plant associations of the Selkirks extend almost to the snow 
line and, for the same reason, a number of high-alpine plants, which in the Rockies 
are characteristic of the bare peaks above the grassy slopes, are not met with at 
all in the Selkirks. 

The Selkirk forest differs from that of the Rocky mountains with regard to 
composition, as far as the trees are concerned, the principal species being cedar, 
Douglas fir, hemlock, and Engelmann s spruce. The undergrowth on the mount 
ains proper is quite similar to that of the Rocky mountain forest and, although more 
luxuriant, is not represented by many species. In the lower valleys, however, 
and on lower levels where the forest is more open in character, the shrubby as well 
as the herbaceous undergrowth is very different. Not only is it luxuriantly develop 
ed, but the species of which it is composed are of a different type. The Rocky mount 
ain flora is disappearing, its place being taken to such an extent by Pacific coast 
species that the casual observer will find it rather difficult to detect any conspic 
uous difference between the flora of the Selkirk valleys and that of the coniferous 
forest of the Pacific coast. 

The Coast Mountains. Although having a large number of plant species 
in common with the Selkirks, the Coast range must be considered a distinct botanic 
al zone, as many species occur there which are peculiar to this region alone. 

Owing to the long growing season, the high average temperature and the 
abundance of the precipitation, the vegetation in the valleys and lowlands of the 
Coast range is almost sub-tropical in appearance. The trees, especially the cedar, 
the Douglas fir, and the spruce, reach gigantic dimensions, and the forest possesses 
a luxuriant undergrowth. In old, untouched forests, fallen trunks, shrubs, and 
herbs form an almost impenetrable tangle, especially where salal and devil s club 
are luxuriantly developed. 

Trees characteristic of the valleys and the lowlands are the cedar, Douglas 
fir, Sitka spruce, hemlock, white fir, red alder, crabapple, broad-leaved maple, and 
cascara, while the characteristic shrubs include several species of willow, Oregon 
grape, species of currants and gooseberries, thimbleberry, salmonberry, roses, june- 
berry or saskatoon, devil s club, salal, blueberries, and red-fruited elder. 

The herbaceous vegetation is very rich. Many species of beautiful ferns are 
abundant, and the grass vegetation, especially along the coast, is luxuriantly 
developed. Of other herbaceous plants may be mentioned skunk cabbage, tril- 



32 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 

Hum, wild lily-of-t he-valley, yellow pond lily, fringe-cup, false mitrewort, alum 
root, bleeding heart, goat s beard, twinflower and aster. 

The major part of Vancouver island has a typical Coast Range flora. The 
southeastern section, however, has a vegetation of a quite different type. There, 
the growth is influenced by the comparatively scant precipitation, with little rain 
between spring and fall. As a result the spring vegetation is much more conspic 
uous than the summer and fall vegetation, especially on open and rocky land. 
In addition, the section is characterized by a number of species which are more or 
less of a Californian type and which occur nowhere else in Canada. Among tho 
characteristic plants of this section of the island may be mentioned several species 
of brome grasses, camas, wild hyacinth, blue-eyed grass, spring-beauty, lupins, 
bird-foot clover, tall vetch, marsh hollyhock, godetia, arbutus or madrona, gilia, 
grove-lover, paint-brush, etc. 

Dry Belts of British Columbia. A few words may finally be said about 
the most important dry belts of British Columbia, including the Okanagan and the 
Kamloops districts. These regions, owing to the scant precipitation and to the 
nature of the soil, have a flora which strangely contrasts with that of the other 
parts of the British Columbia mainland. 

In the dry belts two floristic subdivisions may be recognized, which, however, 
run more or less into each other and for this reason will not be dealt with separately. 
One subdivision is characterized by so-called bunch grasses, of which " wild rye " 
is the most conspicuous species, and is more or less destitute of forest -forming trees. 
The other floristic subdivision of the dry belts is more densely wooded, the character 
istic tree of the forest being the yellow pine. On the whole, the dry belts may be 
said to be park-like in general character, with a rather desert-like ground vegetation. 



V. FAUNAS OF CANADA. 1 

Historical. Whether the fauna of the western hemisphere was derived from 
that of the eastern, or vice versa, as is contended by various authorities, there is 
a close relationship between them. Geological evidence shows that in previous 
ages types now found in but one of the great continental circumpolar divisions 
were common to both. Old and now submerged land connections between the 
continents have been postulated both from zoological and geological evidence, and 
a more or less complete continuity of land throughout the northern hemisphere, 
in former times, must be acknowledged before present American biotal conditions 
can be thoroughly understood. That this connection was in the far north and in 
what is now arctic or sub-arctic climate did not prohibit a continual interchange 
of warmth-loving species, for the presence of coal in very high latitudes points to 
milder if not tropical or sub-tropical conditions where now we find perpetual snow 
and ice. One must, therefore, conceive of a pre-glacial time when tree-ferns- and 
other luxuriant coal-producing forest types occupied extreme northern lands, and 
such animals as elephants, horses and other warmth-loving species could spread 
from one continent to the other. 

This intercontinental connection must have been made and broken numbers 
of times by the recurrence of glacial periods which covered this country with ice 

Abridged from an article contributed to the 1921 Year Book by P. A. Taverner, Department of Mines, 
Ottawa. 



FAUNAS OF CANADA 33 



to well south of the present Great Lakes and must at tunes have formed barriers 
more complete even than to-day to the passage of life across the far north. During 
these periods of alternate isolation and connection there was ample tune and oppor 
tunity for wide divergence in development in the faunas of the separated land 
masses, the extinction of connecting links and the occurrence of many complexities 
to confuse the clear picture of the historical succession, until to-day we find a nearly 
identical circumpolar fauna at the north progressively breaking up and differen 
tiating into peculiar and special New and Old World forms as it proceeds south. 

The general trend of geographical distribution in Canada is from southeast 
to northwest. Ocean currents have much to do with this. Our east coast is chilled 
by the cold arctic current coming directly down from the polar ice fields through 
Davis strait, and the west coast is warmed by the grateful temperature of the great 
final sweep qf the Japan current. When we realize that the barren Labrador 
coast is in almost the same latitude as southern British Columbia and is slightly 
south of the most southerly point of the British Isles, we can see what a funda 
mental influence these ocean currents have on the distribution of life upon our 
continent. Elevation also has a determining influence on climate and the distri 
bution of animal life. It is well known that high mountains even in the tropics 
present arctic conditions at their peaks. Less elevation has similar effect in pro 
portion to its height and often a rise of a few hundred feet will produce conditions 
that otherwise would only occur at considerable distance to the north. Not only 
do mountain ranges thus project long tongues of northern faunas into southern 
localities, but on the retreat of the ice at the end of glacial epochs they formed 
oases for the retreating cold-loving forms as they withdrew from the gradually 
warming lowlands. We thus have true arctic " relicts "of an ancient order isolated 
on mountain tops far from their natural habitats, boreal islands in a sea of more 
southern life. 

Zonal Distribution. The general outline of zonal life distribution is well 
known, as is the fact that tropical life differs from temperate and from arctic. Close 
study, however, shows that besides these broad and obvious associations minor 
ones also exist. Various attempts have been made to map them out, and perhaps 
the most successful and generally accepted one for our purposes is that which divides 
North America into three regions, Boreal, Austral and Tropical, with the first two 
each divided into three life zones: the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian zones for 
the Boreal region and the Transition and Upper and Lower Austral zones for the 
Austral region. In Canada we have five of these zones represented from the north 
the Arctic, Hudsonian, Canadian, Transition and Upper Austral. These extend 
across the continent, roughly agreeing with latitude, but thrown out of regularity, 
as previously indicated, by local conditions and agreeing closely with the mid 
summer isotherms. 

The Arctic zone is the so-called " barren land " of the far north, and includes 
all the islands and the north shore of the continent. The distinctive land mammals 
of this zone are the polar bear, musk ox, barren land caribou, arctic fox, arctic hare 
and lemming. Amongst the characteristic birds are snow buntings, ptarmigan, 
longspurs, snowy owl and gyrfalcons. This region is the great nesting ground 
for many of our waders and more northern ducks and geese, but few are residents 
as most forms migrate in winter. 

The Hudsonian zone is the land of scrub forests, small stunted trees, mostly 
coniferous, and scattered dwarf willows and poplars. The southern boundary of 
this zone extends from the north shore of the gulf of St. Lawrence to near the mouth 

623733 



34 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 

of James bay, thence in a wavy curve to Great Slave lake where it drops south 
suddenly to a latitude about on line with the lower point of the Alaska Pan-handle, 
and thence to near the coast. It thus includes the southern Ungava peninsula, 
a narrow belt extending northwest from James bay, the Yukon, northern British 
Columbia and southern Alaska. It is penetrated from the north by the Arctic 
zone which persists on the mountains of the Yukon and from the south by the 
Canadian zone which follows up the valleys of the Mackenzie and Peace rivers. 
It is shut off from the sea on the Pacific side by the Alaska Pan-handle which has 
an intrusive Canadian fauna. On the other hand, it works down the Rocky mount 
ains in a narrow band and scattered isolated spots across the United States bound 
ary. This zone can be considered more as a transition between the Canadian and 
Arctic zones than a primary division itself. It contains species whose centres of 
abundance are on either hand and a few peculiar to it. Musk oxen, caribou and 
ptarmigan range into it in whiter from the north, and it forms the extreme northern 
distribution of woodland caribou and moose. Its most characteristic birds are 
the rough-legged hawk, great-grey owl, northern shrike, pine grosbeak, white-winged 
cross-bill and fox sparrow. 

The Canadian zone occupies the greater area of Canada and can be roughly 
denned as the coniferous forest belt. It includes practically all the remainder of 
the Dominion except the inner shores of the Nova Scotia peninsula, southern 
Ontario and Quebec in a narrow strip from about Montreal to just below Georgian 
bay on lake Huron, the prairies, a small irregular fringe along the Pacific coast 
opposite Vancouver island and a few mountain valleys penetrating the southern 
boundary of British Columbia. It penetrates the Hudsonian zone on the north 
along the valleys of the Mackenzie and Peace rivers and runs up most of the Alaska 
Pan-handle. The characteristic life is more numerous than in the preceding zones 
and includes the moose, woodland caribou, lynx, marten, porcupine, varying hare, 
white-throated sparrow, numerous warblers, olive-backed thrush, three-toed wood 
peckers, pileated woodpecker, spruce gro"use and Canada jay. 

The Transition zone lies just along the southern border, including most of 
both shores of the bay of Fundy, a narrow belt following the north shores of lakes 
Ontario and Erie, all of the western prairies and intrusive valleys into the south 
of British Columbia and the shores of the strait of Georgia. The name Transition 
well describes its fauna. It contains comparatively few distinctive species, but in 
it many northern and southern forms meet. Its southern limit lies in the United 
States below, striking almost squarely across the continent on a line with the lower 
points of the Great Lakes, with excursions southward along the mountain ranges 
east and west and penetrated by extensions of the Upper Austral fauna along warm 
lowland valleys in the west. It forms the northern limit of range of the cotton 
tail and jack-rabbits and the American elk, and is just touched upon by the varying 
hare from the north; the common mole of the south meets the star-nosed and 
Brewer s mole of the north and the wild cat partially replaces the Canada lynx. 
Amongst birds, the wild turkey, bob-white, two cuckoos, towhee, wood thrush and 
yellow-throated vireo are here at the northern limit of their ranges, and the Balti 
more oriole, bluebird, catbird and bobolink overlap the solitary vireo and \Vilson s 
thrush. 

The Upper Austral zone in Canada is small in area, crossing our borders in a 
narrow shore belt along lake Erie, extending to the south side of lake Ontario and 
including the Niagara peninsula. It extends south as far as the northern borders 



FAUNAS OF CANADA 35 



of the Gulf States, variously dotted and cut into by intrusive branches of the neigh 
bouring faunas from either side, especially in the broken country of the west. 

The opossum is perhaps the most distinctive of the mammals of the zone and 
among birds we have the yellow-breasted chat, mockingbird, Carolina wren, Carolina 
chickadee, orchard oriole, barn owl, a number of distinctive southern warblers and 
some southern subspecific forms allied to more northern variations. 

These make the latitudinal or thermal divisions of our faunal life. Outside 
of the species mentioned are numerous forms that extend over the whole area, but 
show in different zones variations recognizable only to the expert. A good example 
is the hairy woodpecker. This bird breeds over all the wooded parts of North 
America, but the birds from the Lower Austral zone are quite separable by the 
trained eye from those of the Upper Austral and Transition and these from the 
large northern form of the Hudsonian. This is but one case of many where a 
northern and a southern race exist in the same species which are designated as 
subspecies. Some of these geographical races are so slightly differentiated as to 
require an expert to separate them while others are marked and striking. The 
critical difference between a full species and a subspecies is the fact that the latter 
intergrade and biend into each other gradually. With species the break between 
is sudden, and intermediates do not occur. 

Further Divisions. With this zonal distribution and a variation of life 
groups depending basically upon temperature, we have another system of distribu 
tion from east to west, depending largely upon physical conditions of habitat 
the arrangement of land and water or mountain ranges forming barriers or highways 
of migration and leading certain forms in certain directions while barring them 
from others and the comparative rainfall and humidity of climate. This has a 
primary direct influence upon such forms of life, as well as a secondary and indirect 
one through the plants and insects which give them food or shelter. 

The principal east and west division is made by the Rocky mountains, which 
successfully cut off the Pacific coast from close contact with eastern forms. The 
Rocky mountain system approximates the dividing line of the east and west faunas, 
leaving a triangular patch to the west including British Columbia, southern Yukon 
and southern Alaska as the we-tern or mountain fauna, and cutting through the 
Transition, Canadian and Hudsonian transcontinental zones. 

The mountain district is characterized by an abundant rainfall, a high average 
humidity and a greatly diversified and rugged topography, forming a succession 
of parallel mountain ranges and valleys which facilitate intercommunication in a 
north and south direction, while obstructing it from east to west. These topo 
graphical conditions continue to the south well into Mexico and enforce migration 
routes and conditions and associations more or less isolated. The marked humidity 
of the climate, especially near the coast, also causes or encourages special physiolog 
ical changes in numerous organisms tending as a rule to produce larger size and 
richer colouration. These differences in physical conditions and the isolation 
formed by the barrier mountains have produced a great number of forms peculiar 
to the district. In fact, comparatively few species, either of birds or animals, 
extend across the mountains from the east unmodified, and the native population 
can be divided into three heads: subspecific variations of eastern forms, species 
confined to the area and forms of evident mountain origin b ut spreading from 
them a certain distance eastward. 

Typical amongst the first may be mentioned the moose and woodland caribou, 
the Oregon subspecies of the ruffed grouse, Harris Rocky-mountain and Gairdner s 
6237331 



36 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 

woodpeckers, northwest flicker, dusky and streaked horned larks, many forms of 
the warblers and sparrows and others. Of full species confined to this fauna are: 
Douglas squirrel, black-tailed deer, pika, yellow-bellied marmot, bushy-tailed wood 
rat, little striped skunk or spilogale, blue and Franklin s grouse, band-tailed pigeon, 
red-breasted and Williamson s sapsucker, Steller s jay, black and Vaux swift, black- 
chinned and rufous hummingbirds, Clark s nutcracker, northwestern crow, dipper, 
chesnut-backed chickadee, varied thrush and others. Forms typical of the mount 
ains but spreading a little way east are: hoary marmot, mule deer, grizzly bear, 
red-naped sapsucker, Lewis s woodpecker, red-shafted flicker, Hammond s and 
Wright s flycatcher, black headed grosbeak and many more. 

The Eastern fauna is comparatively homogeneous across the continent in a 
diagonal direction from Nova Scotia to Alaska, with but slight variation in physical 
aspect, except in the prairie region of the central west. In general the country is 
of low, even topography with good rainfall and is covered with a uniform forest 
of but little variety except that due to latitude and zonal distribution. 

In the west it is penetrated by a great semicircular expansion of the Transition 
zone, extending from the eastern Manitoban line along the international boundary 
to the mountains and north to Edmonton and Prince Albert, and characterized by 
great dryness, near-desert conditions and an almost entire absence of trees. 

The general tendency of this prairie fauna is towards small size and pale, 
bleached colouration. Species characteristic of it are the prong-horn antelope, 
bison, coyote, gopher, prairie chicken, sage hen, burrowing owl, Leconte s sparrow, 
and lark bunting, whose open country requirements debar them from wooded land. 
The remainder of its fauna is similar to that of the eastern country but generally 
subspecifically differentiated from it through the dryer climate and desert-like 
conditions. Some species included in this division are western horned owl, Say s 
phoebe, desert horned lark, pale goldfinch, western clay-coloured sparrow, Dakota 
song sparrow, prairie marsh wren, etc. 

True Eastern fauna, through generally similar from the far northwest to the 
Atlantic coast, does show a slight tendency to variation north of these plains, but 
the influence is slight and in broad treatment may be disregarded. Many species 
extend unmodified throughout the area, or when modification occurs it can usually 
be attributed to either thermal differences or the influence of the closely allied 
neighbouring prairie forms with which it comes in contact in migration. In general 
most of the subspecific forms mentioned as prairie or western are represented by 
type subspecies in this great eastern fauna, which is perhaps the most typical of 
Canada and gives distinctive character to our biotal resources. 



VI. THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF CANADA. 

The economic life of new countries must at first depend entirely, and later, 
mainly upon their natural resources. Older countries, after exhausting their most 
easily obtained resources, turn for a livelihood to manufacturing and similar pur 
suits, conserving their own resources and utilizing those of less developed areas. 
Canada is distinctly a new country, the resources of which are but now commencing 
to be appreciated; in recent years numerous surveys and investigations as to their 
extent and value have been made. A short summary of important details regarding 



THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF CANADA 37 



them follows. Fuller information will be found in the introductions to the later 
sections Agriculture, Furs, Fisheries. Forestry. Minerals. Water Powers of this, 
volum.e. 

Agricultural Lands. Of the total land area of the nine provinces (1,401,- 
316,413 acres) it is estimated that approximately 440,951,000 acres are available 
for use in agricultural production. The area now under cultivation is but a fraction 
of this total, that under field crops in 1921 being 59,635.346 acres. The area under 
pasture in the same year in all the provinces except Manitoba and Alberta was 
9.977,204 acres. These figures are exclusive of the Yukon and the Northwest 
Territories, where certain of the more hardy crops have been grown and where 
stock raising is possible. Farm lands of almost unlimited extent are to be had in 
all parts of the Dominion, and are among the most productive in the world. In 
1923 Canada was the world s leading exporter of wheat, while in the export of other 
grains she also occupied a prominent place. Fruit culture is carried on in the 
Maritime Provinces, in southern Ontario and in British Columbia, under favour 
able conditions of soil and climate. Stock raising is a flourishing pursuit on the 
prairies, while mixed and dairy farming proves profitable throughout the whole 
country. 

Furs. Canada is one of the world s greatest fur producers. As early as 1676, 
Canadian furs sold in England were valued at 19,500. Since that time vast areas of 
our northern territory have been exploited by hunter and trapper, the vast expanses 
of northern Quebec and Ontario and the Northwest Territories furnishing sub 
sistence for many of the most highly prized fur-bearing animals, among the most 
important of which are the beaver, fisher, various varieties of foxes, marten, otter 
and many others of less commercial value. The successful breeding of the fox on 
fur farms came in the period of rising prices after 1890. Other animals also have 
been domesticated, though less successfully than the fox raccoon, mink, marten, 
otter, skunk, muskrat and beaver. During the year 1921-22 the value of pelts 
purchased by traders from trappers in Canada amounted to $17,438,867. Pelts 
sold from fur farms in the calendar year 1921 were valued at $626 ; 900, and animals 
sold at $690,566. 

Forests. Among the most notable of all Canadian natural resources are those 
of the forests. From the days when early French settlers established ship-building 
yards alcng the St. Lawrence up to the pre?ent, when our forests supply millions of 
tons of pulp, paper, and other wood products yearly, these resources have been 
of immense value, not only to Canada but to the Empire. Canada s forest areas 
may be stated as follows: (1) the great fir forest of the Rocky mountains and 
Pacific coast, (2) the northern coniferous forest stretching in a wide curve from the 
Yukon, north of the Great Lakes to Labrador, and (3) the deciduous hardwood 
forest, extending from lake Huron through southern Ontario and Quebec to New 
Brunswick and the Atlantic coast. Estimates have placed the extent of timber 
lands in the Dominion at 932,416 square miles, of which 390,625 are covered with 
saw timber of commercial size, and the remainder with pulpwood. Next to Russia 
and the United States our resources are the most important in the world, in quality 
as well as in extent. The strength and durability of many of the woods of British 
Columbia place them amongst the most valuable in commercial use, while pulp 
woods from limits in eastern Canada are of equally high grade. Statistics of the 
total value of forest production in 1920 place it at $315,902,193. The value of pulp 
and paper products alone in 1922 was $155,785,388 ($236,420,176 in 1920). 



38 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 

Fisheries. The first of Canada s resources to be exploited by Europeans was 
the fishing bgnks of the Atlantic coast. It is believed that for many years before 
the actual discovery and settlement of North America the cod-banks south of 
Newfoundland and east of Nova Scotia had attracted French fishermen by their 
abundant catches. These fishing grounds alone extend along a coast line of more 
than 5,000 miles, comprising an area of not less than 200,000 square miles, where 
many of the world s most valuable food fishes are caught. Other fishing grounds 
include the inshore expanses of the St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes and innumerable 
other inland water areas, Hudson bay with a shore line of 6,000 miles and the Pacific 
coast, with its inland salmon fisheries and over 7,000 miles of well-protected shore. 
The value of Canadian fish products in 1918 (the record year) reached $60,250,544. 

Minerals. The numerous and varied mineral deposits of the Dominion form 
another of her most important resources. Their value was first appreciated early 
in the 17th century, when iron was mined in Cape Breton. Following a develop 
ment which has only become an important one during recent years, when the needs 
of manufacturing industries and a more settled civilization were to be met, Canada 
has now become one of the important mining countries of the world. Her coal 
resources are only now being exploited to any considerable extent, the estimated 
total reserves available amounting to 1,234,269,310,000 metric tons, approximately 
one-sixth s of the world reserve; over 85 per cent of the Canadian reserves are in 
Alberta. The total estimated reserves constitute almost one quarter of the total 
amount of coal available in North and South America. Extensive oil fields exist 
in the western provinces, where they remain practically undeveloped. Some smaller 
fields in Ontario have been exploited, while oil shale occurs in several parts of eastern 
Canada. In the production of natural gas, Canada holds second place among the 
countries of the world. Nickel deposits at Sudbury. Ontario, are as large as all 
others in the world combined, and produce six-sevenths of the world total. Copper 
deposits in the same area and in Manitoba, while not of great extent, still assure the 
maintenance and possible increase of the present rate of production. Arsenic in 
large quantities is a by-product obtained in the smelting of Ontario silver ores of 
the Cobalt and Porcupine districts, where the latter are found in large quantities. 
Gold, of which Canada was in 1921 the world s thiid largest producer, is also found 
in the same region, in British Columbia and in the Yukon. Canada is the second 
largest producer of iragnesite and the third largest producer of mica in the world. 
Large iron deposits, although of a low grade, are found in the district north of Lake 
Superior. The asbestos deposits of southern Quebec are unrivalled in the produc 
tion of this mineral. The total value of mineral production in Canada during 1922 
was $184,297,242. 

Water Powers. Canada s water area of 126.329 square miles, distributed 
as it is throughout all parts of the country, provides a large amourt of potential 
electric energy. It is estimated that 18.255.316 horse power are available at a 
minimum yearly flow, 32.075,998 at maximum flow and that a turbine installation 
of 41,700,000 horse power is available. Present turbine installation is set at 
2,973,759 horse power or only 7 p.c. of the possible amount. 



CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 39 

VII. CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY. 
1. The Factors which Control Canadian Weather. 1 

Several prime factors play important roles in establishing climatic types, 
latitude, distance from the sea (especially on the western side of the continents), 
altitude, and prevailing winds, the last named being a variable, accounting for 
differences in the character of corresponding seasons in different years. 

Canada, with her huge area, has a wide range of climatic types, varying between 
temperate and arctic, and between marine and semi-arid. No country, however, 
has a climate altogether independent of the rest of the world; the atmosphere knows 
no political boundaries, but moves in accordance with physical laws. 

Prevailing Winds due to Inequality of Atmospheric Pressure. Meteoro 
logical research has shown that the earth s atmosphere is not spread uniformly 
over its surface, and that certain regions exist where the atmospheric pressure is 
either higher or lower than the general average the year round, and other regions 
where it changes with the seasons, The winds are the outcome of the tendency 
to establish an equilibrium, which, however, is never attained. This general 
circulation of the atmosphere is withal a mechanism of marvellous beauty and 
intricacy, which, owing to causes yet imperfectly understood, is subject to many 
variations. 

The most persistent and relatively unvarying feature of atmospheric distri 
bution is a belt of high pressure between latitudes 30 and 40 in the southern 
hemisphere. Its partial counterpart exists in the northern hemisphere, but is 
there subject to greater changes, which without doubt, result from the larger land 
areas in the north. Between these two belts of high pressure is a belt of relatively 
low pressure over the equatorial regions. To this distribution, with certain other 
factors, is due the system of trade winds, the northeast and southeast trades. Towards 
higher latitudes beyond 40 in both hemispheres, there is a tendency towards a 
gradual diminution of pressure, and westerly winds prevail in the middle and even 
higher latitudes. 

Unequal Heating of Land and Water. The physical properties of land 
and water, as regards temperature, play an important role. The earth receives 
almost all its heat from the sun, and the character of the surface on which it falls 
plays a very important r6le in determining climatic differences. Water has a 
large capacity for heat and, being a fluid, is mixed by the winds and kept fairly 
uniform in temperature to considerable depths. Thus the sun s heat warms the 
oceans very slowly, and for the same reason the oceans cool very slowly. On the 
other hand, the same solar heat warms a mass of land more rapidly than the same 
mass of water in the ocean, and moreover the sun s heat is all absorbed in the surface 
layers of the land, which thus become very hot ; similarly, when the sun is withdrawn, 
the land surface cools very rapidly. The result of these physical facts is that the 
northern portions of the continents of the northern hemisphere become very cold 
in winter, while the ocearg in corresponding latitudes remain warm, and as cooling 
of the lower strata of the atmosphere, resting over the lands, leads to contraction, 
the pressure becomes higher over the continents than over the seas, and conse 
quently, the tendency is for air to move from land to sea during the winter, while 
in summer, when all the continents become warmer than the oceans, the reverse 
holds. But the winter effect of contracting atmospheric lower strata is in operation 

Contributed by Sir Frederick Stupart, Director of the Meteorological Service of Canada. 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



more or less throughout the year over the ice covered arctic seas, and over Green- 
land with the result that in summer the barometric pressure is a little higher 
in the polar regions tbn in the middle latitudes. 

Cyclones and Anticyclones.-Tbis general average distribution of pressure 

has an important bearing on Canadian weather. Another important factor to be 

considered, is the influence of anticylonic and cyclonic areas. We have mentioned 

to east drift of the air over the middle latitudes, and it is within and more 

frequently towards the northern limit of this drift, that the phenomena of the 

ravelling anticyclone and cyclone are found. The anticyclonic area is a disturbance 

m the general drift of the atmosphere, usually of enormous extent, within which 

e air is moving spirally outwards from the higher to the lower pressure Within 

this region the weather is generally fine and settled. The cyclonic area is also a 

turbance, varying from a few hundred to more than fifteen hundred miles in 

It may be elliptical or circular or very irregular in form, and within 

boundaries the air is moving inwarde from a higher to a lower pressure This 

is the region of unsettled and stormy weather. 

The anticyclones and cyclones, designated as areas of high and low pressure 
more shortly as highs and lows, pass across the North American continent in 
Constant procession from west to east at velocities averaging 20 miles in summer 
) miles in winter. The highs, especially those first appearing in the more 
i regions, have a tendency towards a southeastward course, while the 
majority of the lows have a more directly eastward movement, the mean average 
track being from British Columbia to the Great Lakes and thence to Newfoundland 
is the passage of these high and low areas which brings to us the changing winds 
and weather; warm showery weather being associated with the lows, and fair, 
cool or cold weather, according to the season, with the highs. As example: the 
barometer is high, in say, Ottawa and Toronto, and begins to fall as a low approaches 
. Michigan, the wind sets in from the east or southeast and cloudiness increases, 
and within twelve hours conditions are more or less favouratle for rain. Rain 
falls continuously when warm, moist, expanding and hence cooling air is passing 
slantingly upward over a barrier of relatively cold air, and these conditions are 
frequently found in advance of the low, more especially in the colder seasons and 
occasionally in summer, But in summer it is more of ten -that the rain partakes 
rather of the character of showers, perhaps with thunder, and this occurs when, 
with the heating of the land, upward moving, convectional, and hence rapidly 
cooling currents, become prevalent. It is often thought that if only water vapour 
m the cloud would fall as rain, it would be sufficient for all purposes, but this is 
not so; the actual amount of water in the cloud is not much greater than is often 
obtained in a heavy dew. Before an abundance of rain can be obtained, it is neces 
sary to feed the cloud with a copious supply of water vapour. This supply is 
itained when the centre or trough of lowest pressure approaches the place of 
observation, and the rain usually becomes heavier, and as it passes, the wind shifts 
to the northwest, not infrequently with a squall, and the barometer begins to rise 
i advance of an oncoming. area of high pressure, accompanied by clearing weather. 
Such is an ordinary sequence cf events over the larger portion of Canada. 

Effect of Topography on Climate. The topography of a country, however, 
exercises an important influence on weather conditions, and there are many parts 
of Ontario, to say nothing for the moment of British Columbia, where, owing to 
topographical features, considerable rain or snow may fall with westerly winds, 



MAP OF CANADA SHOWING N 

140 70 IV) HO 







MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION IN JANUARY. 



NORMAL MEAN 

TEMPERATURE 

JA N UARY 

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICr 



NORMAL 

PRECIPITATION 
JANUARY 

Vnknotvn = F 




ISO 



MAP OF CANADA SHOWING NORMAL MEAN 
Vo** _ /SO 1*0 t O too 




To fixe p. 40. 


















; T 



i AND PRECIPITATION iN JULY. 
70 (>o yo so 



NORMAL MEAN 

TEMPERATURE 

JULY 



METEOROUOqiCAL SERVICE 
STATIONS = 



NORMAL 
PRECIPITATION 
FOR JULY 




CANADIAN CLIMATIC FEATURES 41 

when the barometer is rising behind a retreating low area. Immediately to the 
east of lake Huron and Georgian bay the land rises rather abruptly over 1,000 feet; 
westerly winds off the lake are deflected upwards by the increasing height of the 
land, and the air, expanding as it rises, is cooled below the dew point, with resulting 
precipitation. Hence it is that the snowfall in Grey, Bruce and neighbouring 
counties is greater than in the counties to the south and east, where the land falls 
away in elevation. This topographical effect is more general and more pronounced 
in British Columbia, where, in winter, the mean temperature of the sea is warmer 
than the land. The air coming eastward from the Pacific rises up the western 
slopes of the mountain ranges, and the cooling effect of expansion leads to very 
heavy rains on the outer coastline with lighter but still heavy rains on the lower 
mainland. 

Climatic Features of the Canadian Provinces. There are very interesting 
climatic features peculiar to each of the Canadian provinces. Beginning in the 
far west, the most striking feature is the mildness of the climate near the Pacific 
coast, where the controlling influence is the prevailing westerly winds which bring 
the warm moist air from the Pacific. In addition to this, when winds are northerly 
and easterly the air is being drawn from higher to lower levels, and is thus gradually 
warmed as the atmospheric pressure increases towards sea level. It is also due 
to this latter cause that the cold spells near the coast are never severe. Another 
feature is the seasonal character of the rainfalls. During the colder months of 
the j ear it is heavy while in summer it is very light. In the cold months, Pacific 
air, on reaching the continent, is cooled both by passing over a relatively cold land, 
and also a land with rapidly increasing elevation. In summer, on the contrary, 
the sea air is colder than the land, and it is only occasionally, even at high levels, 
that it is cooled below the dew point, hence the deficiency of rain during June, 
July and August. Another factor which plays an important r61e in British Columbia 
is the anticyclone moving southward from the Yukon. It is at such times that the 
severe east and northeast snowstorms occur in the mountains. 

A problem which is receiving much attention is that of the precipitation of 
the western provinces. It has not yet been definitely decided whence comes the 
moisture which falls in summer rains, but from recent investigation it would appear 
that the greater part is from the gulf of Mexico, though a certain proportion comes 
across the mountains south of Canada from the Pacific. The variation from season 
to season is certainly closely connected with the distribution of atmospheric pressure 
over other parts of the continent. It is surmised that a cold spring, following a 
cold winter with an abnormal accumulation of snow and ice in northeastern Canada, 
including Hudson bay, is usually there followed by a rather persistent abnormally 
high barometer, which in turn leads to a prevalence of east and northeast winds 
over the northern portion of the Great Lakes, and thence westward to the Canadian 
prairies, while over the northwestern portions of the continent, the pressure is 
relatively low. The stream lines of the warm lower atmosphere in the Mississippi 
valley will then be from the southeast, converging towards colder east and northeast 
winds, and gradually rising above them. With such conditions, which are strikingly 
like those which have prevailed this past spring, copious rains are likely to occur 
in the western Canadian provinces. When, in other seasons, a series of lows pass 
eastward across the Great Lakes, the reeultant stream lines in western Canada 
will be southwest and west and the rainfall west of the Great Lakes will be light. 

A factor which plays an important role in determining the character of western 
winters is tfce intensity of the anticyclones and the latitude in which they first 



42 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 

appear. The weather chart of the northern hemisphere between longitude 40 E. 
and 180 W.,now prepared daily, includes data hoth from Alaska and from the 
sub-arctic portions of the north Atlantic, and there is a growing conviction that 
tbe pressure distribution in northwestern America in winter depends largely on 
the position and the intensity of the normal area of low pressure over the north 
Pacific, which is the resultant of the persistent development of deep cyclonic areas. 
In some seasons tbeee cyclonic areas enter tbe continent very far north, and 
appear actually to prevent tbe formation of tbe anticyclones, which are so intimately 
associated with great cold waves, and in such seasons, comparatively mild or even 
very mild winters prevail in the western provinces, the general flow of air being 
from the south and west. In other seasons, the Pacific cyclonic areas develop 
farther south, and enter the continent over British Columbia, and then great anti 
cyclones, accompanied by intense cold, develop in tbe Mackenzie River valley 
and Yukon, and sweep southeastward towards tbe Great Lakes and eastern Canada. 
One of the problems then to be solved has relation to the factors governing cyclonic 
development in tbe higher latitudes over the ocean, and one wonders whether 
a varying solar radiation may not cause changes in the barometric distribution 
in the tropics, which will affect the strength of the trade winds and which will in 
turn lead to variations in the great ocean currents, and then, according as the warm 
waters are abnormally far north or far south, the Pacific centre of action will also 
vary. The solution of such a problem may ultimately lead to the possibility of 
forecasting the character of coming winters. 

Canadian territory stretches northward beyond the arctic circle, from lands 
in the western provinces, where cereal crops are an assured success, to the barren 
lands where only mosses and lichen grow. A question of moment then, is how 
far north the lands of agricultural possibilities extend. Certainly, between the two 
limits, there is a wide zone, in the southern portion of which crops will in most 
years mature, and in the northern portion of which they will only very occasionally 
ripen. Throughout all this vast doubtful area k the factor of long summer sunlight 
plays an important r61e, and lengthens the period of growth, but another factor, 
acting adversely, is tbe liability of early and late summer freets, and tbe husbandman 
who sees his crops rapidly maturing is not unlikely to see them destroyed in August 
before ready for harvest. Graphs showing summer temperature curves at various 
stations show bow in August the downward trend of the curve is very rapid at 
tbe more nortberu stations. 

Tbe southern portions of Ontario, enjoy a particularly favourable climate, 
partly owing to tbeir being farther south than other portions of tbe Dominion. 
The most southerly point in Ontario is in the same latitude as Rome and Toronto 
is in the same latitude as Florence. The Great Lakes also exert an important 
influence in tempering tbe cold of winter and moderating the heat of summer, 
and undoubtedly have some influence in equalizing the precipitation, periods of 
drought there being less frequent than in corresponding latitudes to the west. 

The enormous territory included in northern Ontario and Quebec, north of 
a line passing through Quebec city, enjoys a fairly warm summer, and it is only 
as autumn advances that a marked difference of temperature is registered between 
these districts and those farther south. It is not latitude alone which leads to tbe 
shorter growing season and more severe winters in these northern parts, but rather 
the fact that the mean path of cyclonic depression lies in the valley of tbe St. Law 
rence to the south. 



THE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE OF CANADA 43 

In the southern portions of Ontario and Quebec the winds connected with cyclonic 
circulation commonly veer from east through south to west, while in the north 
they back through northeast to northwest and it is only occasionally that the 
warmer air of the south is wafted northwaid. This of course, leads to a steadier 
and more intense cold in winter, and, as this whole northern region has a fairly 
heavy precipitation, the snow lies deep in winter and does not disappear until 
quite late in the spring. It is practically certain that deforestation will nor appre 
ciably affect this northern climate, the causes which lead to existing conditions 
being the result of a world wide atmospheric circulation. 

The weather types peculiar to the Maritime provinces aie likewise largely 
controlled by factors apart from latitude (which is lower than that of Great Britain). 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick lie near the eastern coast line of America, and 
hence are affected at intervals by the cold waves coming from the interior of the 
continent. Then again the mean path of lows is directly over the northern 
part of the gulf of ST. Lawrence, hence conditions associated with cyclonic areas 
are of frequent occurrence. These conditions are accentuated by the fact that 
many storms, especially in winter, develop near the Atlantic coast between the 
Gulf Stream and the cold land, and, moving northeastward, cause gales and bring 
precipitation in the Maritime provinces and Newfoundland. 

2. The Climate of Canada since Confederation. 

Under the above beading Sir Frederick Stupart, Director of the Meteorological 
Service of Canada, contributed a short article, which for reasons of space is not 
reprinted here, to the 1921 edition of the Year Book (pp. 169-173); to it the 
interested reader is referred. 

3. The Meteorological Service of Canada. 1 

In order to secure information regarding the climate of Canada in the 17th 
and 18tb centuries, the "Relations of the Jesuits" have been carefully examined 
and the references to climatic phenomena collated under such headings as "winter", 
"summer", "drought", etc. From these notes it has been possible, in spite of the 
total lack of instrumental records, to arrive at certain conclusions regarding the 
general character of the Canadian climate in these early days. Broadly speaking, 
that climate was then very much the same as it is now. 

Some of the earliest instrumental meteorological records of the Canadian 
climate appear to have been made by Mr. Thomas Hutchins, an officer of the 
Hudson s Bay Company at York Factory and Severn House, in 1773, and it is 
believed that there are several other records by officers of the company in the 
archives of the Royal Society in London. 

Investigation of old provincial records has further shown that, during the 
early part of the 19th century, several individuals in Ontario, Quebec and the 
Maritime provinces kept meteorological records which it would be quite possible 
to bring together and publish; however, owing to their fragmentary character, 
it is unlikely that they would prove of any great value. Perhaps the most inde 
fatigable among observers prior to 1840 was the Rev. Mr. Bade, who has bequeathed 
us a record extending over many years. 



Contributed by Sir Frederick Stupart, Director of the Meteorological Service of Canada. 



44 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 

Establishment of Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory. It was 

not, however, until the British government established a Magnetical and Meteoro 
logical Observatory in Toronto, that meteorological observations were begun on a 
basis which promised continuity and scientific precision. The first observatory 
building was erected under the direction of Lieutenant Riddell, R.A. It was of 
logs, rough cast on the outside and plastered on the inside, and was completed 
during the summer of 1840, magnetical and meteorological observations being 
begun in September of that year. Lieutenant Riddell returned to England in the 
spring of 1841, and Captain, afterwards General, Sir Henry Lefroy, who had estab 
lished an observatory of a similar character in St. Helena, was transferred to Toronto, 
in order that he might undertake a magnetic survey of British North America. 
Captain Lefroy remained as director of the observatory until, in the spring of 1853, 
it ceased to be an Imperial establishment. 

Upon the transfer of the observatory to the Government of Canada, arrange 
ments were made for retaining the military observers, and the institution was 
placed under the direction of Professor Cherriman, professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy in the university of Toronto, who continued in charge 
for two years. During this period a stone observatory was erected on the exact 
site of the old frame building, the pillars on which the magnetic instruments were 
placed being left standing and the walls built around them. Presumably there 
was no change in the position of the meteorological instruments. 

In 1855 Professor G. T. Kingston, M.A. was appointed director of the obser 
vatory. For about ten years he apparently confined his attention almost exclusively 
to magnetic work and the local meteorology, but it is quite obvious from correspond 
ence and the various reports made by him to the Government that for some years 
prior to 1870 he had been considering the possibility of inaugurating a Meteorological 
Service in Canada along much the same lines as those then existing in Great Britain 
and the United States. In 1869 he addressed himself by letter and circular to 
persons actually engaged in meteorology, including the principals of several grammar 
schools, who for several years had acted as observers, and others who were interested 
in this movement, requesting their co-operation. The result was a steady increase 
in the number of observers, who now with unity of purpose and action made syste 
matic and similar observations in different portions of the Dominion. 

From October, 1869, to the spring of 1871, meteorological work in Canada was 
carried on by purely voluntary organization; no emoluments whatever were attached 
to the services of the observers, and the instruments were provided from private 
sources or lent from the Magnetic Observatory, Toronto, which also furnished 
the forms for registration. The work connected with organizing new stations 
and discussing and compiling returns was also gratuitously performed by the director 
and assistants of the observatory. Professor Kingston received much assistance 
from a few persons in the various provinces who recognized the usefulness of the 
proposed work. Among these were the late Archbishop Machray, of Rupert s 
Land, the late F. Allison, M.A., of Halifax, the late H. J. Cundall, C.E., of Prince 
Edward Island, and Captain Ashe, R.N., of Quebec. In more recent years Mr. 
E. Baynes Reed proved a most valuable officer of the service. 

In the spring of 1871, a grant of $5,000 made by the Dominion Government 
for the promotion of meteorological research gave considerable impetus to the 
movement. The preparation of a daily synchronous weather chart was begun in 
1873, but the information received in Toronto was quite inadequate to admit of 
daily forecasts and the issue of storm warnings. However, through the courtesy 



THE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE OF CANADA 45 

and goodwill of the Chief Signal Officer at Washington, warnings of expected storms 
in Canada were sent to Toronto, and thence forwarded to the various districts 
likely to be affected. By 1876 there were 15 stations in Canada reporting three 
times daily to Toronto, and reports from upwards of 50 American stations were 
also received at the observatory. Also the storm signal display stations had by 
this time been increased to 37, and observing stations of all classes numbered 115. 
Forecasts were first issued during the summer of this year, a chart of the weather 
with the probabilities for the ensuing 24 hours being prepared each morning at 10 
o clock and furnished to the Marine Exchange Board in Toronto for public inspection. 
After September 1, warnings were issued from the observatory without waiting 
for advice from Washington, and in October the daily forecasts were first printed 
in the Toronto evening papers. 

The Meteorological Service was now completely established, and during the 
45 years which have since elapsed, its growth has been steady, and its activities 
have greatly increased. At the time of writing (July, 1923) there are 686 observing 
stations, the records of which are published regularly in the "Monthly Record". 
The majority of these stations are necessarily in the more southern portions of 
the Dominion, but there are several stations in the Peace River district, at 
intervals in the Mackenzie River basin, between lake Athabaska and the Arctic 
sea, along the shores of Hudson bay and in the Yukon. 

Publications of the Meteorological Service. The "Monthly Record", 
which began as a two page issue in January 1877, is now a volume of 82 pages, 
including two maps, showing the distribution of precipitation and the temperature 
values and their departure from normal. A thirteenth number is published each 
year, containing the reports of stations received too late for the monthly issue, 
among which are usually those from the far north. From the inception of the 
Service until 1916, an annual Climatological Report was published, but the Monthly 
Records, with the supplement, bound together, now constitute the Annual Climato- 
logical Report of Canada. 

In addition to the Monthly Record there is published within a week a meteoro 
logical map for the month just closed, showing the distribution of rainfall over the 
Dominion, the temperature and departure from normal, and also fairly compre 
hensive notes descriptive of the prevailing weather and the condition of vegetation, 
or in winter of the depth of snow and thickness of ice. 

A Climatology of the Dominion is in progress. Parts I and II, covering British 
Columbia and the western provinces, have been published. Part III, for the 
province of Ontario, will shortly be sent to the printers and the part covering Quebec 
and the Maritime provinces will soon be ready. 

A brochure containing the Meteorological Report of the Toronto Observatory 
has been published annually for over 60 years. 

Weather Forecasting Service. The particular work which brings the 
service most closely into the public eye is weather forecasting. Forecasts are 
issued from the central office, Toronto, for all parts of the Dominion east of the 
Rocky mountains, and from Victoria for British Columbia. 

For the purposes of the weather map, on which forecasts are based, two daily 
reports, 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. Eastern standard time, are telegraphed to the central 
office, in Toronto from 39 stations in Canada, from 5 in Newfoundland and from 
Bermuda. Most of these reports are immediately forwarded to Washington, 
while Toronto receives about 100 similar reports from stations in the United States. 
Each report includes the reading of the barometer reduced to sea level, the tern- 



46 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



perature, the direction and velocity of the wind, and precipitation, if any. All 
these reports having been entered in a map of North America, lines called isobars 
connecting places with the same barometric pressure, are drawn and show graphically 
the distribution of pressure; the areas of high and low pressure are thus clearly 
marked out. Noting the movements of these areas as shown by previous maps, 
the forecasting official, from long experience, and a knowledge of many of the physical 
laws which govern atmospheric phenomena, is able to judge of changes likely to 
occur over subsequent periods of from one to several days. 

Supplementary to this weather chart of America, a chart is also prepared daily 
containing reports from Europe and Alaska, and also from the Azores and several 
sub-arctic stations in the North Atlantic. This chart is very helpful, showing 
as it does how intimately connected are the changes in all parts of the globe. 

The weather forecasts are issued twice daily, namely at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. 
and are usually in both instances for the ensuing 36 hours. At times the forecast 
is more extended, but there is no regular issue covering a longer period. The 
general means of disseminating the forecasts is by telegraph, and arrangements 
exist whereby every telegraph office in Canada should receive them without delay. 

In many parts of the Dominion, a copy of the forenoon forecast is supplied to 
central telephone offices and furnished to rural subscribers and shipping people 
when asked for. The forecasts are also broadcasted from all the government 
wireless stations for the benefit of shipping near the Atlantic coast and on the Great 
Lakes. 

In addition to the regular bi-daily issue of forecasts, special warnings of expected 
gales are telegraphed to agents at over 100 ports, where storm signals are displayed, 
and special notice is telegraphed to the railways when snowstorms and drifts 
are expected. 

The daily weather map is printed each morning in the Toronto and Winnipeg 
offices, and several hundred copies are distributed to commercial companies, insur 
ance companies, railways, and many other business concerns. In addition a large 
number of public schools and high schools receive the map, and as a result, a good 
knowledge of atmospheric changes is not uncommon among teachers, who, it is 
found, take pleasure in explaining the maps to their pupils. 

A very similar weather map is prepared at Victoria Meteorological Office, 
whence forecasts are issued for British Columbia and the sea routes adjacent thereto. 

Meteorological Research. Since research is essential to the life and progress 
of meteorology, a trained physicist and assistants are included in the staff of the 
central office. Meteorological research includes a scientific study of the earth s 
atmosphere and its circulation, and in view of this, increasing attention is devoted 
to exploration by balloons carrying self-recording instruments. Results are 
co-ordinated with those obtained in other countries by the same means. Further, 
as it it is probable that variation in the temperature and the position of the great 
ocean currents are factors intimately connected with prevailing winds and climatic 
control, transoceanic steamships are being equipped with thermometers for con 
tinuously registering the water temperature. The study of solar radiation and 
atmospheric electricity is not neglected. 

A subject which receives very serious attention is that of agricultural meteoro 
logy, which is concerned with the effect of weather changes on the growth, yield 
and quality of crops, more especially as this effect is modified by various methods 
of cultivation. Data for the determination of the epochs of wheat growth are now 
collected .by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics for the use of this Branch, and 



THE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE OF CANADA 47 

special experiments are conducted by the Dominion Experimental Stations. Use 
is also made of the statistics which are published in earlier years, by co-ordinating 
the times of growth with the meteorological observations of these years. This 
branch is in the development stage and will have to create its own observational 
material in the future, since the work accomplished to date has shown that the 
statistics of earlier years were not gathered with sufficient attention to detail to 
permit of the rigid analysis which the nature of the work demands. 

Some preliminary notice of the work on wheat has been published as well as 
an article on the suitability of the climate of various districts in Canada for the 
production of sugar from the sugar beet. Work on oats, wheat and potatoes is 
progressing. 

Magnetic Observatories. The Magnetic Observatory which, as already 
stated, was established in 1840, was, on the recommendation of the present director 
of the Meteorological Service, removed to the village of Agincourt, 14 miles distant 
from Toronto, since it was found that the electrical development of railways and 
light was impairing the records. The work of observation has, however, been 
carried on without intermission and with increased equipment at the new site as a 
branch of the Meteorological Service, so that from 1840 to the present time there 
has been an uninterrupted record of changes in terrestrial magnetism one of the 
longest and most valuable records in the world. At this observatory, all the 
comp. sses attached to the theodolites of the Dominion Land Survey are annually 
adjusted, and the magnetic instruments used by the Dominion Observatory are 
here standardized. Another Magnetic Observatory was established near Atha- 
baska Landing, Alberta, in 1916, and a continuous record of the magnetic declina 
tion has since been obtained there, data very necessary to the Dominion surveyors 
as well as to the science of terrestrial magnetism. 

Miscellaneous Activities. Some attention has been given to seismology, 
mainly for the purpose of obtaining data for others to study; the service having 
suitable observers and locations for instruments. The first self -registering seis 
mometer in operation in Canada was placed in the Toronto Observatory in 1897, 
and later on another was placed in the office of the service in Victoria, B.C. Both 
these instruments have recently been replaced by others of a more sensitive type. 

The Meteorological Service has from its earliest days supervised the time 
service of the Dominion, making use of its observers, notably those at Toronto, 
Victoria, Montreal, Quebec and St. John, N.B., to take stellar observations and 
send out time signals. 

Tables 6 and 7 which follow, have been prepared by the Meteorological 
Service of Canada for insertion in the Year Book. For the interpretation of Table 
6 a note on the method used in measuring temperature and precipitation is appended . 

TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION. 

TEMPERATURE. At the stations of the Dominion Meteorological Service the highest 
and lowest temperature in each 24 hours, termed respectively the maximum and the mini 
mum, are recorded by self-registering thermometers. For any month the sum of the 
daily maxima, divided by the number of days of the month, is the mean maximum tem 
perature of that month. The mean minimum temperature is obtained in a similar manner. 
The half sum of the mean maximum and the mean minimum is called the mean temperature. 
The averages of these results for any particular month over a period of years are the average 
means for that period and are used as normal means or temperatures of reference. The 
highest and lowest temperatures recorded during the whole period of years are termed 
the extreme maximum and extreme minimum respectively. These latter figures are of 
course to be regarded as extraordinary, the more unlikely to recur the longer the period 
from which they have been derived. Temperatures below zero have the minus sign ( ) 



48 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



prefixed. The mean winter temperature is based on the records of January, February, 
March, November and December, and the mean summer temperature is based on those 
of June, July and August. 

PRECIPITATION. Under the collective term "precipitation" is included all moisture 
which has been precipitated from the atmosphere upon the earth: rain, snow, hail, sleet, 
etc. The amount of moisture is conveniently measured by determining the depth to which 
it has accumulated upon an impervious surface, and is always expressed in inches of depth. 
The total depth of snow is tabulated separately, but is added to the depth of rain after 
division by ten. An extended series of experiments in melting and measuring snow having 
been collated, the rule was deduced that a given fall of snow will, in melting, diminish 
on the average to one-tenth of its original depth. This rule is used in practice. All solid 
forms of precipitation other than snow are included in the tables of rain. 

6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations. 

VICTORIA, B.C. Lat. 48 25 N., long. 123 21 VV. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Months. 


Temperature F. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Mean 
daily. 


Mean 
daily 
max. 


Mean 
daily 
min. 


High 
est. 


Low 
est. 


Mean 
daily 
range. 


Averages. 


Extremes. 


Rain. 


Snow. 


Total. 


Greatest. 


Least. 


Jan 


39-2 
40-3 
43-1 
47-7 
53-0 
57-1 
60-3 
60-0 
55-6 
50-4 
44-5 
41-5 


43-5 
45-0 
49-2 
54-9 
60-7 
65-1 
69-2 
68-8 
63-3 
56-0 
48-6 
45-1 


35-0 
35-6 
37-0 
40-6 
45-3 
49-0 
51-2 
51-2 
47-9 
44-8 
40-5 
37-8 


56-0 
60-0 
68-0 
75-0 
83-0 
88-0 
90-0 
88-0 
85-0 
70-0 
63-0 
59-0 


-2-0 
6-0 
17-0 
24-0 
31-0 
36-0 
37-0 
37-0 
30-0 
28-0 
17-0 
8-0 


8-5 
9-4 
12-2 
14-3 
15-4 
16-1 
18-0 
17-6 
15-4 
11-2 
8-1 
7-3 


3-88 
3-08 
2-40 
1-73 
1-30 
0-93 
0-36 
0-65 
2-01 
2-55 
6-31 
5-86 


6-3 
4-5 
1-5 

S 

1-5 
0-5 


4-51 
3-53 
2-55 
1-73 
1-30 
0-93 
0-36 
0-65 
2-01 
2-55 
6-46 
5-91 


6-54 
6-20 
4-58 
5-40 
2-83 
2-37 
1-15 
2-26 
4-27 
5-60 
11-50 
12-41 


2-56 
0-96 
0-67 
0-21 
0-35 
0-08 
R 
0-00 
0-32 
0-46 
0-91 
1-66 


Feb 


Mar 


April 


Mav 


June 


July 


Aug 


Sept 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year 


49-4 


55-8 


43-0 


90-0 


-2-0 


12-8 


31-06 


14-3 


32-49 


51-03 


22-58 





VANCOUVER, B.C. Lat. 49 17 N., long. 123 5 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Jan 


35-0 


39-2 


30-9 


55-0 


2-0 


. 8-3 


7-12 


14-4 


8-56 


10-54 


6-08 


Feb 


37-8 


43-1 


32-5 


58-0 


10-0 


10-6 


5-90 


3-2 


6-22 


10-17 


2-60 


M ar 


41-9 


49-0 


34-8 


61-0 


15-0 


14-2 


4-31 


1-5 


4-46 


10-29 


0-89 


April 


47-0 


55-8 


38-3 


79-0 


27-0 


17-5 


3-09 


_ 


3-09 


5-29 


1-04 


M ay 


53-5 


62-3 


44-7 


80-0 


33-0 


17-6 


3-56 


_ 


3-56 


5-39 


1-44 


June 


58-4 


67-7 


49-1 


88-0 


36-0 


18-6 


2-82 


_ 


2-82 


5-42 


1-43 


July 


63-2 


73-3 


53-0 


90-0 


43-0 


20-3 


1-33 


_ 


1-33 


2-45 


0-32 


Aug.. , 


61-5 


71-0 


52-0 


92-0 


39-0 


19-0 


1-71 


_ 


1-71 


5-86 


0-22 


Sept 


55-7 


64-0 


47-4 


82-0 


30-0 


16-6 


4-29 


_ 


4-29 


9-09 


1-61 


Oct 


49-2 


55-7 


42-6 


69-0 


23-0 


13-1 


5-69 





5-69 


9-20 


1-76 


Nov 


42-4 


47-1 


37-6 


63-0 


15-0 


9-5 


10-97 


3-1 


11-28 


18-99 


4-18 


Dec .. 


38-9 


42-8 


35-0 


58-0 


17-0 


7-8 


7-27 


2-9 


7-56 


9-55 


4-21 


























Year 


48-7 


56-0 


41-5 


92-0 


2-0 


14-5 


58-06 


25-1 


60-57 


72-29 


52-27 



























PORT SIMPSON, B.C. Lat. 54 34 N., long. 130 25 W. (Observations for 20 years.) 



Jan 


34-0 


40-0 


28-1 


64-0 


- 9-0 


11-9 


8-62 


9-8 


9-60 


16-74 


1-08 


Feb 


34-8 


41-8 


27-7 


63-0 


-10-0 


14-1 


6-07 


11-8 


7-25 


16-65 


1-93 


Mar 


37-6 


44-8 


30-3 


63-0 


11-0 


14-5 


5-06 


5-3 


5-59 


8-16 


1-41 


April 


41-6 


49-9 


33-4 


73-0 


18-0 


16-5 


4-85 


3-0 


5-15 


14-31 


2-24 


May 


48-3 


56-5 


40-0 


79-0 


27-0 


16-5 


5-14 




5-14 


9-84 


1-63 


June ; . . 


52-8 


60-5 


45-1 


88-0 


34-0 


15-4 


4-26 


_ 


4-26 


7-50 


1-20 


July 


56-0 


63-3 


48-8 


88-0 


29-0 


14-5 


4-42 


_ 


4-42 


9-41 


1-28 




56-7 


63-8 


49-5 


80-0 


31-0 


14-3 


6-93 


_ 


6-93 


14-11 


1-74 


Sept... 


52-2 


59-1 


45-2 


74-0 


30-0 


13-9 


9-03 


_ 


9-03 


14-63 


2-20 


Oct 


47-1 


53-5 


40-7 


65-0 


28-0 


12-8 


12-21 


_ 


12-21 


16-99 


6-71 


Nov 


39-7 


45-6 


33-7 


65-0 


6-0 


11-9 


11-47 


1-6 


11-63 


23-90 


3-26 


Dec 


36-9 


42-6 


31-2 


62-0 


5-0 


11-4 


10-11 


8-7 


10-98 


18-82 


5-23 


























Year 


44-8 


51-8 


37-8 


88-0 


-10-0 


14-0 


88-17 


40-2 


92-19 


126-48 


62-05 



























TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION 



49 



6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 
KAMLOOPS, B.C. Lat. 50 41 N., long. 120 18 W. (Observations for 22 years.) 



Months. 


Temperature F. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Mean 
daily. 


Mean 
daily 
max. 


Mean 
daily 
min. 


High 
est. 


Low 
est. 


Mean 
daily 
range. 


Averages. 


Extremes. 


Rain. 


Snow. 


Total. 


Greatest. 


Least. 


Jan 


22-4 
26-5 
37-6 
49-7 
57-5 
64-6 
69-6 
68-1 
58-4 
47-8 
35-8 
28-8 


28-3 
33-4 
47-3 
61-1 
70-3 
76-4 
82-7 
80-9 
69-3 
56-2 
41-5 
32-6 


16-5 
19-6 
27-8 
38-3 
44-8 
52-7 
56-5 
55-4 
47-4 
39-3 
30-2 
24-9 


54-0 
64-0 
70-0 
92-0 
100-0 
101-0 
102-0 
101-0 
93-0 
82-0 
72-0 
59-0 


-31-0 
-27-0 
- 6-0 
19-0 
26-0 
35-0 
42-0 
35-0 
28-0 
16-0 
-22-0 
-17-0 


11-8 
13-8 
19-5 
22-8 
25-5 
23-7 
26-2 
25-5 
21-9 
16-9 
11-3 
7-7 


0-13 
0-20 
0-20 
0-36 
0-93 
1-23 
1-27 
1-05 
0-94 
0-57 
0-40 
0-20 


7-7 
6-0 
1-2 

S 

0-2 
6-5 
13-5 


0-90 
0-80 
0-32 
0-36 
0-93 
1-23 
1-27 
1-05 
0-94 
0-59 
1-05 
1-55 


0-60 
1-17 
0-83 
1-38 
2-50 
3-07 
3-50 
3-73 
2-34 
1-41 
1-23 
0-64 


0-35 
0-02 
0-01 
R 
R 
0-57 
0-35 
0-00 
0-10 
R 
0-07 
0-12 


Feb 


Mar .... 


April 


M ay 


June 


July 


Aug 


Sept 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year 


47-2 


56-7 


37-8 


102-0 


-31-0 


18-9 


7-48 


35-1 


10-99 


13-47 


7-07 





DAWSON, YUKOV. Lat. 64 5 N.,long. 133 20 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Jan 


-24-6 


-18-0 


-31-3 


30-0 


-68-0 


13-3 


0-00 


8-6 


0-86 


1-73 


R 


Feb 


-12-0 


- 4-3 


-19-6 


45-0 


-55-0 


15-3 


R 


7-3 


0-73 


1-35 


0-20 


Mar 


5-6 


16-5 


- 5-3 


52-0 


-47-0 


21-8 


0-01 


4-7 


0-48 


1-21 


0-00 


April 


27-6 


40-2 


1.5-1 


67-0 


-30-0 


25-1 


0-18 


4-7 


0-65 


1-68 


0-23 


May 


46-8 


59-0 


34-6 


85-0 


12-0 


24-4 


0-83 


0-4 


0-87 


2-00 


0-25 


June 


56-9 


70-3 


43-6 


90-0 


27-0 


26-7 


1-18 


0-3 


1-21 


2-66 


0-25 


July 


59-4 


71-9 


46-8 


95-0 


31-0 


25-1 


1-61 





1-61 


3-32 


0-62 


Au" 


54-0 


66-2 


41-7 


85-0 


23-0 


24-5 


1-51 





1-51 


2-38 


0-07 


Sept 


41-6 


51-1 


32-2 


78-0 


8-0 


18-9 


1-40 


1-8 


1-58 


3-52 


0-86 


Oct 


26-4 


32-7 


20-1 


68-0 


-22-0 


12-6 


0-29 


8-8 


1-17 


4-09 


0-10 


Nov 


0-4 


6-4 


- 5-6 


46-0 


-48-0 


12-0 


0-01 


12-4 


1-25 


2-60 


0-24 


Dec 


-10-2 


-4-3 


-16-1 


38-0 


-63-0 


11-8 


R 


10-9 


1-09 


2-09 


0-08 


Year 


22-6 


33-0 


13-0 


95-0 


-68-0 


20-0 


7-02 


59-9 


13-01 


17-75 


6-28 



























EDMONTON, ALTA. Lat. 53 35 N., long. 113 30 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Jan 


5-9 
10-6 
23-4 
40-8 
51-2 
57-3 
61-2 
59-0 
50-4 
41-7 
24-5 
16-0 


15-6 

21-1 
34-9 
52-9 
64-4 
70-1 
73-7 
71-6 
62-9 
53-2 
33-3 
24-7 


- 3-8 
0-1 
11-9 
28-6 
38-1 
44-4 
48-8 
46-4 
37-8 
30-3 
15-6 
7-3 


57-0 
62-0 
72-0 
84-0 
90-0 
94-0 
94-0 
90-0 
87-0 
82-0 
74-0 
60-0 


-57-0 
-57-0 
-40-0 
-15-0 
10-0 
25-0 
33-0 
26-0 
12-0 
-10-0 
-37-0 
-43-0 


19-4 
21-0 
23-0 
24-3 
26-3 
25-7 
24-9 
25-2 
25-1 
22-9 
17-7 
17-4 


0-06 
0-00 
0-05 
0-44 
1-73 
3-26 
3-56 
2-47 
1-33 
0-39 
0-06 
0-07 


7-0 
6-7 
6-2 
3-6 
1-3 
S 

0-7 
3-5 

6-7 
6-8 


0-76 
0-67 
0-67 
0-80 
1-86 
3-26 
3-56 
2-47 
1-40 
0-74 
0-73 
0-75 


2-49 
2-33 
1-93 
2-60 
4-04 
8-53 
11-13 
6-43 
4-32 
1-86 
3-57 
3-21 


0-05 
S 
R 
0-04 
. 0-20 
0-00 
0-15 
0-49 
0-00 
0-00 
0-00 
0-00 


Feb 


Mar 


April 


May .... 


June 


July . 


*j 
Aug 


Sept 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year . . . 


36-9 


48-2 


25-6 


94-0 


-57-0 


22-6 


13-42 


42-5 


17-67 


27-81 


8-16 




MEDICINE HAT, ALTA. Lat. 50 2 N., long. 110 41 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan 


11-2 

12-8 
26-7 
45-1 
54-7 
62-5 
68-4 
66-0 
56-5 
45-8 
29-3 
21-1 


21-6 
23-5 
38-4 
58-8 
68-0 
75-6 
82-7 
80-7 
70-2 
58-7 
39-9 
31-0 


0-7 
2-1 
14-9 
31-4 
41-5 
49-3 
54-1 
51-4 
42-7 
32-9 
18-7 
11-2 


62-0 
64-0 
84-0 
96-0 
99-0 
107-0 
108-0 
104-0 
94-0 
93-0 
76-0 
68-0 


-51-0 
-46-0 
-38-0 
-16-0 
12-0 
30-0 
36-0 
31-C 
17-0 
-10-0 
-36-0 
-37-0 


20-9 
21-4 
23-5 
27-4 
26-5 
26-3 
28-6 
29-3 
27-5 
25-8 
21-2 
19-8 


0-00 
0-01 
0-11 
0-37 
1-70 
2-57 
1-73 
1-51 
0-88 
0-51 
0-08 
0-06 


6-1 
6-0 
5-0 
2-4 
0-5 
S 

0-4 
1-1 
6-4 
4-7 


0-61 
0-61 
0-61 
0-61 
1-75 
2-57 
1-73 
1-51 
0-92 
0-62 
0-72 
0-53 


1-72 
1-51 
1-62 
2-26 
6-29 
5-62 
4-86 
5-65 
2-41 
3-48 
3-11 
1-42 


0-00 
0-00 
S 
0-03 
0-12 
0-00 
0-09 
0-00 
0-00 
0-00 
R 
0-00 


Feb 


Mar 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug 


Sept . 


Oct 


Nov 
Dec 


Year 


41-7 


54-1 


29-2 


108-0 


-51-0 


22-2 


11-53 


32-6 


12-79 


22-28 


6-72 





623734 



50 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 

FORT VERMILION, ALTA. Lat. 53 21 N., long. 110 52 W. (Observations for 18 years.) 



Months. 


Temperature F. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Mean 
daily. 


Mean 
daily 
max. 


Mean 
daily 
min. 


High 
est. 


Low 
est. 


Mean 
daily 
range. 


Averages. 


Extremes. 


Rain. 


Snow. 


Total. 


Greatest. 


Least. 


Jan 


- U-8 
- 3-9 
11-8 
32-0 
49-3 
57-9 
61-0 
57-1 
47-3 
33-1 
14-0 
- 1-7 


- 2-5 
9-7 
26-0 
44-5 
63-3 
72-2 
75-2 
70-4 
58-2 
43-1 
22-4 
10-2 


- 27-1 
- 17-5 
- 2-4 
19-5 
35-3 
43-7 
46-9 
43-8 
36-4 
23-1 
5-6 
- 13-6 


50-0 
53-0 
63-0 
78-0 
93-0 
98-0 
94-0 
101-0 
84-0 
70-0 
48-0 
65-0 


-77-0 
-58-0 
-41-0 
-29-0 
13-0 
26-0 
28-0 
28-0 
9-0 
-14-0 
-26-0 
-50-0 


24-6 
27-2 
28-4 
25-0 
28-0 
28-5 
28-3 
26-6 
21-8 
20-0 
16-8 
23-8 


0-00 
0-00 
0-01 
0-23 
0-78 
1-65 
1-60 
1-57 
1-40 
0-26 
0-02 
0-00 


4-7 
3-7 
7-0 
6-1 
0-6 
0-1 

0-1 
2-1 
7-2 
5-0 


0-47 
0-37 
0-71 
0-84 
0-84 
1-66 
1-60 
1-57 
1-41 
0-47 
0-74 
0-50 


1-80 
0-65 
1-70 
1-85 
2-06 
3-44 
3-49 
3-32 
2-33 
0-81 
1-40 
1-60 


0-15 
0-20 
0-00 
0-00 
0-00 
0-25 
0-51 
0-53 
0-64 
0-00 
0-20 
0-20 


Feb 


M ar 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug 


Sept 


Oct 


TNOV 


Dec . 


Year 


28-6 


41-1 


16-1 


101-0 


-77-0 


25-0 


7-52 


36-6 


11-18 


14-78 


7-60 





FQRT CHIPEWTAN, ALTA. Lat. 58 46 N., long. 111 13 W. (Observations for 16 years.) 



Jan 


- 11-9 


- 3-5 


- 20-4 


45-0 


-55-0 


16-9 


0-00 


9-0 


0-90 


1-68 


0-02 


Feb 


- 9-1 


0-5 


- 18-7 


46-0 


-56-0 


19-2 


R 


5-8 


0-58 


2-03 


0-03 


Mar 


5-0 


15-1 


- 5-0 


47-0 


-41-C 


20-1 


R 


5-8 


0-58 


1-58 


0-09 


April 


28-5 


39-4 


17-6 


69-0 


-22-0 


21-8 


0-20 


4-4 


0-64 


3-04 


0-06 


May 


44-5 


53-8 


35-1 


83-0 


- 3-C 


18-7 


0-65 


1-6 


0-81 


2-08 


0-02 


June 


54-0 


64-6 


43-3 


90 


24-0 


21-3 


1-56 


0-1 


1-57 


3-31 


0-10 


July . . . 


61-5 


71-0 


51-9 


93-0 


26-0 


19-1 


2-64 


_ 


2-64 


9-52 


0-21 


AnfT 


58-1 


68-1 


48-2 


89-0 


25-C 


19-9 


1-64 


_ 


1-64 


3-67 


0-39 


Sept 


45-2 


53-0 


37-3 


79-0 


13-C 


15-7 


1-52 


0-5 


1-57 


2-93 


0-27 


Oct .... 


33-7 


40-1 


27-3 


66-0 


- 9-0 


12-8 


0-32 


4-3 


0-75 


5-30 


0-02 


Nov 


11-0 


17-9 


4-2 


56-0 


-33-0 


13-7 


0-05 


8-6 


0-91 


2-28 


0-26 


Dec 


2-2 


10-3 


- 5-9 


49-0 


-48-0 


16-2 


0-01 


9-1 


0-92 


3-20 


0-09 


























Year 


26-9 


35-8 


17-9 


90-0 


-56-0 


17-9 


8-59 


49-2 


13-51 


16-99 


6-70 



























QU APPELLE, SASK. Lat. 50 32 N. long. 103 57 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Jan 


0-6 


8-5 


- 9-7 


50-0 



-47-0 


18-2 


0-00 


6-9 


0-69 


2-28 


0-05 


Feb 


2-0 


11-2 


- 7-2 


50-0 


-55-0 


18-4 


0-00 


8-1 


0-81 


2-85 


0-12 


Mar 


16-0 


25-7 


6-2 


76-0 


-45-0 


19-5 


0-06 


9-6 


1-02 


4-11 


0-05 


April 


37-3 


49-1 


25-5 


89-0 


-24-0 


23-6 


0-43 


6-7 


1-10 


3-59 


0-29 


May 


49-8 


62-4 


37-3 


92-0 


8-0 


25-1 


2-40 


3-1 


2-71 


6-95 


0-25 


June 


59-6 


70-8 


48-4 


101-0 


25-0 


22-4 


3-69 


S 


3-69 


7-19 


0-32 


July 
Aug 


63-8 
61-1 


75-9 
73-3 


51-7 

48-9 


100-0 
100-0 


34-0 
27-0 


24-2 
24-4 


2-84 
2-04 





2-84 
2-04 


7-25 
5-03 


0-58 
0-30 


Sept... 


52-0 


64-0 


39-9 


93-0 


12-C 


24-1 


1-28 


1-0 


1-38 


4-61 


0-08 


Oct 


40-8 


51-5 


30-2 


86-0 


-12-C 


21-3 


0-53 


4-5 


0-98 


3-35 


S 


Nov 


21-8 


30-4 


13-3 


73-0 


-30-0 


17-1 


0-14 


8-4 


0-98 


2-51 


0-12 


Dec 


10-7 


18-5 


2-8 


49-0 


-40-0 


15-7 


0-01 


7-1 


0-72 


3-11 


0-03 


























Year 


34-5 


45-1 


23-9 


101-0 


-55-0 


21-2 


13-42 


55-4 


18-96 


26-47 


10-14 



























PRI.VCE ALBERT, SASK. Lat. 53" 12 N., long. 105 48 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Jan 


- 5-9 


5-3 


-17-1 


53-0 


-67-0 


22-4 


0-00 


8-2 


0-82 


2-00 


0-22 


Feb 


- 1-3 


11-3 


-13-9 


52-0 


-70-0 


25-2 


0-01 


6-8 


0-69 


2-15 


0-04 


Mar 


12-1 


26-2 


2-1 


68-0 


-44-0 


28-3 


0-10 


7-7 


0-87 


2-56 


0-17 


April . ... 


36-1 


48-7 


23-6 


86-0 


-23-0 


25-1 


0-38 


4-4 


0-82 


3-37 


0-03 


M ay 


48-9 


62-6 


35-2 


90-0 


2-0 


27-4 


1-34 


1-6 


1-50 


4-87 


0-01 


June 


58-1 


71-0 


45-1 


96-0 


17-0 


25-9 


2-67 


- 


2-67 


7-36 


1-00 


July 


62-0 


74-2 


49-8 


93-0 


33-0 


24-4 


2-31 


- 


2-31 


5-31 


0-17 


Aug 


58-8 


71-7 


46-0 


94-0 


22-0 


25-7 


2-31 


- 


2-31 


8-01 


R. 


Sept 


49-4 


61-7 


37-1 


87-0 


14-0 


24-6 


1-32 


0-7 


1-30 


2-94 


0-09 


Oct 


38-3 


49-2 


27-4 


85-0 


- 5-0 


21-8 


0-57 


2-3 


0-80 


1-97 


0-10 


Nov 


18-5 


27-4 


9-5 


66-0 


-41-0 


17-9 


0-12 


8-7 


0-99 


3-06 


0-07 


Dec 


5-3 


15-1 


- 4-5 


58-0 


-57-0 


19-6 


0-01 


8-0 


0-81 


2-61 


0-19 


Year . . 


31-7 


43-7 


19-7 


96-0 


-70-0 


24-0 


11-13 


48-4 


15-97 


29-88 


9-25 



























TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION 



51 



6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 

WINNIPEG, MAN. Lat. 49 55 N., long. 97 6 VV. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Months. 


Temperature F. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Mean 
daily. 


Mean 
daily 
max. 


Mean 
daily 
min. 


High 
est. 


Low 
est. 


Mean 
daily 
range. 


Averages. 


Extremes. 


Rain. 


Snow. 


Total. 


Greatest. 


Least. 


Jan 


- 3-5 
- 0-5 

15-2 
38-7 
51-5 
62-6 
66-2 
62-7 
54-1 
41-6 
22-0 
7-2 


6-8 
10-7 
26-7 
50-1 
64-5 
74-9 
78-1 
75-0 
65-9 
52-0 
30-8 
16-7 


-13-8 
-11.8 

3-6 
27-4 
38-5 
50-2 
54-3 
50-4 
42-2 
31-3 
13-3 
- 2-4 


42-0 
46-0 
73-0 
90-0 
94-0 
101-0 
96-0 
103-0 
99-0 
85-0 
71-0 
49-0 


-46-0 
-46-0 
-37-0 
-13-0 
11-0 
21-0 
35-C 
30-0 
17-0 
- 3-0 
-33-0 
-44-0 


20-6 
22-5 
23-1 
22-7 
26-0 
24-7 
23-8 
24-6 
23-7 
20-7 
17-5 
19-1 


0-01 

0-01 
0-21 
1-10 
2-06 
3-03 
3-25 
2-18 
2-07 
1-22 
0-17 
0-06 


8-1 
7-4 
9-6 
4-4 
0-9 

0-1 
1-4 

8-2 
8-6 


0-82 
0-75 
1-17 
1-54 
2-15 
3-03 
3-25 
2-18 
2-08 
1-36 
0-99 
0-92 


2-12 

1-80 
3-00 
5-64 
6-38 
6-30 
7-14 
4-75 
5-49 
5-67 
2-34 
3-99 


0-12 
0-09 
0-29 
0-25 
0-11 
0-45 
0-87 
0-77 
0-60 
0-29 
0-06 
0-11 


Feb 


Mar 


April 


May 


June 


July . ... 


Aug 


gept 


Oct 




Dec 


Year 


34-8 


46-0 


23-6 


103-0 


-46-0 


22-4 


15-37 


48-7 


20-24 


28-40 


14-38 




PORT ARTHUR, ONT. Lat. 48 27 N., long. 89 13 VV. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan 


6-2 
8-2 
19-6 
35-6 
46-0 
57-1 
62-6 
59-0 
52-8 
41-5 
26-7 
13-4 


17-1 
19-7 
30-8 
44-7 
55-6 
67-2 
73-5 
70-6 
62-3 
60-6 
34-6 
22-7 


- 4-6 
- 3-3 
8-4 
26-4 
36-5 
47-0 
51-7 
47-5 
43-3 
32-9 
18-7 
4-1 


48-0 
52-0 
70-0 
78-0 
89-0 
91-0 
96-0 
94-0 
88-0 
80-0 
69-0 
51-0 


-40-0 
-51-0 
-42-0 
- 3-0 
16-0 
20-0 
33-0 
31-0 
19-0 
1-0 
-22-0 
-38-0 


21-7 
23-0 
22-4 
18-3 
19-1 
20-2 
21-8 
23-1 
19-0 
17-7 
15-9 
18-6 


0-02 
0-05 
0-11 
1-19 
1-98 
2-69 
3-76 
2-77 
3-26 
2-39 
0-84 
0-18 


7-4 
6-5 
8-1 
3-6 
0-5 

0-9 
6-2 
6-6 


0-76 
0-70 
0-92 
1-55 
2-03 
2-69 
3-76 
2-77 
3-26 
2-48 
1-46 
0-84 


1-46 
2-77 
2-76 
3-09 
4-10 
6-94 
9-21 
5-00 
7-54 
5-27 
4-29 
2-68 


0-21 
0-04 
0-18 
0-07 
0-36 
0-50 
1-39 
1-02 
1-30 
0-37 
0-35 
0-02 


Feb 


Mar 


April .... 


M ay 


June 


July 


Aug 


Sept 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year 


35-7 


45-8 


25-7 


96-0 


-51-0 


20-1 


19-24 


39-8 


23-22 


29-43 


18-80 





TORONTO, ONT. Lat. 43 39 N., long. 79 20 W. (Observations for 70 years,) 



Jan .... 


9 2-l 


29-1 


15-2 


58-0 


-26-0 


13-9 


1-14 


17-3 


2-87 


5-72 


0-61 


Feb 


21-7 


29-2 


14-1 


54-0 


-25-0 


15-1 


0-93 


16-5 


2-58 


5-21 


0-29 


Mar 


29-0 


36-3 


21-9 


75-0 


-16-0 


14-4 


1-50 


11-5 


2-65 


6-70 


0-66 


April .... 


41-4 


49-6 


33-3 


90-0 


6-0 


16-3 


2-15 


2-5 


2-40 


4-90 


0-09 


May 


52-7 


62-0 


43-3 


93-0 


25-0 


18-7 


2-97 


0-1 


2-98 


9-36 


0-52 


June 


62-6 


72-4 


52-9 


97-0 


28-0 


19-5 


2-76 


- 


2-76 


8-09 


0-57 


July 


68-1 


77-9 


58-2 


103-0 


39-0 


19-7 


3-04 


- 


3-04 


5-63 


0-36 


Aug 


66-6 


76-1 


57-1 


102-0 


40-0 


19-0 


2-77 


- 


2-77 


7-09 


R. 


Sept 


59-2 


68-2 


50-2 


97-0 


28-0 


18-0 


3-18 


- 


3-18 


9-76 


0-40 


Oct 


47-0 


54-9 


39-1 


86-0 


16-0 


15-8 


2-40 


0-6 


2-46 


5-96 


5o 


Nov 


36-3 


42-5 


30-1 


70-0 


- 5-0 


12-4 


2-49 


4-6 


2-95 


5-84 


11 


Dec 


26-3 


32-5 


20-0 


61-0 


-21-0 


12-5 


1-53 


13-0 


2-83 


6-00 


4/ 


Year 


44-4 


52-6 


36-3 


103-0 


-26-0 


16-3 


26-86 


66-0 


33-46 


50-18 


24-84 



























PARRY SOUND, ONT Lat. 45 20 N., long. 80 1 W. (Observations for 40 years.) 





14-3 


24-5 


4-0 


54-0 


-38-0 


20-5 


0-87 


31-5 


4-02 


7-75 


1-76 


Feb 


13-7 


24-9 


2-6 


58-0 


-38-0 


22-3 


0-76 


23-4 


3-10 


6-31 




Mar 


23-5 


34-3 


12-8 


71-0 


-27-0 


21-5 


1-33 


14-8 


2-81 


5-49 




April .... 


39-0 


49-4 


28-5 


82-0 


- 3-0 


20-9 


1-76 


3-1 


2-07 


4-03 


to 


M ay 


51-5 


62-4 


40-6 


90-0 


16-0 


21-8 


2-96 


0-6 


3-02 


6-06 




June .... 


61-8 


72-7 


50-9 


94-0 


31-0 


21-8 


2-47 


- 


2-47 


5-47 




July 


66-5 


76-9 


56-1 


98-0 


37-0 


20-8 


2-80 





2-80 


0-92 




Aug 


64-2 


74-5 


54-0 


93-0 


35-0 


20-5 


2-83 


- 


2-83 


4o 


1 *9 


Sept 


55-7 


67-6 


47-9 


90-0 


24-0 


19-7 


4-49 


S. 


4-49 


8-43 


OC7 


Oct 


45-8 


54-5 


37-1 


84-0 


9-0 


17-4 


3-83 


0-9 


3-92 


66 


2 no 


Nov 


33-5 


40-8 


26-2 


69-0 


-20-0 


14-6 


2-63 


14-9 


4-12 


AA 




Dec 


20-5 


29-7 


11-4 


56-0 


-39-0 


18-3 


1-22 


32-3 


4-45 


lo 




Year 


41-0 


51-0 


31-0 


98-0 


-39-0 


20-0 


27-95 


121-5 


40-10 


50-30 


31-59 



























6237341 



52 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 

COTTAM, ONT. Lat. 42 09 N., long. 82 44 W. (Observations for 20 years.) 



Months. 


Temperature F. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Mean 
daily. 


Mean 
daily 
max. 


Mean 
daily 
min. 


High 
est. 


Low 
est. 


Mean 
daily 
range. 


Averages. 


Extremes. 


Rain. 


Snow. 


Total. 


Greatest. 


Least. 


Jan 


22-0 
21-1 
32-8 
43-7 
55-6 
64-6 
70-6 
68-9 
61-6 
49-4 
37-8 
26-4 


31-6 
30-9 
42-8 
54-6 
67-6 
76-6 
83-0 
81-6 
74-4 
61-7 
47-9 
35-0 


12-3 
11-3 

22-8 
32-7 
43-6 
52-6 
58-2 
56-2 
48-9 
37-1 
27-8 
17-9 


62-0 
57-0 
80-0 
87-0 
95-0 
95-0 
100-0 
100-0 
97-0 
85-0 
74-0 
70-0 


-20-0 
-25-0 
- 8-0 
10-0 
19-0 
30-0 
36-0 
35-0 
26-0 
10-0 
8-0 
-11-0 


19-3 

19-6 
20-0 
21-9 
24-0 
24-0 
24-8 
25-4 
25-5 
24-6 
20-1 
17-1 


1-59 
1-61 
1-90 
2-34 
3-58 
4-18 
3-38 
2-49 
2-18 
2-48 
2-40 
1-82 


11-8 
10-1 
6-8 
2-1 
0-2 

0-1 
2-7 
8-2 


2-77 
2-62 
2-58 
2-55 
3-60 
4-18 
3-38 
2-49 
2-18 
2-49 
2-67 
2-64 


6-01 
6-16 
6-30 
4-54 
6-76 
7-21 
7-08 
5-66 
5-50 
5-36 
5-04 
4-42 


1-45 
1-11 
1-07 
0-47 
1-48 
0-41 
0-66 
0-00 
1-09 
1-07 
1-05 
0-90 


Feb 


Mar 


April 


May .. 


June 


July. . 


Aug 
Sept 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year 


46-2 


57-3 


35-1 


100-0 


-25-0 


22-2 


29-95 


42-0 


34-15 


38-97 


26-67 





HAILEYBURY, OXT. Lat. 47 26 N., long. 79 38 W. (Observations for 20 years.) 



Jan 


6-4 


17-4 


4-6 


48-0 


40 -C 


22-0 


0-27 


17-5 


2-02 


3.43 


1-20 


Feb... 


7-8 


14-0 


3-4 


48-0 


-48-0 


17-4 


0-20 


18-0 


2-00 


3-94 


0-54 


Mar 


19-4 


21-6 


8-2 


66-0 


34-0 


13-4 


0-52 


16-0 


2-12 


4-43 


0-59 


April 


37-1 


48-0 


26-2 


81-0 


- 3-0 


21-8 


1-25 


5-8 


1-83 


4-38 


0-88 


May 


50-8 


62-2 


39-4 


93-0 


14-0 


22-8 


2-83 


1-5 


2-98 


4-73 


0-75 


June 


61-7 


73-4 


50-0 


100-0 


28-0 


23-4 


2-91 




2-91 


5-55 


0-72 


July 


66-0 


76-8 


55-4 


102-0 


36-0 


21-4 


2-72 




2-72 


8-21 


1-55 


Aug 


62-2 


72-7 


51-8 


94-0 


30-0 


29-9 


2-88 




2-88 


4-45 


1-14 


Sept 


55-3 


64-9 


45-7 


91-0 


24-0 


19-2 


2-31 




2-31 


7-44 


0-96 


Oct 


43-0 


51-5 


34-4 


80-0 


13-0 


17-1 


2-58 


2-8 


2-86 


5-20 


0-97 


Nov . . 


23-2 


35-2 


21-1 


67-0 


15-0 


14-1 


0-99 


13-7 


2-36 


4-35 


0-43 


Dec.. 


13-6 


22-0 


5-2 


51-0 


34-0 


16-8 


0-75 


19-9 


2-74 


3-95 


0-88 


























Year 


37-1 


46-7 


27-5 


102-0 


48-0 


19-2 


20-21 


95-2 


29-73 


39-77 


27-13 



























MONTREAL, QUE. Lat. 45 31 N., long. 73 34 W. (Observations for 50 years.) 


Jan 


12-7 
14-3 
24-6 
41-3 
52-9 
63-9 
69-1 
66-1 
58-5 
46-0 
33-3 
19-6 


20-8 
21-8 
31-7 
49-3 
61-6 
73-6 
77-4 
74-0 
66-2 
52-9 
39-2 
26-5 


4-6 
6-8 
17-4 
33-4 
44-3 
54-3 
60-8 
58-2 
50-8 
39-1 
27-4 
12-7 


53-0 
47-0 
61-0 
77-0 
89-0 
92-0 
95-0 
90-0 
90-0 
80-0 
68-0 
59-0 


-26-0 
-24-0 
-15-0 
8-0 
23-0 
38-0 
47-0 
43-0 
33-0 
21-0 
0-0 
-21-0 


16-2 
15-0 
14-3 
15-9 
17-3 
19-3 
16-6 
15-8 
15-4 
13-8 
11-8 
13-8 


0-85 
0-72 
l,-45 
1-69 
3-01 
3-21 
3-95 
3-35 
3-46 
3-13 
2-26 
1-17 


31-4 

26-1 
19-5 
5-3 
0-1 

1-4 
11-7 
25-2 


3-99 
3-33 
3-40 
2-22 
3-02 
3-21 
3-95 
3-35 
3-46 
3-27 
3-43 
3-69 


6-18 
6-35 
7-32 
4-19 
6-22 
8-00 
7-72 
7-89 
6-65 
7-47 
6-40 
5-94 


2-08 
0-49 
1-01 
0-48 
0-11 
0-90 
0-96 
1-23 
0-88 
0-65 
1-44 
1-12 


Feb .. 


Mar 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug 


Sept 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year 


41-8 


49-6 


34-1 


95-0 


-26-0 


15-5 


28-25 


120-7 


40-32 


48-01 


30-97 





QUEBEC, QUE. Lat. 46 48 N., long. 71 12 W. (Observations for 20 years.) 



Jan 


9-7 


17-7 


1-8 


47-0 


34-0 


15-9 


0-64 


30-7 


3-71 


6-58 


1-10 


Feb.... 


12-0 


20-2 


3-7 


49-0 


32-0 


16-5 


0-74 


27-3 


3-47 


6-22 


0-98 


Mar . 


22-8 


30-7 


15-0 


64-0 


23-0 


15 -"5 


1-29 


19-9 


3-28 


6-16 


1-05 


April . . 


37-0 


45-3 


28-7 


80-0 


3-0 


16-6 


1-42 


6-4 


2-06 


6-57 


0-70 


M ay 


52-0 


62-0 


42-0 


88-0 


21-0 


20-0 


3-01 


0-4 


3-05 


6-93 


0-27 


June 


61-2 


70-8 


51-5 


90-0 


34-0 


19-3 


3-83 




3-83 


9-23 


1-32 


July 


66-1 


75-7 


56-6 


96-0 


39-0 


19-1 


4-30 




4-30 


7-12 


0-53 


Aug. . . 


62-8 


71-5 


54-1 


90-0 


38-0 


17-4 


4-00 




4-00 


9-58 


1-35 


Sept 


55-3 


63-6 


46-9 


88-0 


29-0 


16-7 


3-77 




3-77 


8-75 


1-08 


Oct 


42-0 


47-8 


36-3 


77-0 


14-0 


11-5 


2-94 


1-5 


3-09 


6-99 


0-93 


Nov 


32-2 


35-7 


28-7 


66-0 


10-0 


7-0 


1-75 


14-2 


3-17 


7-09 


0-90 


Dec 


15-0 


22-2 


7-8 


55-0 


27-0 


14-4 


0-85 


25-2 


3-37 


6-78 


1-13 


























Year 


39-0 


47-0 


31-1 


96-0 


34-0 


15-9 


28-54 


125-6 


41-10 


52-39 


32-12 



























TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION 



53 



6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
concluded. 

SOUTH WEST POINT, ANTICOSTI, QUE. Lat. 49 23 N., long. 63 38 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Months. 


Temperature F. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Mean 
daily. 


Mean 
daily 
max. 


Mean 
daily 
min. 


High 
est. 


Low 
est. 


Mean 
daily 
range. 


Averages. 


Extremes. 


Rain. 


Snow. 


Total. 


Greatest. 


Least. 


Jan 


11-9 
12-5 
21-0 
30-5 
39-8 
48-4 
56-6 
56-2 
48-7 
39-8 
30-2 
20-5 


19-8 
19-7 
27-1 
35-4 
45-0 
53-4 
62-3 
61-5 
54-4 
45-1 
35-4 
27-2 


4-0 
5-3 
15-0 
25-6 
34-5 
43-5 
51-0 
51-0 
43-0 
34-5 
25-1 
13-8 


47-0 
46-0 
47-0 
71-0 
78-0 
85-0 
79-0 
80-0 
73-0 
68-0 
57-0 
52-0 


-40-0 
-35-0 
-20-0 
- 3-0 
19-0 
26-0 
34-0 
28-0 
20-0 
8-0 
- 1-0 
-39-0 


15-8 
14-4 
12-1 
9 8 
10-5 
9-9 
11-3 
10-5 
11-4 
10-6 
10-3 
13-4 


0-58 
0-25 
0-50 
1-12 
2-40 
2-93 
3-14 
3-43 
2-92 
3-40 
2-05 
0-65 


18-3 
14-7 
12-0 
5-6 
0-4 
0-1 

0-5 

6-4 
14-7 


2-41 
1-72 
1-70 
1-68 
2-44 
2-94 
3-14 
3-43 
2-92 
3-45 
2-69 
2-12 


6-70 
4-70 
4-95 
7-92 
4-68 
5-58 
8-70 
4-92 
4-81 
9-85 
4-54 
5-10 


0-54 
0-27 
0-29 
R.05 
0-05 
0-40 
0-43 
0-76 
0-70 
0-54 
0-49 
0-32 


Fob 


Mar 


April 


May 


June 


July 
Aug 


Sept . 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year 


34-7 


40-5 


28-9 


85-0 


-40-0 


11-6 


23-37 


72-7 


30-64 


45-43 


15-83 





FREDERICTON, N.B. Lat. 45 56 N., long. 66 40 W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Jan .... 


13-3 


24-3 


2-2 


55-0 


-34-0 


22-1 


1-64 


23-9 


4-03 


8-34 


1-36 


Feb 


15-4 


26-6 


4-1 


51-0 


-35-0 


22-5 


0-96 


47-0 


5-66 


4-78 


0-48 


Mar .... 


26-5 


36-9 


16-0 


65-0 


-20-0 


20-9 


2-16 


25-6 


4-72 


7-58 


1-32 


April 


38-9 


49-5 


28-3 


82-0 


- 2-0 


21-2 


1-97 


10-0 


2-97 


4-43 


0-30 


May 


51-2 


62-8 


39-6 


92-0 


24-0 


23-2 


3-21 


0-1 


3-22 


9-08 


0-88 


June 


59-6 


71-7 


47-5 


92-0 


26-0 


24-2 


3-71 




3-71 


8-01 


1-47 


July 


65-9 


77-0 


54-8 


96-0 


40-0 


22-2 


3-03 


_ 


3-03 


6-28 


1-26 


Aug 


63-2 


73-7 


52-7 


95-0 


35-0 


21-0 


3-97 


_ 


3-97 


6-99 


0-76 


Sept 
Oct 


55-3 
43-4 


66-1 
54-2 


44-5 
32-6 


92-0 
81-0 


25-0 
15-0 


21-6 
21-6 


3-54 
4-02 


0-5 


3-54 
4-07 


7-73 
9-99 


0-91 
0-85 


Nov 


33-0 


40-9 


25-0 


68-0 


- 3-0 


15-9 


3-17 


9-0 


4-07 


6-47 


0-% 


Dec 


19-4 


28-2 


10-5 


58-0 


-26-0 


17-7 


1-56 


18-9 


3-45 


6-42 


1-18 


























Year 


40-4 


51-0 


29-8 


96-0 


-35-0 


21-2 


32-94 


135-0 


46-44 


54-62 


35-02 



























YARMOUTH, N.S. Lat. 45 53 N., long. 65 45 W. (Observations for 35 years.) 



Jan 


30-0 


34-3 


19-6 


54-0 


- 6-0 


14-7 


2-75 


20-3 


4-78 


0-92 


1-97 


Feb . . . 


25-7 


32-7 


18-8 


52-0 


12-0 


13-9 


2-13 


21-8 


4-31 


7-77 


2-28 


Mar .... 


31-8 


37-8 


25-7 


55-0 


2-0 


12-1 


3-32 


33-3 


4-65 


10-75 


1-45 


April .... 


39-7 


46-4 


33-1 


72-0 


17-0 


13-3 


3-17 


5-5 


3-72 


7-12 


0-82 


May 


48-1 


55-6 


40-6 


73-0 


25-0 


15-0 


3-77 


S. 


3-77 


7-66 


0-93 


June 


55-3 


63-0 


47-6 


79-0 


31-0 


15-4 


2-83 




2-83 


6-68 


0-69 


July 


60-8 


68-2 


53-2 


86-0 


41-0 


15-0 


3-38 


_ 


3-38 


8-42 


0-52 


Au". . . 


60-7 


67-9 


53-6 


83-0 


39-0 


14-3 


3-51 


_ 


3-51 


9-59 


1-08 


Sept 


56-0 


63-2 


48-8 


79-0 


31-0 


14-4 


3-50 


_ 


3-50 


5-70 


0-88 


Oct 


48-6 


55-4 


41-7 


74-0 


25-0 


13-7 


4-15 


0-3 


4-18 


11-38 


0-7S 


Nov 


41-8 


46-6 


37-1 


66-0 


11-0 


9-5 


3-77 


4-0 


4-17 


8-56 


1-51 


Dec 


31-1 


37-6 


24-5 


58-0 


- 3-0 


13-3 


3-31 


14-7 


4-78 


9-20 


1-88 


























Year 


44-1 


50-7 


37-0 


86-0 


-12-0 


13-7 


39-59 


79-9 


47-58 


70-90 


35-06 



























CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I. Lat. 46 14 N., long., 83 S W. (Observations for 30 years.) 



Jan 


19-0 


27-0 


11-0 


52-0 


-19-0 


16-0 


1-46 


19-6 


3-42 


7-62 


1-10 


Feb 


18-0 


26-0 


9-0 


49-0 


-21-0 


17-0 


0-86 


17-5 


2-61 


6-37 


0-88 


Mar 


27-0 


34-0 


20-0 


54-0 


15-0 


14-0 


1-67 


13-9 


3-06 


5-54 


1-48 


April 


37-0 


44-0 


30-0 


74-0 


8-0 


14-0 


2-11 


8-8 


2-99 


6-10 


0-82 


May 


48-0 


56-0 


40-0 


. 81-0 


26-0 


16-0 


2-51 


1-0 


2-61 


5-85 


0-40 


June 


57-0 


66-0 


49-0 


87-0 


32-0 


17-0 


2-54 




2-54 


5-37 


0-47 


July 


66-0 


74-0 


58-0 


91-0 


37-0 


12-0 


2-96 





2-96 


8-97 


1-81 


Aug. . 


65-0 


73-0 


57-0 


92-0 


42-0 


16-0 


3-37 


_ 


3-37 


8-44 


0-94 


Sept 


58-0 


65-0 


50-0 


87-0 


34-0 


15-0 


3-36 


_ 


3-36 


8-75 


0-06 


Oct 


48-0 


54-0 


41-0 


77-0 


26-0 


13-0 


4-46 


0-2 


4-48 


10-38 


0-50 


Nov 


37-0 


42-0 


32-0 


62-0 


11-0 


10-0 


3-48 


6-0 


4-08 


8-00 


1-74 


Dec 


25-0 


32-0 


19-0 


52-0 


11-0 


13-0 


2-19 


16-0 


3-79 


7-25 


1-41 


























Year 


42-0 


49-0 


35-0 


92-0 


-21-0 


14-0 


30-97 


83-0 


39-27 


56-43 


32-45 



























PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations. 

(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
VICTORIA, B.C., lat. 48 25 N., long. 123 21 W. 



Months. 


Sunshine average. 


Average 
no. days 
com 
pletely 
clouded. 


Wind. 


Average 
no. days with 


No. 
of hours 
per 
month. 


Per 
centage 
of 
possible 
duration. 


Aver 
age 
no. of 
gales. 


Aver 
age 
hourly 
velo 
city. 


Prevail 
ing 
direc 
tion. 


Strongest wind 
recorded. 


Thun 
der. 


Fog. 


Hail. 


Miles 
per 
hour. 


Direc 
tion. 


JfUB 


53-4 
79-4 
143-0 
184-8 
198-6 
215-1 
293-7 
256-9 
183-3 
118-3 
57-3 
38-1 


19-6 
27-9 
39-0 
44-9 
41-9 
44-7 
60-4 
58-0 
48-6 
35-3 
20-8 
14-9 


14 
7 
5 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
3 
7 
10 
13 


3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 
3 


9-0 
8-9 
9-0 
9-0 
8-8 
9-7 
9-1 
7-8 
6-5 
6-8 
9-9 
8-8 


N 
N 
SE 
SW 
SW 
SW 
SW 
SW 
SW 
E 
NE 
NE 


50 
48 
52 
50 
41 
49 
44 
43 
44 
56 
57 
59 


SE 

SW 

sw 
sw 
w 

sw 

sw 
sw 
sw 
sw 

SE 
SE 


- 


1 
1 
1 

1 

2 
3 
4 
1 
1 


- 


Feb 


Mar 


April 
May. . 


June 
July 


Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


Nov 
Dec 

Year.... 


1,821-9 


- 


67 


24 


- 8-6 


SW 


59 


SE 


_ 


15 


i 



*Sunshine, 1895-1910; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1915. 
"VANCOUVER, B.C., lat. 49 17 N., long. 1235 W. 



Jan 


46-4 
51-5 
135-6 
179-4 
220-0 
228-0 
265-6 
252-7 
162-9 
111-3 
51-1 
38-8 


17-3 
18-2 
36-9 
43-7 
46-5 
47-2 
54-6 
57-0 
43-3 
33-4 
18-6 
15-3 


17 
10 
7 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
5 
8 
13 
15 


Average 
less 
than 
one 
per 
month. 


4-3 
4-0 
5-0 
4-8 
4-8 
4-5 
4-1 
3-7 
4-6 
3-8 
4-3 
4-4 


E 
E 
E 

SE 
SE 
E 
S 
S 
S 
SE 
E 
E 


40 
26 
30 
25 
23 
27 
22 
20 
26 
35 
25 
30 


NW 
W 
SE 
W 
W 

w 
w 
w 

NW 
W 

NW 
W 


1 

1 
2 
1 
1 


3 
4 
1 

2 
6 
4 
4 


1 


Feb... 


Alar 
April.. . . 
May..,.. 
June 


July. 


Aug 


Sept 
Oct 
Nov 
Dec 

Year.... 


1,743-3 


- 


88 


- 


4-4 


SE 


40 


NW 


6 


24 


1 


Sunshine, 1908-1917; days clouded, 1909-1920; winB, days with thunder, etc., 1905-1920. 



, B.C., lat. 50 41 N., long. 120 18 W. 



Jan 


65-0 


24-7 


12 




3-5 


S 


25 


SE 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Feb 
Mar 
^pril 
May 
June 
July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


87-0 
166-0 
187-0 
224-0 
240-0 
295-0 
262-0 
185-0 
140-0 


31-1 
45-2 
45-2 
46-8 
50-1 
59-9 
58-6 
49-1 
42-3 


7 
4 
3 
3 
3 
1 
2 
3 
6 


Average 
less 
than 
one 
per 
month. 


3-1 
4-5 
4-8 
4-4 
4-1 
4-1 
3-5 
3-5 
3-6 


S 
SE 
S 
S 

sw 
sw 
sw 
s 

SE 


24 
31 
30 
30 
25 
40 
30 
40 
40 


NE 
W 
W 
W 
SE 
SE 
SE 
S 
NW 


1 


_ 


_ 


Nov 
Dec 


70-0 
50-0 


26-2 
20-1 


10 
13 




4-4 
3-3 


SE 

S 


40 
30 


W 

SE 


~ 


- 


- 


Year.... 


1,971-0 


- 


67 


- 


3-9 


S 


40 


Several. 


1 


- 


- 



fSunshine, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; wind, etc., 1897-1916. 

JEDMONTON, AI.TA., lat. 53 35 N. , long. 113 30 W. 



Jan 


79 


31-6 


10 


_ 


4-4 


W 


36 


W 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Feb 
Mar 
April 
May 
June 
July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


125 
174 
212 
222 
242 
273 
256 
184 
150 


45-7 
47-4 
50-7 
45-1 
47-8 
53-8 
56-3 
48-6 
46-2 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
3 
4 


1 


4-9 
5-6 
7-2 
6-8 
5-9 
5-3 
4-7 
5-3 
5-2 


W 

S 

SW 
SW- 

w 

sw 
w 
w 
w 


34 
28 
42 
36 
34 
30 
26 
36 
28 


NW 
NW 
NW 
SE 
NW 
NW 
NW 
W 
NW 


1 
3 
4 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 


Nov 
Dec 


87 
77 


33-9 
33-2 


7 
11 


- 


4-6 
4-2 


sw 
sw 


25 
34 


NW 
NW 


~ 


- 


~ 


Year.... 


2,081 


- 


54 


1 


5-3 


sw 


42 


NW 


11 


5 


1 



{Sunshine, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; wind. etc. 1897-1916. 



SUNSHINE, WIND AND WEATHER 



55 



7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 

(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
*MEDICINE HAT, ALTA., lat. 50 2 N., long. 110 41 W. 



Months. 


Sunshine average. 


Average 
no. days 
com 
pletely 
clouded. 


Wind. 


Average 
no. days with 


No. 
of hours 
per 
month. 


Per 
centage 
of 
possible 
duration. 


Aver 
age 
no. of 
gales. 


Aver 
age 
hourly 
velo 
city. 


Prevail 
ing 
direc 
tion. 


Strongest wind 
recorded. 


Thun 
der. 


Fog. 


Hail. 


Miles 
per 
hour. 


Direc 
tion. 


Jan 


88 
117 
169 
220 
233 
268 
326 
284 
196 
158 
102 
82 


33-1 
41-6 
46-0 
53-4 
48-9 
55-0 
66-6 
63-8 
52-0 
47-7 
37-8 
32-9 


8 
6 
3 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 

3 
4 
6 
9 


2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 


5-9 
6-0 
6-6 
7-4 
7-5 
7-5 
6-4 
5-6 
5-8 
5-9 
6-1 
6-5 


SW 
SW 
SW 
W 
S 

sw 
sw 
sw 
sw 

W 

sw 
sw 


46 
51 
41 
50 
60 
61 
46 
50 
50 
60 
60 
60 


S 

S 
S, NW 
S 
N, W 
SW 
SW 
W 
S 
W 

sw 

N 


2 
4 
4 
3 

1 


1 


- 


Feb 
Mar 
April 
May 
June 


July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


Nov 
Dec 

Year.... 


2,243 


_ 


47 


21 


6-4 


sw 


61 


SW 


14 


1 


- 


*SimViinP, 1flnfi-191fi; HIAM r.londed. 1910-1920: wind, days with thunder, etc., 1895-1915. 


ROSTHERN, SASK., lat. 52 39 N., long. 
10621 W. 


PRINCE ALBERT, SASK., lat. 53 12 N., long. 105 48 W. 


Jan. ..... 


91-6 
137-7 
176-1 
220-8 
262-7 
280-1 
294-8 
272-9 
190-8 
141-4 
111-6 
78-3 


36-1 
50-0 
47-9 
53-6 
53-8 
56-0 
65-2 
60-3 
50-4 
43-3 
43-1 
33-0 


10 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 
6 
7 
11 


- 


3-3 
3-2 
4-0 
5-0 
4-9 
4-2 
3-6 
3-0 
3-8 
3-9 
3-4 
3-2 


s 
sw 
sw 

SE 

s 

SE 

sw 
sw 
sw 
sw 

s 
sw 


26 
29 
35 
36 
25 
31 
31 
24 
24 
28 
20 
32 


NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
SE 
N 
SE 
E 
Several. 
NW 
Several. 
N 


1 
3 

2 


1 
1 
1 


- 


Feb 


Mar 


April 
May. . 


June 
July 
Aug 


Sept 
Oct 


Nov. . 


Dec 
Year.... 


2,258-8 


_ 


57 


- 


3-8 


s 


36 


NW 


6 


3 


- 


Sunshine and days clouded, 1911-1920; wind 1896-1917, 1898 missing; days with thunder, etc., IS 


INDIAN HEAD, SASK., lat. 50 31 N., long. 
103 40^. 


QU APPELLE, SASK., lat. 50 32 N., long. 103 57 W. 


Jan 


81-4 
103-7 
131-8 
170-1 
214-4 
207-4 
272-4 
228-9 
162-8 
130-5 
68-8 
58-8 


32-8 
37-0 
35-9 
41-2 
44-6 
42-4 
55-5 
51-3 
43-2 
39-5 
25-7 
23-8 


10 
6 
6 
4 
5 
4 
2 
2 
5 
6 
8 
12 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 


9-4 
9-5 
9-6 
10-0 
9-8 
9-0 
8-2 
7-4 
8-4 
9-1 
9-1 
9-0 


NW 
NW 
W 

sw 
sw 
s 
sw 
sw 

W 

W 
W 

W 


66 
46 
48 
58 
50 
48 
42 
38 
41 
45 
42 
45 


NW 
W 

NW 
S 
NW 
SW 
NW 
SW,N\V 
SW 
NW 
NW 
NW 


2 
4 
5 
4 
1 


1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 


Feb 
Mar 
April.. . . 
May 
June 
July 

Sept..!.. 
Oct 


Nov.... 
Dec.... 

Year. .. 


1,831-0 


- 


70 


19 


9-0 


W 


66 


NW 


16 


12 


1 



Sunshine and days clouded, 1891-1910; wind, etc., 1897-1917 (1908 missing). 

. MAN. . lat.49 55 N. , long. 97 6 W. 



Jan 


110-3 
138-6 
175-0 
206-7 
250-7 
250-4 
290-5 
256-7 
179-6 
124-8 
89-6 
81-2 


41-4 
49-2 
47-7 
50-2 
52-3 
51-6 
59-5 
57-8 
47-7 
37-6 
33-2 
32-2 


9 
6 
7 
5 
4 
3 
2 
3 
4 
8 
10 
14 


7 
5 
6 
7 
6 
5 
5 
4 
6 
6 
5 
4 


12-8 
12-2 
13-1 
14-5 
14-5 
12-7 
12-1 
11-3 
13-0 
13-8 
12-4 
12-2 


W 

SW 

s 

E 
E 

E 

S 
S 
S 

s 
sw 


50 
55 
66 
60 
66 
46 
55 
43 
55 
60 
45 
59 


N, W 
NW 
NW 
W 
NW 
NW 
SW 
W 
W 
NW 
N, W 


1 
2 
4 
5 
3 
2 
1 


1 

1 





Feb 
Mar 
April.. . . 
May 
June 
July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


Nov 
Dec 


2.154-1 




75 


66 


12-9 


s 


66 


NW 


18 


2 


- 


fSunshine, 1882-1910; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, etc., 1897-1916. 



56 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 

(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
HAIMSYBURY, ONT., lat. 47 26 N., long. 79 38 W. 



Months. 


Sunshine average. 




Wind. 


Average 
no. days with 


No. 
of hours 
per 
month. 


Per 

centage 
of 
possible 
duration. 


Average 
no. days 
com 
pletely 
clouded. 


Aver 
age 
no. of 
gales. 


Aver 
age 
hourly 
veloc 
ity. 


Prevail 
ing 
direc 
tion. 


Strongest wine 
recorded. 




Fog. 


Hail. 


Miles 
per 
hour. 


Direc 
tion. 


der. 


Jan.... 


92 
119 
165 
193 
210 
259 
266 
221 
174 
110 
56 
61 


33-4 
41-6 
44-8 
47-3 
45-0 
54-5 
55-5 
50-3 
46-3 
32-8 
20-1 
23-2 


10 
7 
5 
5 
4 
2 
1 
2 
4 
7 
13 
12 


1 

2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


NW 
NW 
S 

s 

S 
SE 
SW 
S 
SW 
SW 
NW 
W 


8 
9 
9 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 
10 
8 


N,NW 
SW 
SW 
N, NW 
NW 
SW 
Several 
NW 
S 
NW 
SW, W 
NW 


r - 
_ 

2 
4 
6 
4 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


- 


Feb... 


Mar 
April.. . 
May 
June 
July 


Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


Nov 
Dec 


Year.... 


1,733 


- 


72 


17 


2 


SW 


10 


Stt, W 


19 


IT 




*Sunshme, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1920. 


GRAVENHURST, OXT., lat. 44 56 N., 
Ion?. 79 23 W. 


PARRY SOUND, ONT., lat. 45 20 N., long. 80 1 H. 


Jan 
Feb... 


80-7 
126-3 
153-0 
189-4 
217-2 
229-8 
265-2 
252-6 
170-6 
138-5 
85-4 
61-5 


28-4 
43-4 
41-5 
46-9 
47-4 
49-4 
56-4 
58-2 
45-6 
41-0 
29-9 
21-5 


12 
8 
7 
5 
5 
2 
1 
1 
4 
7 
11 
14 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
1 


9-4 
9-0 
9-1 
8-9 
7-9 
6-8 
6-5 
6-9 
7-4 
8-7 
10-5 
9-4 


SE 
S 
SW 

s 
s 

SW 
SW 

s 

SW 

s 

SW 

s 


48 
49 
52 
36 
39 
36 
36 
30 
36 
36 
48 
37 


W 
W 

SW 
N 
SW 
SW 
NW 
SW.SE 
SW 
SW 
SW 
W,NW 


1 
1 

2 
2 
3 
3 
2 
2 


1 


- 


Mar.. 


April 
May 
June.... 


July... 


Aug... . 


Sept 
Oct 


Nov... 


Dec. . . 


Year. . . . 


1,970-2 


- 


77 


8 


8-4 


s 


52 


SW 


14 


1 


_ 


Sunshine, 1902-1910, 1915-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 
tToROXTo, OXT., lat. 43 39 N.. long. 79 20 \V. 


Jan. 


77-9 
108-1 
150-0 
190-7 
218-9 
259-8 
282-2 
252-7 
207-8 
149-3 
85-3 
65-2 


27-0 
36-7 
40-5 
47-1 
47-9 
56-3 
60-4 
59-8 
55-4 
43-8 
29-4 
23-5 


11 
6 
6 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
4 
8 
10 


6 
5 
5 
3 
2 
1 
1 

1 

2 
4 

7 


13-6 
13-7 
12-8 
11-9 
9-9 
8-7 
8-0 
8-0 
8-8 
9-9 
12-2 
13-2 


SW 
W 

SW 
SE 
SE 
SE 
S 
SW 
SE 
S 
SW 
SW 


56 
56 
60 
50 
54 
35 
36 
48 
50 
53 
50 
50 


NE 
E 
NW 

E 
W 
NE 
W, SW 
NE 
S 
W 
W 
SW 


1 

1 
3 
4 
5 
6 
3 
1 


2 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

2 
2 
2 
1 


- 


Feb 


Mar 


April 
May 
June. 


July 
Aug .. 


Sept 
Oct... 


Nov 
Dec. . . . 


Year.... 


2,046-9 


- 


56 


37 


10-9 


s 


60 


NW 


34 


15 


_ 


tSunshine, 1882-1910; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 
WOODSTOCK, ONT., lat. 43 38 N., long. 80 46 W. 


Jan 


62-0 
88-7 
122-6 
167-4 
206-8 
246-1 
275-4 
238-0 
181-8 
135-7 
76-4 
54-1 


21-4 
30-2 
33-2 
41-7 
45-6 
53-7 
59-4 
55-4 
48-7 
41-7 
26-3 
19-4 


14 
8 
9 
6 
4 
2 
1 
2 
4 
6 
10 
15 


4 
4 
5 
4 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
4 


12-4 
12-3 
12-2 
12-1 
10-5 
8-9 
8-4 
8-0 
8-4 
10-5 
11-9 
12-4 


SW 
W 
SW 
SW 
SW 
W 
W 
SW 
W 
SW 
SW 
SW 


57 
47 
52 
48 
46 
36 
36 
40 
34 
40 
53 
49 


SW 
NW 
SW 
SW 
SW 
E 
SW 
SW 
NW 
NW 
SW 
SW 


1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 


- 


Feb 
Mar 
April 
May 
June 
July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


Nov 
Dec 


Year. . . . 


1,855-0 


- 


81 


33 


10-7 


SW 


57 


SW 


12 


15 


_ 


Sunshine, 1882-1911; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1920. 



SUNSHINE, WIND AND WEATHER 



57 



7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 

(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
MONTREAL, QUE., lat. 45 31 N., long. 73 34 W. 



Months. 


Sunshine average. 


Average 
no. days 
com 
pletely 
clouded. 


Wind. 


Average 
no. days with 


No. 
of hours 
per 
month. 


Per 
centage 
of 
possible 
duration. 


Aver 
age 
no. of 
gales. 


Aver 
age 
hourly 
veloc 
ity. 


Prevail 
ing 
direc 
tion. 


Strongest wind 
recorded. 


Thun 
der. 


Fog. 


Hail. 


Miles 
per 
hour. 


Direc 
tion. 


Jan 


76-0 
103-4 
145-9 
173-7 
204-6 
217-3 
238-4 
218-6 
171-5 
122-2 
68-5 
60-0 


34 
41 
45 
50 
51 
50 
59 
58 
53 
41 
30 
26 


12 
9 
6 
6 
4 
2 
1 
2 
4 
6 
11 
14 


6 
7 
8 
4 
2 
2 
1 

1 

2 
5 
5 


15-5 
16-7 
16-7 
14-9 
12-8 
11-6 
11-3 
10-6 
11-7 
12-9 
14-6 
14-0 


SW 
SW 
SW 

s 
s 

SW 
W 

SW 
SW 
SW 
SW 
SW 


56 
66 
60 
53 
49 
48 
42 
36 
38 
45 
58 
50 


SW 
NW 
SE,S\\ 
SW 
W 
SW.NW 
SW 
W 
SE.NW 
NW 
W 
NW 


1 
2 
3 
5 
4 
3 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 

r 
i 

2 
1 
1 


1 


Feb 


Mar 
April 
May 
June 
July 
Aug 


Sept 
Oct . . 


Nov 
Dec 

Year.... 


1,800-1 


- 


77 


43 


13-6 


SW 


66 


NW 


19 


9 


1 



*Days clouded, 1901-1 



tQuEBEC, QUE.. lat. 46 48 N., long. 71 12 W. 



Jan 


86 


31-0 


11 


9 


15-0 


SW 


62 


NE 


- 


1 


- 


Feb 


105 


36-5 


8 


8 


16-1 


SW 


69 


NE 











Mar 


152 


41-4 


7 


8 


15-3 


SW 


72 


NE 


- 


1 


- 


April 


174 


42-5 


5 


7 


14-4 


NE 


54 


NE 


1 


1 


- 


May . 


197 


42-1 


4 


6 


14-4 


NE 


52 


W 


2 





- 


June 


248 


44-6 


4 


4 


13-2 


SE 


46 


NE 


4 


- 


- 


July 


223 


46-8 


2 


2 


11-6 


S 


43 


NE.SW 


7 


- 





Aug 


224 


48-4 


2 


1 


10-7 


SW 


39 


NE.SW 


5 


- 


- 


Sept 
Oct . . 


152 
123 


45-2 
40-2 


5 

8 


3 

4 


11-5 

12-4 


SW 

SW 


42 
66 


NE 
NE 


2 
1 


1 

2 





Nov. . 


65 


24-0 


10 


5 


14-0 


SW 


58 


NE 





1 





Dec 


70 


28-8 


13 


6 


13-9 


SW 


68 


NE 


~ 


1 


~ 


Year.... 


1,819 


_ 


79 


63 


13-5 


s 


72 


NE 


22 


8 


- 


tSunshine, 1903-1912; days clouded, 1903-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 


WOLFVILUE, N.S., lat. 45 5 N., long 64 
21 W. 


YARMOUTH, N.S., lat. 45 53 N., long. 65 45 W. 


Jan 


84-0 


29-6 


10 


4 


13-2 


NW 


53 


SW.NW 


- 


2 


- 


Feb 


99-6 


34-4 


10 


4 


13-1 


NW 


60 


SW 





2 





Mar 


134-0 


36-4 


8 


4 


12-5 


SW 


60 


NW 





4 





April.. . . 


147-6 


36-6 


7 


2 


11-1 


SW 


43 


NW 


- 


4 





May 
June 


200-8 
230-0 


43-8 
49-4 


5 

2 


1 


9-9 
8-6 


SW 

s 


44 
40 


SE 


1 

2 


7 
7 


- 


July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct. . . . 


235-6 
232-4 
182-5 
151-4 


50-2 
53-6 
48-6 
44-8 


2 
2 
3 

7 


1 

2 


7-7 
6-7 
8-0 
10-0 


SW 
SW 
SW 

s 


36 
65 
48 
54 


S 
SW 
W 

SE 


2 
2 
1 
1 


13 
11 

7 
4 


- 


Nov 
Dec 


98-9 
67-2 


34-7 
24-8 


8 
11 


3 
3 


12-0 
12-6 


SW 
SW 


60 

62 


SW 


- 


2 
2 


- 


Year.... 


1,864-0 


_ 


75 


24 


10-5 


SW 


65 


SW 


9 


65 


- 


Sunshine, 1895-1910; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1H96-191J>. 


*F n *n.rnroTON t N.B..lat.4556 N.. long.6640 W. 


Jan 


110-3 
124-2 
154-8 
184-6 
205-4 
217-6 
236-8 
223-0 
179-0 
151-4 


39-2 
43-1 
42-0 
45-6 
44-4 
46-4 
50-2 
51-2 
47-8 
44-8 


10 
8 
8 
7 
6 
5 
3 
3 
5 
6 


2 

2 
2 

1 
1 

1 


8-2 
9-3 
9-5 
8-2 
8-0 
7-4 
6-6 
6-7 
6-0 
7-7 


NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
SW 
W 
SW 
W 
NW 
W 


38 
49 
40 
36 
37 
34 
32 
28 
30 
33 


SW 
NW 

NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
SE.NW 


1 

2 
3 
2 
1 


1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
4 
3 


- 


Feb 
Mar 
April. . . . 
May 
June 
July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 


Nov 
Dec 


91-3 
94-1 


33-3 
35-9 


11 

12 


1 

2 


8-1 
8-5 


NW 
NW 


37 

42 


NW 


- 


2 


- 


Year.. 


1,972-5 




84 


12 


7-9 


W 


49 


NW 


9 


22 


- 


Sunshine, 1881-1911; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 



58 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 



7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 

(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages" are based.) 

. P.E.I., lat. 46 14 N., long. 63 8 W. 



Months. 
J an 


Sunshine average. 


Average 
no. days 
com 
pletely 
clouded. 


Wind. 


Average 
no. days with 


No. 
of hours 
per 
month. 


Per 
centage 
of 
possible 
duration. 


Aver 
age 
no. of 
gales. 


Aver 
age 
hourly 
velo 
city. 


Prevail 
ing 
direc 
tion. 


Strongest wind 
recorded. 


Thun 
der. 


Fog. 


Hail. 


Miles 
per 
hour. 


Direc 
tion. 


89 
112 
130 
153 
195 
226 
238 
229 
179 
114 
73 
60 


31-8 
38-9 
35-3 
37-6 
42-1 
48-2 
50-2 
52-4 
47-8 
33-9 
25-9 
22-3 


13 

10 
9 
9 
7 
6 
4 
5 
6 
11 
13 
17 


2 
1 

2 

1 
1 
1 


8-8 
8-4 
8-6 
8-4 
8-1 
7-0 
6-3 
6-5 
7-2 
8-2 
9-1 
9-0 


NW 
SW 
S 
SE 
S 
S 
SW 
SW 
SW 
SW 
W 
NW 


46 
55 
41 
33 
32 
28 
32 
31 
32 
38 
38 
38 


NW 

SE 
SW 

SE 
NE 
S 
SW 
SW 
S, NW 
S 
NE 
SW 


1 
1 

2 
2 
2 

1 


1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


- 


Feb 


Mar. 


April.. . . 
May 
June 


July 

Alltr 


Sept 
Oct. . 


Nov. . 


Dec 


Year.... 


1,798 


- 


110 


8 


8-0 


SW 


55 


SE 


9 


5 


- 



days clouded, 1907-1920; 
*CALGARY, ALTA., lat 



wind, etc., 1896-1920. 

51 2 N., long. 114 2 W. 



Wind. 



Average-number of days with 



Months. 


Average 
number 
of gales. 


Average 
hourly 
velocity. 


Prevailing 
direction. 


Strongest wind 
recorded. 


Thunder. 


Fog. 


Hail. 


Miles p.h. 


Direction. 


January 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
19 


6-4 
6-6 
7-6 
8-5 
8-8 
8-6 
7-6 
7-3 
7-5 
6-5 
6-0 
6-5 

7-3 


W 
W 

SW 

w 

NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
W 
W 

w 


52 
48 
48 
56 
48 
50 
48 
36 
62 
40 
36 
52 


NW 
W 
SW 
NW 
N, NW 
W 
NW 
W 
NW 
W 
Several. 
W 

NTOC 


1 
1 
3 
2 

t 


_ 


1 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 


December 
Year 








^^ " 







"Wind, days with thunder, etc., 1897-1916. 

fPAs, MAN., lat. 53 49 N., long. 101 15 



W. 



/anuary 


1 


7-5 


W 


43 


NW 








February 


1 


7-2 


W 


40 


W 








March 


1 


7-5 


s 


45 


W 




1 




April 




8-3 


E 


41 


SW 








May 




8-5 


E 


40 










June 


2 


7-8 


SE 


44 


SW 


2 






July. . . 


1 


8-9 


W 


54 


SW 




2 




August 


1 


7-7 


W 


48 


NW 


o 


i 




September 


1 


6-8 


w 


41 


NW 




i 




October 


1 


7-5 


w 


42 


W 








November 




7-9- 


w 


33 


NW 








December 


- 


7-1 


SW 


38 


W 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Year... 


9 


7-7 


w 


54 


SW 


4 


& 





fWind, days with thunder, etc., 1910-1920. 

*PORT NELSON, MAN., lat. 57 N. , long. 92 56 W. 



January 


2 


12-4 


W 


34 


W NW 




i 




February 


3 


12-9 


W 


48 


NW 








March 


3 


11-4 


W 


41 


NE 




1 




April 


2 


12-8 


SE 


51 


NW 




I 




May 


1 


12-4 


NE 


40 


NE 




3 




June. 


3 


13-6 


NE 


38 


NE NW 


Q 


2 




July. 


2 


13-8 


NE 


53 


NE 


9 


j 




August 


2 


12-4 


SW 


42 


NE NW 


2 


2 




September. . . 


3 


12-8 


SW 


42 


SW NW 


1 


1 




October 


4 


13-6 


NW 


40 






1 




November 


5 


13-1 


NW 


43 


N 




2 




December 


2 


11-7 


W 


42 


NW 


- 




_ 


Year 


32 


12-7 


SW 


53 


NE 


9 


15 


- 



*Wind, days with thunder, etc., 1916-1920. 



SUNSHINE, WIND AND WEATHER 



59 



7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations- 
concluded. 

(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are }>ased.) 
fPoKT ARTHUR, ONT., lat. 48 27 N. ( long., 89 13 W. 



Months. 


Wind. 


Average number of days with 


Average 
number 
of gales. 


Average 
hourly 
velocity . 


Prevailing 
direction. 


Strongest wind 
recorded. 


Thunder. 


Fog. 


Hail. 


Miles 
per hour. 


Direction. 


January , 


1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 


6-9 
7-1 

7-8 
7-8 
7-8 
6-7 
6-4 
6-7 
7-1 
7-4 
8-1 
7-4 


NW 

NW 
NW 
S 
SE 
E 
S 
SW 

sw 
sw 

NW 

NW 


37 
50 
52 
39 
41 
51 
34 
41 
62 
42 
40 
52 


NW 
NW 
NW 
NW, NE 
NE 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 
NW 


1 
1 
2 
4 
3 
2 
1 


1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 


- 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August . . 


September 


October 


N ovember 


December 


Year... 


8 


7-3 


SW 


62 


NW 


14 


15 


_ 



tWind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1920. 



RIVER, ONT. , lat. 51 30 N. , long. 94 2 W. 



January 


_ 


4-2 


SE 


28 


NW 


_ 


_ 





February 


_ 


3-3 


E 


22 


S, NW 


_ 


_ 


_ 


March 


_ 


4-4 


E 


30 


N 





_ 


_ 


April 


_ 


5-0 


E 


30 


N 


_ 


_ 


_ 


May 


_ 


5-6 


SE 


28 


SW 


1 


_ 


_ 


June 


_ 


5-0 


S 


32 


SW 


1 


_ 


_ 


July 





4-4 


SW 


23 


N 


2 


1 


_ 


August 


_ 


3-6 


S 


24 


SW 


2 


1 


_ 


September 


_ 


3-9 


sw 


24 


s 


2 


1 


_ 


October 


_ 


4-1 


SE 


25 


sw 


_ 


_ 


_ 


November 


_ 


4-6 


SE 


25 


NW, SW 





_ 


_ 


December. . . 




3-7 


S 


24 


S 


_ 


_ 























Year 


- 


4-3 


SE 


32 


SW 


8 


3 


- 



JWind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1920. 

"CocHRANE, ONT., lat. 49 4 N.,long. 80 58 W. 



January 


_ 


7-8 


W 


34 


NW 


_ 


_ 


_ 


February 


_ 


7-2 


NW 


32 


NW 


_ 


_ 


_ 


March 


_ 


8-2 


SW 


33 


NW 


_ 


_ 


_ 


April 


_ 


8-4 


SE 


35 


NW 


_ 


_ 


_ 


May 


_ 


8-5 


S 


35 


NW 


1 


1 


_ 


June 


_ 


8-4 


S 


34 


SW 


2 








July 


_ 


7-1 


W 


29 


sw 


3 


- 


- 


August 


_ 


6-5 


W 


31 


NW 


2 





- 


September 


_ 


7-3 


sw 


30 


SW 


1 


1 





October 


_ 


7-2 


sw 


35 


SE 





1 





November 




6-6 


sw 


30 


SW 


_ 


1 





December 


_ 


6-8 


NW 


27 


SW 


_ 


1 























Year 


- 


7-5 


SW 


35 


NW, SE 


9 


5 


- 



*Wind, days with thunder, etc., 1911-1920. 

tSoura WEST POINT, ANTICOSTI. QUE., lat. 49 23 N. , long. 63 38 W. 



January 


16 


21-9 


NW 


72 


NW 


_ 


_ 


- 


February 


13 


19-9 


SW 


65 


NW 


- 


1 


- 


March 


12 


18-6 


S 


68 


NW 





1 





April 


8 


15-8 


SE 


70 


NW 


_ 


3 





May 


6 


13-8 


SE 


52 


NW 





3 





June 


4 


13-3 


SE 


56 


W 


_ 


5 





July -: 


3 


12-1 


SE 


44 


W 


_ 


7 





August 


4 


12-3 


SE 


68 


W 





5 





September 


6 


14-3 


SE 


58 


NW 





3 





October 


10 


16-6 


S 


67 


W 





4 





November . 


11 


18-8 


SE 


98 


N 





1 





December 


14 


20-6 


SW 


71 


NW 





1 























Year 


107 


16-5 


S 


98 


N 


- 


34 


- 



fWind, days with thunder, etc., 1897-1920. 



II. HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY. 



I. HISTORY OF CANADA. 1 

ih n t bee ? , co dered desirable to load the text of this section with numerous dates For 

these the reader is referred to the chronological history printed at the end of this section of the YwrBook. 

The Founding of the French Colony. The year 1608 may be regarded as the 
birth-year of Canada. The country and the name had been made known by the 
voyages of the Breton sea-captain, Jacques Cartier, of St. Malo, in the early half 
of the preceding century, and one or two ill-fated and wholly abortive attempts 
at settlement had subsequently been made; but in 1608, under the leadership of 
Samuel de Champlain, of Brouages in Saintonge, the first permanent settlement 
was made. It was but a slender colony that he planted under the shadow of the 
great rock of Quebec; the germ of life, however, was there, a life which, surviving 
all perils and difficulties, finally struck its roots deep and branched out into a nume 
rous and vigorous people. 

The claim of France to the St. Lawrence country was held to have been estab 
lished by the discoveries made in the name of the French King, Francis I. It 

was assumed that what was then called Acadia, 
which may be described roughly as the region 
of our present Maritime provinces, had also 
become French territory, notwithstanding the 
fact that Cape Breton had been discovered in 
1497 by John Cabot, sailing under a commis 
sion from Henry VII of England. During the 
five years preceding the arrival of Champlain s 
colony at Quebec, settlements in which Cham- 
plain took part had been attempted by the 
French at Port Royal (Annapolis) in Nova 
Scotia, and at the mouth of the St. Croix river. 
The Fur Trading Companies. The 
main motive for the occupation of the country, 
so far as the adventurers Champlain perhaps 
alone excepted were concerned, was the fur 
trade, though the royal commissions or patents 
JACQUES CARTIER under which they operated invariably contained 

stipulations for actual colonization and for missionary work among the Indians. 
These stipulations were systematically evaded by a succession of associations or 
companies to whom privileges were granted. Of course there were difficulties in 
the way; the native Indians were uncertain in their movements and at times mena 
cing; but this was not the real deterrent to settlement. The adventurers thought, 
and with reason, that settlement would hamper trade. 

Champlain s colony had at first consisted of about thirty persons. Twenty 
years later, when it barely exceeded one hundred, Charles I of England during his 
war on France granted letters of marque to David Kirke, authorizing him to attack 
the French possessions in Canada. After fitting out a small fleet of privateers, 
Kirke s first stroke, early in 1628, was to capture, in the mouth of the St. Lawrence, 

T T Re ^ sed and abridged from the history prepared under the direction of Arthur G. Doughty CMC 
LL.D., Deputy Minister, Public Archives of Canada, for the 1913 Year Book. 




HISTORY OF CANADA 



61 



a French fleet of eighteen vessels, which were carrying out a number of new colonists 
for the settlement, as well as badly needed supplies of provisions, goods and military 
stores. Just at this time Cardinal Richelieu, moved by the representations Cham- 
plain had made as to the miserable condition and prospects of the colony, had 
resolved to create a company on a much wider basis than any previously formed. 
This was the Company of New France, more generally known as the Company of 
One Hundred Associates. The preamble of the edict issued set forth in forcible 
terms " the lamentable failure of all previous trading associations to redeem their 
pledges in the matter of colonization; and the new associates were, by the 
terms of their charter, bound in the most formal and positive manner to convey 
annually to the colony, beginning in the year 1628, from two to three hundred 
bona fide settlers, and, in the fifteen following years, to transport thither a total 
of not less than four thousand persons male and female." The charter contained 
other useful stipulations, including the maintenance of a sufficient number of clergy 
to meet the spiritual wants both of settlers and natives. So long as it fulfilled 
these conditions, the company was to have absolute sovereignty, under the French 
king, of all French possessions between Florida and the Arctic regions, and from 
Newfoundland as far west as it could take possession of the country. 

It was in furtherance of these plans that the fleet which Kirke captured had 
been sent out. Had Kirke sailed at once to Quebec the place would have fallen 
but he preferred to let starvation do his work. The following year he took the 
- town without a struggle and set up his brother as governor. Champlain and many 
of his associates returned to France. But in the meantime peace had been signed 
and in 1632 Canada was given back to France. 

It now remained to be seen what Riche 
lieu s company would effect. Crippled by the 
loss of the capital invested in the fleet of 1628, 
it did not accomplish much, although a beginning 
was made when Champlain returned to Quebec 
in May, 1633, bringing with him over a hundred 
settlers. His life was, however, drawing to a 
close, and he died on Christmas Day, 1635. 

Several events of special importance may 
be noted here. In 1639, two ladies of distinction 
arrived from France, Madame de la Peltrie and 
Madame Guyard, the latter better known as 
Mere de 1 Incarnation. Their monument is the 
Ursuline Convent of Quebec. In 1641 M. de 
Maisonneuve conducted a band of earnest 
followers to Montreal in order to found there 
a strictly Christian colony. Twelve years later 
Sister Margaret Bourgeoys established at Mont 
real the Congregation de Notre Dame for the education of girls. The year 1668 
is glorious in Canadian annals for what has been .called the Canadian Thermopylae. 
To avert an attack on Montreal^ Dollard, a young inhabitant of the place, and a 
score or so of companions threw themselves in the path of the Iroquois, and so 
sternly and heroically defended a position they had fortified on the river Ottawa 
that the Indians were disheartened and withdrew. Of the Canadians, all but one 
perished. 




CHAMPLAIN 



62 HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 

The year 1659 is marked by the arrival of Monseigneur de Laval, with the 
title of Bishop of Petrsea, in partibus, and the powers of Vicar Apostolic, to preside 
over the church in New France; from 1674 to 1688 he exercised full powers as 
Bishop of Quebec. In 1663, the Company of New France practically acknow 
ledged its insolvency and made a surrender of all its rights and privileges to the 
King. It had not carried out its engagements; in fact its policy had differed little 
from that of its less distinguished predecessors. It had bound itself to plant in 
Canada not less than 4,000 settlers in fifteen years, yet a census taken in 1666, 35 
years after it had begun operations, showed that the whole population of the country 
was less than 3,500. 

Royal Government. -The King accepted the surrender made by the company 
and proceeded to establish a still larger one under the name of the West India 
Company. Colbert, the great Minister of Marine and Colonies and the incarnation 
of the mercantile system, was the inspirer of the idea; yet, as the prestige of Riche 
lieu had not saved the Company of New France from shipwreck, neither did that 
of Colbert and his royal master save the Company of the West Indies. It lost 
its monopoly of Canadian trade in 1669. The country had been governed since 
1663 by the Sovereign Council of New France. 

The first governor of New France to make a name for himself in history is 
Louis de Buade, Count Frontenac, who arrived in Canada in the year 1672; but a few 
years earlier a man of greater note had been sent to Canada as intendant, an office 
involving financial and judicial authority exercised in nominal subordination to the 
Governor as the King s personal representative, but with a large measure of prac 
tical independence. This was Jean Talon. He was the first to perceive the indus 
trial and commercial possibilities of the country, and the first to take any effectual 
steps for their development. Mines, fisheries, agriculture, the lumber trade and 
one or more lines of manufacture all received his attention. He returned to France 
shortly after the arrival of Frontenac, but he had given an impulse which had 
lasting effects upon the economic life of Canada. 

Frontenac, a veteran soldier, established good relations with the Iroquois, 
who had been the most dangerous -enemies of the colony, but his relations with the 
intendant, Jacques Duchesneau, who succeeded Talon after an interval of three 
years, were most unhappy, and those with Bishop Laval were somewhat strained. 
So much trouble did their disputes cause to the home government that both he and 
the intendant were recalled in 1682. Two mediocre governors, M. de la Barre, 
and the Marquis de Denonville, succeeded; after them Frontenac, now in his 
seventieth year, was again sent out. It was on the day of his departure from 
France, August 5, 1689, that the terrible massacre by the Iroquois, narrated in all 
Canadian histories, occurred at Lachine. 

A month or so before this, France had declared war on England as a sequel 
to the English Revolution of 1688, and Frontenac made it his first duty on arriving 
in Canada to organize attacks on the neighbouring English colonies. The massacre 
at Lachine was outdone by massacres by French and Indians at Schenectady, and 
other outlying English settlements. 

The English colonists did not remain passive under these attacks. In May, 
1690, an expedition under Sir Willram Phipps, a native of what is now the state 
of Maine, sailed from Nova Scotia, and took possession of Port Royal and other 
forts and settlements in that region. With a greatly increased force, some thirty- 
two ships in all and over two thousand men, he set sail for Quebec in full expect 
ation of capturing that fortress and making an end of French power in North 



HISTORY OF CANADA 



63 



America, but the expedition proved a disastrous failure and involved the people of 
Boston in a very heavy financial loss. 

The remaining years of Frontenac s second administration were marked by 
border warfare and negotiations with Indian allies and enemies, followed by a 
general peace which was solemnly ratified a few years later. Frontenac died on 
November 28, 1698. 

During the remainder of the French regime the history of Canada was marked 
by no outstanding events. The war of the Spanish Succession caused a renewal 
of war on the Canadian frontier, two of the principal incidents being the massacres 
of English colonists at Deerfield and Haverhill in Massachusetts (1708). In the 
summer of 1711 a powerful expedition was despatched against Quebec by way of 
the St. Lawrence under the command of Sir Hovenden Walker. Had this force 
reached Quebec it was amply sufficient to overpower any opposition that could 
have been made to it, but the elements seemed to be arrayed against the invader. 
A number of transports, crowded with troops, were wrecked at Sept lies, and the 
enterprise had to be abandoned. The war in Europe was, however, disastrous 
to France, and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) transferred to England the French 
possessions of Acadia and Newfoundland. The limits of Acadia were not at the time 
defined with any accuracy, and the French continued to occupy the mouth of the 
St. John river and what is now the city of St. John. Cape Breton, or as they called 
it, He Royale, was left by the treaty in their possession, together with He St. Jean, 



CANADA 

by tH 
Proclamation of 1763 



ifflll 

IP 














Reproduced by perm.ssion oi Sir Charles Lucas and tf.e uelegales of the Clarendon Press, Oxford 

CANADA IN 1763. 

now Prince Edward Island, and they perceived the importance of placing the former 
island in an adequate state of defence. Special attention was paid to the fortifica 
tion of Louisburg. War having again broken out between England and France, 
an expedition was formed in New England under the command of Sir William 



64 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 




Pepperell, to attack the French fortress. A small English squadron joined the 
expedition, and the capture of the place was accomplished on June 16, 1745. The 
peace of Aix la-Chapelle, in 1748, restored the fortress and the whole island to France, 
to the great disappointment of the New Englanders. Ten years later (July 26, 
1758), the Seven Years War having broken out, it again passed into the possession 
of Great Britain after a siege in which General Wolfe greatly distinguished himself. 
The Capture of Quebec and Cession of Canada. The expedition against 

Quebec was part of the war policy of the great 
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, who chose 
Wolfe for the command. The story of how 
Wolfe s army scaled the heights above the city 
on the night of September 12-13, 1759, is among 
the best known of historical incidents. The 
battle that ensued on the morning of the 13th 
has been rightly looked upon as one of the 
most decisive events in the world s history. 
Wolfe died victorious; Montcalm, no less gallant 
a soldier, was carried from the field fatally 
wounded, and expired on the following day. 
Quebec surrendered to the British, and the 
capitulation of Montreal, a year later, placed 
the whole country in their possession, though 
the Treaty of Paris, by which Canada was 
ceded to Great Britain, was not signed till 
GENERAL WOLFE February 10, 1763. 

Military Government. For a period of fifteen years after 1759, the govern 
ment of Canada was of a military character, and no small amount of confusion 
existed in the administration of justice and the general application of law to the 
affairs of the community. In the year 177.4, an important step was taken in the 
passing of the Quebec Act, which established a council with limited legislative 
powers, sanctioned the use of French law in civil matters, confirmed the religious 
orders in the possession of their estates, granted full freedom for the exercise of the 
Roman Catholic religion and authorized the collection of the customary tithes by 
the clergy. The Act also defined the limits of Canada as extending south to the 
Ohio and west to the Mississippi. On that account, and also on account of the 
recognition granted to the Roman Catholic church, it gave great umbrage to the 
older colonies. The following year witnessed, in the battle of Lexington, the first 
bloodshed in then- quarrel with the Mother Country. 

Towards the end of 1775 two bodies of colonial troops marched against 
Canada, one under Montgomery by way of lake Champlain, and the other 
under Benedict Arnold through the woods of Maine. Montreal was captured 
and the two commanders joined forces some miles above Quebec. On December 
31, each led an attack on that city from different quarters. Both attacks 
were repulsed; Montgomery was slain and Arnold was wounded. In the spring 
the Americans retreated and shortly afterwards evacuated the country. Canada 
had been saved by the Fabian policy of Carleton. 

The Grant of Representative Institutions. The task which devolved 
on Great Britain in the government of her new possession demanded an amount 
of practical wisdom which few of her statesmen possessed. The military men at 



HISTORY OF CANADA 



65 




GENERAL JIONTCALM 



the head of affairs in the colony Murray, Carleton, Haldimand were men of 

character and intelligence; but the questions arising between the two races which 

found themselves face to face in Canada, as an English immigration began to 

flow into the country, both from the British 

Isles and from the colonies to the south, hardly 

admitted of theoretical treatment. The Quebec 

Act, which created a nominative Council but not 

a representative Assembly, did not satisfy the 

new-comers. Racial antagonism was by this 

time causing friction, so the British Government 

decided to divide the Province of Quebec into 

the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, 

and to- give each a legislature consisting of two 

houses a nominative Council and an elective 

Assembly. The population of Lower Canada at 

this time was about 165,000 and that of Upper 

Canada probably 15,000. The population of 

the country as a whole had been greatly 

increased by the Loyalist emigration, partly 

voluntary, partly compulsory, from the United 

States. In Lower Canada the exiles found 

homes chiefly in that portion of the province 

known as the Eastern Townships and in the Gaspe peninsula, and in Upper 

Canada in the townships fronting on the St. Lawrence river, around the bay of 

Quinte, in the Niagara district and along the Detroit river. 

It was not, however, only the Canadian provinces that received accessions to 
population from this source. Considerable bodies of Loyalists directed their steps 
to the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and some also to Prince Edward 
Island. Wherever they chose to settle, lands were granted to them by the British 
government, and after a period of struggle with new conditions many began to find 
comfort and prosperity under the flag of their forefathers. These provinces all 
possessed what has been called a " pre-loyalist " element in their population, 
consisting of settlers from New England and other parts of what subsequently 
became the United States. These, as difficulties developed between Great Britain 
and her American colonies, did not, as a rule, manifest any very strong British 
feeling, and the relations between them and the later Loyalist settlers were not 
altogether cordial. 

Nova Scotia, which had been British since its cession under the Treaty of 
Utrecht, received parliamentary institutions as early as 1758, though in practice 
the administration was mainly in the hands of the Governor of the province and his 
Council. Up to the year 1784 it was held to embrace what is now New Brunswick 
and also Cape Breton, but in that year these were both constituted separate pro 
vinces. Cape Breton was reunited to Nova Scotia in the year 1820, not without 
considerable opposition on the part of the inhabitants. 

The representative institutions conferred upon the two Canadas by the Act 
of 1791 quickened political life in both provinces and stimulated emigration from 
the United States. After a time a demand began to be made in both provinces, 
but less distinctly in the lower than in the upper, for " responsible government. " 

In the absence of legislative control over executive administration, taxation 
was excessively unpopular, and without adequate appropriations, public works 
623735 



66 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



could not be undertaken on the scale which the public interest required. In Upper 
Canada antagonism grew up between the official party, to which the name of 
" Family Compact " was given, and those who desired more liberal institutions. 
In Lower Canada a similar condition developed, further embittered by racial feeling. 
The intentions of the home government were good, but the wants of the provinces 
were only imperfectly known, and the military governors who were sent out were 
not, as a rule, fitted to grapple with difficult political situations. The Governments 
of both Uprer and Lower Canada had at their disposal certain revenues collected 
under an Imperial Customs Act passed in 1774 for the express purpose of pro 
viding a permanent means of carrying on the civil government. In both 
provinces the liberal party demanded that the revenue in question should be 



THE TWO 



THE MARITIME PROVINCES 




Reproduced by permission of Sir Charles Lucas and the Delegates o. the Clare u on Press, Oxford. 

THE Two CANADAS IN 1791. 

placed under the control of the local legislature. In Upper Canada the matter was 
amicably arranged; the legislature took over the revenue and in return voted a 
small permanent civil list. In Lower Canada the legislature took over the revenue 
as offered by the home government, but refused to vote a civil list. Several years 
of political conflict ensued, the legislature refusing supplies and the government 
being obliged to take money from the military chest in order to pay salaries to 
the public officers. Finally an imperial Act was passed (February 10, 1837) sus 
pending the constitution of Lower Canada and authorizing the application of 
the provincial funds to necessary purposes. 

The War of 1812-15. In following the course of the internal political develop 
ment of the country, the present narrative has been carried past a very serious 
crisis in its earlier history, the war of 1812-15. The causes of the conflict have no 
connection with Canadian history, but Canada was made the theatre of operations, 
and Canadian loyalty to the Mother Country was put to a crucial test. The war 
was opened brilliantly by General Brock in the capture of Detroit, held by an 
American force much superior to his own (August 16, 1812), and at the battle of 
Queenston Heights (October 13, 1812), in which an invading force was driven back 
with heavy loss, but in which the gallant Brock fell. The subsequent course of the 
struggle was marked by alternate victory and defeat. In two naval battles, lake 



HISTORY OF CANADA 67 



Erie (September 10, 1813) and lake Champlain (September 11, 1814), the British 
fleets sustained serious reverses; while in the engagements of Stoney Creek (June 
5, 1813) and Crysler s Farm (November 11, 1813) and the very decisive one of 
Chateauguay (October 26, 1813), victory rested with the defenders of Canada. 
The main effect of the war, which was brought to a close by the Treaty of Ghent 
(December 24, 1814), was to strengthen British sentiment in Canada and to give 
to the Canadians of both provinces an increased sense both of self-reliance and of 
confidence in the protection of the Mother Country. Lower Canada suffered but 
little from the depredations of the enemy. Upper Canada, on the other hand, 
suffered seriously, her capital, York, having been captured and its public buildings 
burnt (April, 1813) and a large extent of her frontier devastated. Nevertheless, 
when Mr. Gore returned to the province in September, 1815, he reported that the 
country was in a fairly prosperous condition owing to the large amount of ready 
money which war expenditure had put into circulation. 

The Rebellion of 1837 and Lord Durham s Report. Towards the close 
of the year 1837, to resume the domestic history of the country, the political disagree 
ments to which reference has been made resulted in attempts at armed rebellion 
in both the Canadian provinces. These attempts were speedily repressed, especially 
in Upper Canada, where the insurrection was confined to a comparatively small 
section of the population, and occurred at a moment when the provincial govern 
ment, under Sir F. B. Head, was supported by a large majority of the legislative 
body. 

In consequence of these troubles, the Home Government decided to send out a 
special commissioner to make a thorough investigation, not only in Upper and 
Lower Canada, but in all the North American provinces, for all had suffered political 
restlessness. The person chosen was the Earl of Durham, son-in-law of the second 
Earl Grey, a man of marked ability and of advanced liberal views. His Lordship 
arrived at Quebec on May 29, 1838, commissioned as governor-general of the whole 
of British North America. His stay in the country lasted only five months, but he 
was, nevertheless, able to lay before the British Government in January, 1839, 
an exhaustive report, dealing principally with the affairs of the Canadas. He 
recognized that the tune had come for granting a larger measure of political inde 
pendence to both provinces, and, without indicating the scope he was prepared to 
allow to the principle, made it clear that in his opinion the chief remedy to be applied 
was " responsible government ". This, however, was to be conditional on a reunion 
of the provinces as a means of balancing the two races into which the population 
of Canada was divided, and of procuring as far as possible their harmonious co 
operation in working out the destinies of the country. The imperial authorities 
approved the suggestion, which, however, they recognized as involving very consider 
able difficulty. Lord Durham might have been entrusted with the duty of carrying 
it into effect had he not given up his commission on account of the criticism to which 
some of his plans had been subjected in the British Parliament. The man design 
ated for the task was Charles Poulett Thomson, afterwards raised to the peerage 
as Baron Sydenham and Toronto. 

Thomson arrived at Quebec in October, 1839, and applied himself vigorously 
to his task, the most difficult p irt of which was to render the proposition acceptable 
to the province of Upper Canada, already in full possession of its constitutional 
rights. The constitution of Lower Canada, as already mentioned, had been 
suspended, and had been replaced by the appointment of a special council with 
limited powers. After strenuous negotiations, Thomson succeeded in meeting 
623735| 



68 HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 

certain demands of the western province, and, as the council in Lower Canada wag 
favourable to the scheme, he was able to draft a Bill which, with a few modifica 
tions, was enacted by the Home Government in 1840. General elections were held 
in February, 1841, and the legislature of the united provinces met in June. On 
September 3, Robert Baldwin, representing the constituency of North York, pro 
posed certain resolutions which were carried with little or no opposition, affirming 
the principle of responsible government. 

The United Provinces under Responsible Government. The French 
Canadians were almost without exception opposed to the union, and it was there 
fore impossible at the time to obtain their co-operation in the formation of a ministry. 
Sir Charles Bagot (Lord Sydenham had died in September, 1841) fully recognized, 
as had his predecessor, that the situation was a most unsatisfactory one; more 
over, he saw how easily a combination might at any moment be formed with the 
French Canadian vote in the assembly to defeat his government. He saw, indeed, 
such a combination on the point of being formed, and resolved to ask Mr. Lafon 
taine, the most influential French Canadian in the house, to take cabinet office. 
On condition that Baldwin should be taken in at the same time and that one or two 
other changes should be made in the cabinet, Lafontaine accepted the proposal, 
and the matter was arranged accordingly. The government so formed may be 
regarded as the first Canadian Ministry in the usual acceptation of the word. 

Sir Charles Bagot s successor, Sir Charles Metcalfe, had a misunderstanding 
with his ministers on a question of patronage and with one exception they resigned. 
A genera] election followed, with the result that the Governor-General was over 
whelmingly sustained in Upper Canada, while Lower Canada gave an almost equal 
majority in favour of the late government. The Draper- Viger government, which 
now came into power, had a most precarious support in the assembly, and in the 
general election of January, 1848, Lord Elgin being Governor-General at the time, 
Baldwin and Lafontaine were restored to office by a large majority. A leading 
member of their government was Mr. (afterwards Sir) Francis Hincks, who occupied 
the post of Inspector General, or, as he would to-day be designated, Finance 
Minister. Baldwin and Lafontaine having both retired in 1851, the Government 
was reconstructed, with Hincks as Prime Minister and A. N. Morin as leader of the 
Lower Canada section. 

Much useful legislation must be credited to the Baldwin-Lafontaine ministry. 
The session of 1849 alone produced the Judicature Act, the Municipal Corporations 
Act, which gave Canada a workable system of local government substantially the 
same as that which exists to-day, the Act for amending the charter of the University 
of Toronto and enlarging the basis of that institution, an Amnesty Act, which 
enabled any hitherto unpardoned rebels of 1837-8 to return to the country, and the 
Rebellion Losses Act. The latter Act, though carefully framed to exclude any 
payments to persons who had actively participated in the rebellion, was represented 
by certain opponents of the government as designed to recompense such persons, 
and its signature by Lord Elgin was followed by rioting in Montreal, then the seat 
of government. The Governor-General was mobbed as he drove through the 
streets, and the legislative buildings were set on fire and totally destroyed 
(April 25, 1849). One result was the removal of the seat of government to Toronto 
in the fall of the same year and the adoption of a system by which that city and 
Quebec were alternately to be the seat of government. The Hincks ministry was 
chiefly remarkable for the steps taken to develop a railway system in Canada and 
for the adoption of a Reciprocity Treaty between Canada and the United States. 



HISTORY OF CANADA 69 



In the making of this treaty Lord Elgin took the deepest interest, and it was largel 
due his skilful diplomacy and unusual powers of persuasion that the negotiations 
proved successful. Hincks himself visited Washington and argued the case in 
papers submitted to Congress. The treaty was undoubtedly beneficial to Canada, 
particularly when the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 caused a greatly 
increased demand for farm products of every kind. 

Although the union of the provinces and the introduction of responsible 
government gave a new stimulus to the political and social life of Canada, grave 
political difficulties were not long in developing. The differences between the 
eastern and western sections of the province were very marked and any political 
party which rested mainly on the votes of either section was sure to incur keen 
opposition in the other. The Draper-Viger government, formed by Sir Charles 
Metcalfe, rested mainly on Upper Canada votes; the Baldwin-Lafontaine govern 
ment, which followed, rested mainly on Lower Canada votes. The Act of Union 
had given equal representation in the Assembly forty-two members to each 
section of the province. Lower Canada at the time had th^larger population; 
but owing to immigration, the census of 1851 showed a balance in favour of Upper 
Canada. An agitation then sprang up in the west for representation by popula 
tion, but the demand was stoutly resisted by Lower Canada. The Hincks govern 
ment was defeated in 1854 by a combination of Conservatives and Reformers, 
and was succeeded in September of that year by a coalition under the premiership 
of Sir Allan MacNab. Under the new government, two very important measures 
were carried, the secularization of the clergy reserves, which for over twenty 
years had been a subject of contention in the country, and the abolition of what 
was known in Lower Canada as seigneurial tenure. Both were progressive 
measures, and the first was as strongly approved in Upper Canada as the second 
in Lower Canada. 

In 1855, the seat of government, which had been removed from Toronto to 
Quebec in the fall of 1851, was again transferred to the former city, where it remain 
ed till the summer of 1859. In December, 1857, the question of a permanent seat 
of government was decided in favour of Ottawa by Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 
to whom it had been left by a vote of the Canadian Parliament. 

In 1856 Mr. (afterwards Sir) John A. Macdonald, who, as Attorney General 
for the West, had been the most influential member of the coalition government, 
succeeded to the premiership, after ill-health had compelled the retirement of Sir 
Allan MacNab. Party spirit from this time onwards ran very high. Although 
a certain section of the Reformers had supported the coalition government, the 
bulk of the party remained in opposition under the leadership of George Brown, 
whose policy, while it won him many adherents in Upper Canada, had an opposite 
effect in Lower Canada, and thus arrayed the two sections of the province against 
each other. 

Improvements in Transportation. Considerable progress was meanwhile 
being made in the material development of the country. Even before the union, 
some important steps had been taken towards the development of a canal system. 
The Lachifle canal was opened for traffic in 1825; the Welland canal in 1829; the 
Rideau canal, constructed entirely at the expense of the home government, in 1832, 
and the Burlington canal, which made Hamilton a lake port, in the same year. 
An appropriation was made by the legislature of Upper Canada in 1832 for the 
Cornwall canal, but various causes interfered with the progress of the work, and it 
was not till the end of the year 1842 that it was completed. Further developments 



70 HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



and improvements of the canal system followed, and the progress in this respect 
has been continuous to the present day. The total expenditure on canals in Canada 
down to Confederation is officially estimated at $20,962,244. 

The first steam railway in Canada was opened in 1837, between Laprairie, 
at the foot of the Lachine rapids on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, and St. 
Johns, on the Richelieu river, supplying a link in the railway and water communi 
cation between Montreal and New York. In 1847 a line was opened between 
Montreal and Lachine. The fifties were, however, pre-eminently the period of 
railway expansion in pre-Confederation times. In 1853 and 1854 the Great West 
ern railway was opened from Niagara Falls to Hamilton, London and Windsor. 
In 1853 communication was completed between Montreal and Island Pond, establish 
ing connection with a line from that place to Portland, and in 1854 the line was 
opened between Quebec and Richmond, thus giving railway communication between 
Quebec and Montreal. In December, 1855, communication was established between 
Hamilton and Toronto, and in 1856, by the Grand Trunk railway, between Montreal 
and Toronto. TMfc Northern railway from Toronto to Collingwood was completed 
in 1855 and the Buffalo and Lake Huron railway between Fort Erie and Goderich 
in 1858, though sections of it had been completed and operated earlier. 

River and lake navigation developed steadily from the year 1809, when the 
" Accommodation," a steamer owned by John Molson of Montreal, began to 
ply between Montreal and Quebec. The year 1816 saw the " Frontenac " launched 
in lake Ontario. Year by year larger and faster vessels were placed on our 
inland waters, the chief promoters of steamboat enterprises being in Upper Canada, 
the Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston and in Lower Canada, the Hon. John Molson. 
A large and powerful steamboat interest had been created by the middle fifties 
when the competition of the Grand Trunk railway gave a serious blow to lake 
and river transportation. 

It was in the fifties also that steam navigation was established between Canada 
and Great Britain. Mr. (afterwards Sir) Hugh Allan, of Montreal was the pioneer 
in this important enterprise. As early as 1853 some vessels of about 1,200 tons 
capacity were p aced upon the route between Montreal and Liverpool, and in 
1855 a mail contract was assigned to the Allan firm for a fortnightly service. The 
early history of this enterprise was marked by an unparalleled and most discour 
aging series of disasters; but with unflagging courage the owners of the Allan line 
held to their task, repaired their losses as best they could, and gradually succeeded 
in giving the service a high character for regularity and safety. 

The Genesis of Confederation. 1 The idea of a federation of the British 
provinces in North America had been mooted at various times. It had been 
hinted at in the discussion in the House of Commons on the Constitutional 
or Canada Act in 1791. William Lyon Mackenzie suggested it in 1825, and 
Lord Durham had given it his consideration, but was led to believe it impractic 
able in his time. The idea was taken up and strongly advocated by the British 
American League, a short-lived political organization of a conservative character 
formed at Montreal in 1849, with branches in other cities. In 1851 the question 
was brought before the legislature, but a motion for an address to the Queen on 
the subject only secured seven votes. In 1858, however, a strong speech in its 
favour was made by Mr. (afterwards Sir) A. T. Gait. Macdonald s government 
was defeated in 1858 but was reconstructed under Cartier with union of the 

a For a more detailed account of the Confederation negotiations, see Sir Joseph Pope s article, "The 
Story of Confederation," in the 1918 Year Book, pp. 1-13. 



HISTORY OF CANADA 71 

provinces as its policy. The political situation in Great Britain was not favour 
able to any decisive action at the time, and some years elapsed before the 
question was taken up in a practical manner. 

Towards the close of the year 1861 the country had been greatly excited over 
the Trent difficulty with the United States. At one moment war between Great 
Britain and the republic seemed imminent. It was doubtless under the influence 
of the national feeling thus aroused, that the government led by Cartier intro 
duced a Militia Bill of very wide scope. The government at- this time was receiving 
an extremely precarious support; and on their Militia Bill they sustained a decisive 
defeat, largely owing to the unpopularity of the measure in Lower Canada. "Upon 
the resignation of Cartier and his colleagues, J. S. Macdonald was entrusted with 
the task of forming a government. Two short-lived administrations followed, 
when it became apparent that parliamentary government in Canada, as it was 
then constituted, had come to a dead stop. On several fundamental questions 
there was between eastern and western Canada an antagonism of views which 
made it impossible for any government to receive adequate support. Thus the 
idea of a larger union, with a relaxation of the bonds in which Upper and Lower 
Canada were struggling, forced itself on the attention of the leading men of both 
parties. The leader in this new path was undoubtedly George Brown, who, early 
in the session, had been appointed chairman of a committee to consider the best 
means of remedying the political difficulties referred to. The committee had 
recommended the adoption of a federative system, either as between Upper and 
Lower Canada or as between all the British North American colonies. Brown 
having consented to co-operate, if necessary, with his political opponents to that 
end, a coalition government was formed under the leadership of J. A. Macdonald, 
in which Brown accepted the position of President of the Council. 

At this very time the three Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Bruns 
wick, and Prince Edward Island were considering the question of a federal union 
amongst themselves, and had arranged a meeting at Charlottetown in September, 
1864, to consider the matter. A delegation from the legislature of Canada attended 
to place their larger scheme before the Maritime delegates. It was agreed to 
adjourn the convention to Quebec, there to meet on the 10th October. From the 
deliberations which then took place sprang the Dominion of Canada as it exists to 
day; for, although the federation as formed by the British North America Act only 
embraced the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (Upper and Lower Canada), New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, provision was made for taking in the remaining pro 
vinces and portions of British North America, as opportunity might offer. The 
immediate effect of Confederation was to relax the tension between Upper and 
Lower Canada, and, by providing a wider stage of action, to give a new and enlarged 
political life to all the provinces thus brought into union. 

The political history of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in the period preceding 
Confederation ran parallel in many respects with that of Upper and Lower Canada. 
As already mentioned, New Brunswick became a separate province in 1784. Its 
first Legislative Assembly, consisting of twenty-six members, met at Fredericton 
in January, 1785. It was to be expected that the home authorities, dealing with 
sparse populations scattered over the vast extents of territory acquired by British 
arms, should have provided for them institutions and methods of administration 
to some extent of a paternal character. It was natural too that the point of view 
should in the first place be the imperial one. As result two conflicting tendencies 
arose, the tendency of the strictly colonial system to consolidate itself and to form 



72 HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



vested interests, and the tendency of increasing population to demand for the 
people a fuller measure of political initiative and a well defined responsibiJity of the 
government to the electors. The main difference between the Maritime provinces 
and the Canadas hi this respect was that, while in the latter violent means were 
employed in order to bring about reforms, in the former, constitutional methods 
were strictly adhered to. In Nova Scotia, the cause of reform found its strongest 
champion in Joseph Howe; in New Brunswick the lead was taken by such men 
as E. B. Chandler ana L. A. Wilmot. For all the provinces the full recognition 
and establishment of the principle of responsible government may be assigned 
to the years of 1848 and 1849. 

The Confederation Agreement and the Extension of Canada. The 

principle of representation according to population was put into operation by the 
British North America Act, so far as the constitution of the elective chamber, 
henceforward to be called the House of Commons, " was concerned. In the 
old Canadian Legislature each section of the province returned sixty-five members. 
The new province of Quebec retained this measure of representation, and the 
other provinces were allowed representation in the same proportion as sixty-five 
bore to the population of the province of Quebec. In the upper house, or "Senate," 
equality of representation was established as between Ontario and Quebec, twenty- 
four seats being given to each, while New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were allowed 
twelve each. The debts of the several provinces were equitably provided for, 
and a payment at so much per head of population was made for provincial expenses 
out of the federal revenue arising from customs, excise, etc. In the course of a 
few years, certain financial readjustments which local circumstances seemed to call 
for were made in the case of both Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 

In the old province of Canada the extinction of the Hudson s Bay Company s 
claims in Rupert s Land and the Northwest and the acquisition and organization 
of those vast territories had at different times occupied the attention of the govern 
ment. In the year 1856 the subject was mtich debated in the press, and in 1857 
Chief Justice Draper was sent to England to discuss the matter. In the speech 
from the throne in the year following the governor-general said; " Correspondence 
in relation to the Hudson s Bay Company and its territory will be laid before you. 
It will be for you to consider the propositions made by Her Majesty s Secretary 
of State for the Colonies to the company and to weigh well the bearings of these 
propositions on the interests and rights of Canada. Papers will also be submitted 
to you showing clearly the steps taken by the provincial government for the asser 
tion of those interests and rights and for their future maintenance." 

it was not, however, till after Confederation that definite action was taken. 
In the first session of the Dominion Parliament an address to the Queen was adopted 
embodying certain resolutions moved by the Hon. William McDougall. McDougall 
and Cartier were sent to England to follow the matter up, and after some months 
of negotiation they succeeded in arranging for the transfer. 

The first province formed out of the ceded territory was Manitoba. The appre 
hensions of the half-breed population that certain rights, regarded by them as 
prescriptive, would not be duly protected, retarded for some months the accession 
of the new province to the Dominion. An expeditionary force under Sir Garnet 
(later Field-Marshal Viscount) Wolseley was sent to the disturbed region, but 
before its arrival at Fort Garry (September 24, 1870) all opposition had ceased. 
The date of the legal creation of. the province was July 15, 1870, on which date 
the Northwest Territories were also placed under a territorial government. The 



HISTORY OF CANADA 



73 




CANADA AT CONFEDERATION IN 1867. 
(ONTARIO, QUEBEC, NOVA SCOTIA AND NEW BRUNSWICK). 







CANADA IN 1870, SHOWING THE NEW PROVINCE OF MANITOBA AND THE 
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES AS THEN ORGANIZED. 



74 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 




CANADA IN 1873, SHOWING THE ADDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (1871) AND 

OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (1873). 




CANADA IN 1905, SHOWING THE NEW PROVINCES OF SASKATCHEWAN AND 
ALBERTA AND THE YUKON TERRITORY. 

NOTE. The political divisions of Canada in 1923 are shown in the coloured map inserted immediately 
.before the table of contents. 



HISTORY OF CANADA 75 



subsequent development of the whole western region, the enlargement (twice) of 
the limits of Manitoba, the creation out of the Northwest Territories of the two 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta and of the Yukon Territory are matters 
within recent memory. The map on pages 73 and 74 illustrate the political 
development of Canada from 1867 to 1905. 

In 1867 British Columbia had a separate provincial Government, established 
in 1858. After the provincial Legislature had passed resolutions in favour of union 
with Canada on certain specified conditions, including the construction of a trans 
continental railway and the maintenance of a sea service between Victoria and 
San Francisco, the Pacific province on July 20, 1871, joinecf the Confederation. 
Two years later (July 1, 1873) Prince Edward Island also was admitted. 

In 1866, the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States of 1854 had been 
abrogated. The effect was temporarily depressing so far as Canada was concerned, 
but the main result was to create an active search for other markets, and in the 
same year a commission, headed by Hon. Wm. McDougall, was sent to the West 
Indies and South America with that object. In the same year an attack was made 
by the Fenians, chiefly soldiers from the disbanded armies of the northern states, 
on the Niagara frontier. In an engagement which took place near the village of 
Ridgeway, the Canadian volunteers sustained, for their numbers, considerable loss; 
but the enemy, hearing of the advance of a body of regular troops, made their 
escape to the American side, where they were arrested by the civil authorities. 

An important event in the early history of the Dominion was the negotiation 
of the Treaty of Washington (1871). The abrogation of the Reciprocity Treaty, 
had put an end to the fishing rights in British waters which, under that treaty, 
the Americans had enjoyed. American fishermen were, however, slow to recognize 
or accept the change, and were bent on enjoying the privileges to which they had 
grown accustomed. When some of their vessels were seized and confiscated much 
ill-feeling arose; and, as the Alabama claims were still unsettled, relations between 
Great Britain and the United States were in a highly unsatisfactory condition. 

In these circumstances it was decided to refer the principal matters in dispute 
between the two countries to a joint commission, consisting of five members from 
each; the Canadian Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, was appointed as a 
member on the British side in order that the interests of Canada might have full 
representation. The Commission accomplished some viseful work, inasmuch as 
. it provided a means for the settlement of the Alabama claims and of the San Juan 
question; but while the Canadian Parliament ratified the clauses relating to 
Canadian interests, the feeling was general that those interests had in a measure 
been sacrificed. The fisheries were to be thrown opeji to the Americans for a period 
of ten years, and a commission was to decide as to the compensation to be paid to 
Canada for the privilege. The Americans were to have free navigation of the St. 
Lawrence and the use of the Canadian canals on the same terms as Canadians, 
while the latter were to have the free navigation of lake Michigan. It had been 
hoped that some compensation might be obtained for losses inflicted by the Fenians, 
but the Americans refused absolutely to entertain the proposition. 

The government that was formed to carry Confederation underwent an impor 
tant change before that event took place. George Brown resigned in the month 
of December, 1865, the assigned reason being that he could not agree with his col 
leagues as to the expediency of pushing negotiations with the government at 
Washington on the subject of reciprocity. Later, when Confederation had been 
fully accomplished, a political question arose, namely, whether or not the govern- 



76 HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 

ment should retain its coalition character. Sir John Macdonald was desirous of 
retaining his Reform colleagues, while Brown held that they should retire; they 
decided to remain. 

The first election under Confederation gave the Government a decided majority. 
The second, held in 1872, was again favourable to the Government, though its 
popularity had been somewhat lessened by the dissatisfaction with the Treaty 
of Washington, ratified the year before. Revelations made in 1873, as to the means 
by which election funds had been obtained by the government brought on a Cabinet 
crisis. To avoid impending defeat in the House of Commons, Sir John Macdonald 
resigned (Novembef 5, 1873) and Alexander Mackenzie, the recognized leader of 
the opposition, was called upon to form a government. A general election held 
early in the following year gave a large majority to the new administration. 

The Canadian Pacific and Intercolonial Railways. The agreement with 
British Columbia was that the transcontinental railway should be begun within two 
years after its becoming a province of the Dominion and the question was engaging 
the attention of Sir John Macdonald s Government in 1872, when an Act was passed 
defining the conditions on which a contracting company might construct the line. 
The change of Government involved to some extent a change of policy on the rail 
way question, but the defeat of the Mackenzie Government in September, 1878, 
threw the conduct of the enterprise again into the hands of Macdonald. The 
plan first adopted was that the railway should be built in sections by the govern 
ment, but the difficulties involved were such that in 1880 the work was turned 
over to a syndicate which undertook to form a company to build a road from a 
point near North Bay, Om,., to the Pacific, for a cash payment of $25,000,000 and 
25,000,000 acres of land in what was known as the " Fertile Belt ". The contract 
embraced other points which cannot be detailed. Certain sections of the line 
which the Government had already built, or was building, were also turned over to 
the company. This was the origin of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, which 
has since become one of the most powerful .corporations in the world, controlling 
13,442 miles of railway. The last spike on the main line was driven on November 
7, 1885. 

In connection with Confederation a guarantee had been given by the Imperial 
Government of a loan of 3,000,000 sterling towards the construction of the Inter 
colonial railway. There was considerable delay in the construction of this line, 
-which was not opened through its entire length till the year 1876. That year was 
further marked by the establishment of the Supreme Court of Canada as a court 
of appeal from provincial jurisdictions. In the following year an International 
Commission, created under the terms of the Treaty of Washington to determine 
the amount to be paid to Canada for the ten years concession made to the United 
States in the matter of fisheries, gave an award known as the Halifax award of 
$5,500,000 in favour of Canada. 

The National Policy .The change of Government in 1878 was generally 
recognized as due to a growing feeling in favour of a protective policy for Canada, 
a policy which the Conservative party had adopted, but to which the Liberal 
leader, Mackenzie, was strongly opposed. A tariff, which may be taken as consti 
tuting the first phase of what has since been known as the " National Policy, " 
was introduced by the then Finance Minister, Sir Leonard Tilley, in the session 
of 1879, the effect of which was to raise the customs duties to an average of about 
30 per cent. The first tariff adopted under Confederation, while establishing free 
trade among the provinces, had imposed duties averaging 15 per cent on all goods 



HISTORY OF CANADA 77 



from abroad. This had been increased to 17^ per cent during the Liberal regime, 
which had coincided, in the main, with a period of great financial depression. The 
new tariff was thus a decided step in the direction of protection, and was held to 
be justified by its effect on the trade of the country. 

The year 1880 was marked by the transfer to Canada by Imperial Order in 
Council of all British possessions on the North American continent not previously 
specifically ceded. In the same year the Canadian Academy of Arts was establish 
ed and in the following year the Royal Society of Canada, both of which have been 
influential in promoting the cultural life of the Dominion. 

Reference has been made to certain troubles incident to the organization of 
a government for the province of Manitoba in 1869-70. After a lapse of fifteen years 
the same elements in the population which had then resisted the political change 
again broke out into open rebellion (March, 1885) in the Prince Albert district of 
the territory of Saskatchewan. Militia regiments were despatched from eastern 
provinces under the command of General Sir F. Middleton, and order was complete 
ly restored but not without some loss of life. The same year witnessed the com 
pletion of the Canadian Pacific railway, the last spike having been driven by Sir 
Donald A. Smith (later Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal) at a point called 
Craigellachie on November 7. Canada now possessed within her territory a line 
from ocean to ocean, though the first through train from Montreal to Vancouver 
did not pass over the line till the month of June following. 

General elections were held in the years 1882, 1887 and 1891, and on each 
occasion the Government of the day was sustained. On the last occasion, Sir John 
Macdonald, with his accustomed energy, threw himself into the campaign at a very 
inclement season of the year, but the strain was too great for his years and, when 
parliament met on April 29, he was in visibly impaired health. On June 6, 1891, 
he died, aged 76. By common consent he had done much to shape the political 
history of Canada. His gifts as leader and statesman were acknowledged not less 
freely by opponents than by his supporters. He was succeeded as premier by Sir 
John Abbot, who had only held the position for a year and a half when the state 
of his health compelled him to retire. Sir John Thompson, who succeeded him, 
reconstructed the Government but died while in England on public business in 1894. 

Three Conservative premiers had now died in the space of three years and 
a half. Sir Mackenzie Bowell was then placed at the head of an administration 
in which certain elements of disunion soon began to manifest themselves, as a 
result of which Sir Mackenzie, on April 27, 1896, yielded the reins of Government 
of Sir Charles Tupper, who had for some years been filling the office of High Com 
missioner for Canada in London. A question relating to the public schools of 
Manitoba had now become acute. Upon the establishment of the province a system 
of " separate schools " was organized under which the control of Catholic schools 
was left in the hands of the Catholic section of a general school board. The cancell 
ing of this arrangement in 1890 led to protests and a demand for the " remedial 
legislation" provided for by the British North America Act in cases in which 
educational rights enjoyed by any section of the population before Confederation 
were abridged or disturbed by subsequent legislation. The Privy Council, to whom 
the case had finally been appealed, decided that such remedial legislation was 
called for, and the Dominion Government was consequently under obligation to 
introduce it. The question was much discussed before and during the general 
election of June, 1896, but to what extent it influenced the result is doubtful. The 
Government sustained a decisive defeat (June 23, 1896). 



78 HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 

The Period of Rapid Development. The death of Sir John Macdonald 
had been followed within a year by that of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie (April 
17, 1892). The latter had not, however, been leader of the Liberal party for the 
last five years of his life, the Hon. (afterwards Sir) Wilfrid Laurier having been 
elevated to that position after the general election of 1887. On the accession to 
office of his Government on July 13, 1895, it was recognized that the business of 
the country had adapted itself to the measure of protection provided and that any 
abrupt change would be unwise. One of the earliest measures adopted was the reduc 
tion by one-fourth of the customs duties charged upon articles the growth, produce, 
or manufacture of the United Kingdom, or of certain specified British colonies, 
or of any others, the customs tariff of which was as favourable to Canada as the 
proposed preferential tariff to the colonies in question. An impediment to the 
immediate carrying into effect of this arrangement was found in the existence of 
certain commercial treaties made by Great Britain with Germany and Belgium; 
after this difficulty had been removed by the denunciation of the treaties in question, 
the reduced inter-Imperial tariff went into operation on August 1, 1898. From 
the application of this tariff, wines, spirituous liquors and tobacco were excepted. 
This " British Preference," as it was called, was further increased to one-third in 
the year 1900, but in 1904 this method of granting a preference was abandoned in 
favour of a specially low rate of duty on almost all imported dutiable commodities. 

In a general election which took place on December 7, 1900, the Government 
was sustained. Shortly afterwards Queen Victoria died and was succeeded by 
King Edward VII (January 22, 1901). It had been suggested by the Colonial 
Secretary (Mr. Chamberlain), at the accession of the King, that advantage should 
be taken of the presence in London of the premiers and probably other ministers 
of the self-governing colonies of the Empire, on the occasion of the coronation, to 
discuss various matters of imperial import, and a conference at which he presided 
was opened on June 30 and remained in session till August II. At this conference 
a number of important resolutions were adopted, including one recognizing the 
principle of preferential trade within the Empire and favouring its extension, and 
another recommending the reduction of postage on newspapers and periodicals 
between different parts of the Empire, to which effect was subsequently given. 

The development of Canada during the last twenty years, in population, 
commerce and industry has been very marked, and has been especially conspicuous 
in her western provinces. The Northwest Territories, which at first were governed 
from Winnipeg the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba being also Lieutenant- 
Governor of the territories were organized as the provisional districts of Assi- 
niboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Athabaska on May 17, 1882, under a Lieutenant- 
Governor of their own and with the seat of government at Regina. With the 
growth of population they rapidly advanced towards provincial status, and on 
September, 1905, the four territories were organized as the two provinces of Saskat 
chewan and Alberta, with capitals at Regina and Edmonton respectively. Their 
subsequent progress has been even more remarkable, owing to the large volume of 
population they have annually received both from the United States and from 
European countries, in addition to settlers from eastern Canada. The discovery 
of gold in the Yukon country led to its organization as the Yukon Territory (June 
13, 1898), and as such it returns a member to the House of Commons. The 
mining of gold and silver in Canada led to the establishment at Ottawa (January 
2, 1908) of a branch of the Royal Mint, where gold, silver, nickel and copper coins 
are struck for circulation in the Dominion. 



HISTORY OF CANADA 79 



Two very important arbitrations in which Canada was much interested have 
taken place since 1890, the first relating to the rights possessed by British subjects 
in the seal fisheries of Behring sea, and the second as to the boundary between 
Alaska (purchased by the United States from Russia in 1867) and Canada. In 
the first case the claims advanced, mainly on behalf of Canada by Great Britain, 
were fully upheld (September, 1893). In the second there was some disappoint 
ment in Canada over the award (October, 1903), which did not, however, in any 
serious degree affect Canadian interests. 

Canada s Part in the South African War. In the year 1899, the difficulties 
which had arisen between the British government and the Transvaal, on the sub 
ject of the legal disabilities under which British subjects in that country were labour 
ing, resulted in a declaration of war by the Republic. Sympathy with the Mother 
Country became so acute in Canada -as also in New Zealand and Australia 
that the Government felt impelled to take a share in the struggle by sending Cana 
dian troops to the scene of action. A first contingent of the Royal Canadian 
Regiment left Quebec on the steamer Sardinian on October 30, 1899. Others of 
this force followed, numbering in all 1,150 officers and men, while Mounted Rifles, 
Royal Canadian Dragoons and an artillery corps were also despatched to the front. 
In addition, Lord Strathcona sent out, at his own expense, a special mounted force 
of 597 officers and men. A total of 3,092 officers and men were despatched to 
South Africa in the years 1899 and 1900. The Canadian troops distinguished them 
selves by their bravery, particularly in the battle of Paardeberg (February 27, 
1900) in which the Boer general, Cronje, was forced to surrender. In 1901 there 
was a further enlistment in Canada of Mounted Rifles to the number of 900, at 
the expense of the Imperial Government, and also of 1,200 men for service in the 
South African constabulary. 

Conclusion. Politically, during the greater part of the pre-war period, 
Canada remained under the Government of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, which, however, 
was defeated in 1911 on the issue of freer trade relations with the United States. 
The succeeding Conservative Government, under Sir Robert L. Borden, held office 
during the earlier part of the Great War, but toward its close broadened out to 
include Liberals who believed in the application of a measure of conscription to re 
inforce the Canadians at the front. The Union Government, still under Sir Robert 
Borden, was sustained at the election of December, 1917, and remained in office 
throughout the remainder of the war and demobilization period, but the Liberals 
who had consented in a great emergency to support it, one by one retraced their 
steps. Finally, the increasing weakness of the Government led its new leader, Mr. 
Arthur Meighen, to appeal to the country, which, in December, 1921. returned to 
power the Liberals under Mr. Mackenzie King, who had succeeded Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier as Liberal leader on the death of the latter in 1919. A notable feature of 
the election was the return to the House of Commons of 65 Progressive members, 
mainly agriculturists from Ontario and the Prairie provinces, their number consider 
ably exceeding that of the Conservatives in the new Parliament. 

Economically, the period between 1900 and the outbreak of the war was one 
of rapid expansion, owing largely to the great influx of immigrant labour (see sub 
section " immigration "), and of capital, the total outside capital invested in 
Canada in 1914 being estimated at $3,500,000,000, nearly 80 p.c. of which was 
British. This capital was largely invested in the construction of the new trans 
continental railways, which had been enabled to secure it partly through the 
guaranteeing of their bonds by Dominion and Provincial Governments. The 



80 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



untimely ending of the rapid growth period owing to the war, revealed that these 
railways could not meet their obligations, and the result was nationalization along 
the lines of the Drayton-Acworth report. (See sub-section "Steam Railways"). 

During and since the war, investments in Canada by the capitalists of the 
United States have greatly increased and at the commencement of 1923 Canada s 
total indebtedness to the outside world has been estimated at $5,250,000,000, about 
$2,750,000,000 to the United Kingdom and $2,500,000,000 to the United States. 
But while indebtedness has thus increased, national wealth and national income 
have grown at least proportionately with these obligations, to the people of other 
countries. Our intelligent and industrious population can still face the future 
with confidence. 

The history of Canada has now been covered in briefest outline down to the 
commencement of the war. The history of the war and Canada s part in it was 
dealt with in the leading article of the 1919 Year Book; the story of reconstruction 
in Canada has been summarized in the leading article of the 1920 Year Book; a 
description of the changes brought about by the war in the imperial and inter 
national status of Canada will be found in the next section of the present volume; 
to these articles the interested reader is referred. 



II. CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA, 1497 to 1923. 



1497. 



June 24, Eastern coast of North 
America discovered by John Cabot. 

Cabot discovers Hudson strait. 

Caspar Corte Real visits New 
foundland and Labrador. 
1524. Verrazano explores the coast of 
Nova Scotia. 

June 21, Landing of Jacques Cartier 
at Esquimaux bay. 

Cartier s second voyage. He as 
cends the St. Lawrence to Stada- 
cona (Quebec), (Sept. 14), and 
Hochelaga (Montreal), (Oct. 2). 

Cartier s third voyage. 
1542-3. De Roberval and his party winter 
at Cap Rouge, and are rescued 
by Cartier on his fourth voyage. 

Sept. 1, Death of Cartier at St. Malo, 
France. 

Straits of Juan de Fuca discovered 

by de Fuca. 

1603. June 22, Champlain s first landing 
in Canada, at Quebec. 

Founding of Port Royal (Anna 
polis, N.S.). 

Champlain s second visit. July 3, 
Founding of Quebec. 

July, Champlain discovers lake 

Champlain. 
1610-11. Hudson explores Hudson bay 
and James bay. 

Brule ascends the Ottawa river. 

Oct. 15, Champlain made lieu 
tenant-general of New France. 

June, Champlain ascends the Ottawa 
river. 

Champlain explores lakes Nipis- 
sing, Huron and Ontario. (Dis 
covered by Brule and Le Caron). 



1498. 
1501. 



1534. 
1535. 



1541. 



1557. 
1592. 



1605. 
1608. 
1609. 



1611. 
1612. 

1613. 
1615. 



1616. First schools opened at Three Rivers 
and Tadoussac. 

1620. Population of Quebec, 60 persons. 

1621. Code of laws issued, and register 

of births, deaths and marriages 
opened in Quebec. 

1622. Lake Superior discovered by Brule. 

1623. First British settlement of Nova 

Scotia. 

1627. New France and Acadia granted 

to the Company of 100 Associates. 

1628. Port Royal taken by Sir David 

Kirke. 

1629. April 24, Treaty of Susa between 

France and England. July 20, 
Quebec taken by Sir David Kirke. 

1632. March 29, Canada and Acadia 

restored to France by the Treaty 
of St. Germain-en-Laye. 

1633. May 23, Champlain made first 

governor of New France. 

1634. July 4, Founding of Three Rivers. 
1634-35. Exploration of the Great Lakes 

by Nicolet. 

1635. Dec. 25, Death of Champlain at 

Quebec. 

1638. June 11, First recorded earthquake 
in Canada. 

1640. Discovery of lake Erie by Chau- 

monot and Brebeuf. 

1641. Resident population of New France, 

240. 

1642. May 17, founding of Ville-Marie 

(Montreal) . 

1646. Exploration of the Saguenay by 

Dablon. 

1647. Lake St. John discovered by de 

Quen. 



CHROXOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 



81 



France, 3,918. 
Marie founded 



1648. March 5, Council of New France 1703 

created . 

1649. March 16-17, Murder of Fathers 

Brebeuf and Lalemant by Indians. 

1654. Aug., Acadia taken by an expe 

dition from New England. 

1655. Nov. 3, Acadia restored to France 

by the Treaty of Westminster. 

1659. June 16, Francois de Laval arrives 

in Canada as Vicar-Apostolic. 

1660. May 21, Dollard des Ormeaux and 

sixteen companions killed at the 
Long Sault, Ottawa river. 

1663. Company of 100 Associates dis 

solved. Feb. 5, severe earth 
quake. April, Sovereign Council of 
New France established. Popula 
tion of New France, 2.SOO, of whom 
800 were in Quebec. 

1664. May, Company of the West Indies 

founded. 

1665. Mar. 23, Talon appointed intendant. 

Population of New France, 3,215. 

1667. July 21, Acadia restored to France 

by the Treaty of Breda. White 
population of New 

1668. Mission at Sault Ste. 

by Marquette. 

1670. May 13, Charter of the Hudson s 

Bay Company grant d. 

1671. Population of Acadia, 441. 

1672. Population of New France, 6,705. 

April 6, Comte de Frontenac 
governor. 

1673. June 13, Cataraqui (Kingston) 

founded. 

1674. Oct. 1, Laval becomes first Bishop 

of Quebec. 

1675. Population of New France, 7,832. 

1678. Niagara Falls visited by Hennepin. 

1679. Ship Le Griffon built on Niagara 

river above the falls by La Salle. 
Population of New France, 9,400; 
of Acadia, 515. 

1682. Frontenac recalled. 

1683. Population of New France, 10,251. 

1685. Card money issued. 

1686. Population of New France, 12,373; 

of Acadia, 885. 

1687. March 18, La Salle assassinated. 

1689. June 7, Frontenac reappointed gover 

nor. Aug. 5, Massacre of whites by 
Indians at Lachine. 

1690. May 21, Sir William Phipps captures 

Port Royal, but is repulsed in an 
attack on Quebec (Oct. 16-21). 

1691. Kelsey, of the Hudson s Bay Co., 

reaches the Rocky Mountains. 

1692. Population of New France, 12,431. 

Oct. 22, Defence of Vercheres 
against Indians by Magdeleine 
de Vercheres. 

1693. Population of Acadia, 1,009. 

1697. Sept. 20, by the Treaty of Rys- 

wick, places taken during the 
war are mutually restored. 
D Iberville defeats the Hudson s 
Bay Co. s ships on Hudson Bay. 

1698. Nov. 28, Death of Frontenac. Popula 

tion of New France, 15,355. 

623736 



1706 
1709 
1710 

1711 



1713 



1720 

1721. 

1727. 
1728. 

1731. 
1734. 

1737. 

1739. 
1745. 

1747. 
1748. 
1749. 

1750. 

1752. 



1754. 
1755. 



1756. 
1758. 

1759. 



June 16, Sovereign Council of Canada 
becomes Superior Council and 
membership increased from 7 to 12. 
Population of New France, 16,417. 
British invasion 1 of Canada. 
Oct. 13, Port Royal taken by Nichol 
son. 

Sept. 1, Part of Sir H. Walker s 
fleet, proceeding against Quebec, 
wrecked off the Seven Islands. 
April 11, Treaty of Utrecht; Hud 
son bay, Acadia and Newfound 
land ceded to Great Britain. 
Aug., Louisbourg founded by the 
French. Population of New France, 
18,119. 

Population of New France, 24,234, 

of Isle St. Jean (P.E.I.), about 

100. April 25, Governor and 

Council of Nova Scotia appointed. 

June 19, burning of about one half 

of Montreal. 

Population of New France, 30,613. 
Population of Isle St. Jean (P.E.I.), 

330. 

Population of the north of the penin 
sula of Acadia, 6,000. 
Road opened from Quebec to Mon 
treal. Population of New France, 
37,716. 

Iron smelted at St. Maurice. French 
population of the north of the 
Acadia peninsula, 7,598. 
Population of New France, 42,701. 
June 17, Taking of Louisbourg by 

Pepperell and Warren. 
Marquis de La Jonquiere appointed 
governor, captured at sea by the 
English, took office Ang. 15, 1749. 
Oct. 18, Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Louisbourg restored to France in 
exchange for Madras. 
June 21 , Founding of Halifax. British 
immigrants brought to Nova Scotia 
by Governor Cormvallis, 2,544 
persons. Fort Rouille (Toronto) 
built. 
St. Paul s Church, Halifax (oldest 

Anglican church in Canada) built. 
March 25, Issue of the Halifax 
"Gazette," first paper in Can 
ada. British and German popula 
tion of Nova Scotia, 4,203. May 
17, Death of. La Jonquiere. 
Population of New France, 55,009. 
July 10, Marquis de Vaudreuil- 
Cavagnal governor. Sept. 10, 

Expulsion of the Acadians from 
Nova Scotia. 
Seven Years War between Great 

Britain and France. 
July 26, Final capture of Louis 
bourg by the British. Oct. 7, 
First meeting of the Legislature 
of Nova Scotia. 

July 25, Taking of Fort Niagara 
by the British. July 26, Begin 
ning of the Siege of Quebec. July 
31, French victory at Beauport 
Flats. Sept. 13, Defeat of the 



82 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



French on the Plains of Abraham. 
Death of Wolfe. Sept. 14, Death 
of Montcalm. Sept. 18, Surrender 
of Quebec. 1784. 

1760. April 28, Victory of the French 
under Levis at Ste. Foy. Sept. 8, 
Surrender of Montreal. Military 
rule set up in Canada. Popula- 1785. 
tion of New France, 70,000. 

1762. British population of Nova Scotia, 1786. 

8,104. First British settlement in 
New Brunswick. 

1763. Feb. 10, Treaty of Paris by which 

Canada and its dependencies are 1787. 
ceded to the British. May, 
Rising of Indians under Pontiac, 
who take a number of forts and 1788. 
defeat the British at Bloody Run 
(July 31). Oct. 7, Civil govern 
ment proclaimed. Cape Breton 
and Isle St. Jean annexed to Nova 1789. 
Scotia; Labrador, Anticosti and 
Magdalen islands to Newfound- 1790. 
land. Nov. 21, General Jas. Murray 
appointed governor in chief. First 
Canadian post offices established 
at Montreal, Three Rivers and 
Quebec. 1791. 

1764. June 21, First issue of the Quebec 

"Gazette." Aug. 13, Civil govern 
ment established. 

1765. Publication of the first book printed 

in Canada, "Catechisme du Diocese 
de Sens." May 18, Montreal nearly 
destroyed by fire. Population of 
Canada, 69.810. 1792. 

1766. July 24, Peace made with Pontiac 

at Oswego. 

1768. Charlottetown, P.E.I, founded.. April 

11, Great fire at Montreal. April 

12, Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dor- 
Chester) governor in chief. 1793. 

1769. Isle St. Jean (Prince Edward Island) 

separated from Nova Scotia, with 
governor and council. 

1770-72. Hearne s journey to the Cop 
permine and Slave rivers and 
Great Slave lake. 

1773. Suppression of the order of Jesuits 

in Canada and escheat of their 
estates. 1794. 

1774. June 22, Thn Quebec Act passed. 

1775. May 1, The Quebec Act comes 

into force. Outbreak of the 1795. 
American Revolution. M o n t- 
gomery and Arnold invade Canada. 1796. 
Nov. 12, Montgomery takes Mon 
treal; Dec. 31, is defeated and 1798 
killed in an attack on Quebec. 

1776. The Americans are defeated and 1800 

driven from Canada by Carleton. 

1777. Sept. 18, General Frederick Haldi- 

mand governor in chief. 

1778. Captain Jas. Cook explores Noot- 

ka sound and claims the north- 1803 
west coast of America for Great 
Britain. June 3, First issue of 1806 
the Montreal "Gazette." 
1783. Sept. 3, Treaty of Versailles, recog 
nizing the independence of the 
United States. Organization of 
the Northwest Company at Mont 



real. Kingston, Ont., and St. John, 
N.B., founded by United Empire 
Loyalists. 

Population of Canada, 113,012. 
Aug. 16, New Brunswick and (Aug. 
26) Cape Breton separated from 
Nova Scotia. 

May 18, Incorporation of Parrtown 
(St. John, N.B.). 

April 22, Lord Dorchester again 
governor in chief. Oct. 23; Govern 
ment of New Brunswick moved 
from St. John to Fredericton. 

C. Inglis appointed Anglican bishop 
of Nova Scotia first colonial 
bishopric in the British Empire. 

King s College, Windsor, N.S. 
opened. Sailing packet service 
established between Great Brit 
ain and Halifax. 

Quebec and Halifax Agricultural 
Societies established. 

Spain surrenders her exclusive rights 
on the Pacific coast. Population 
of Canada, 161,311. (This census 
does not include what becomes in 
the next year Upper Canada.) 

The Constitutional Act divides the 
province of Quebec into Upper 
and Lower Canada, each with 
a lieutenant-governor and legis 
lature. The Act goes into force 
Dec. 26. Sept. 12, Colonel J. G. 
Simcoe, first lieutenant-governor 
of Upper Canada. 

Sept. 17, First legislature of Upper 
Canadaopened atNewark (Niagara) . 
Dec. 17, First legislature of Lower 
Canada opened at Quebec. Van 
couver island circumnavigated by 
Vancouver. 

April 18, First issue of the "Upper 
Canada Gazette." June 28, Jacob 
Mountain appointed first Anglican 
bishop of Quebec. July 9, Importa 
tion of slaves into Upper Canada 
forbidden. Rocky Mountains 
crossed by (Sir) Alexander Macken 
zie. York (Toronto) founded by 
Simcoe. 

Nov. 19, Jay s Treaty between 
Great Britain and the United 
States. 

Pacific Coast of Canada finally 

given up by the Spaniards. 
Government of Upper Canada moved 

from Niagara to York (Toronto). 
St. John s Island (population 4,500) 

re-named Prince Edward Island. 
Founding of New Brunswick 
College, Fredericton (now Uni 
versity of N.B.). The Rocky 
Mountains crossed by David 
Thompson. 
Settlers sent by Lord Selkirk to 

Prince Edward Island. 
Nov. 22, Issue of "Le Canadien" 
first wholly French newspaper. 
Population Upper Canada, 70,718; 
Lower Canada, 2. r O,000; New Bruns 
wick, 35,000; P.E.I. ,9, 676. 



CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 



83 



1807. Simon Fraser explores the Fraser 
river. Estimated population of 
Nova Scotia, 65,000. 

1809. Nov. 4, First Canadian steamer 
runs from Montreal to Quebec. 

1811. Lord Selkirk s Red River settle 

ment founded, on land granted by 
Hudson s- Bay Company. 

1812. June 18, Declaration of war by 

the United States. July 12, 
Americans under Hull cross the 
Detroit river. Aug. 16, Detroit 
surrendered by Hull to Brock. 
Oct. 13, Defeat of the Americans 
at Queenston Heights and death 
of Gen. Brock. 

1813. Jan. 22, British victory at French- 

town. April 27, York (Toronto) 
taken and burned by the Ameri 
cans. June 5, British victory at 
Stoney Creek. June 24, British, 
warned by Laura Secord, captured 
an American force at Beaver 
Dams. Sept. 10, Commodore Per 
ry destroys the British flotilla on 
lake Erie. Oct. 5, Americans 
under Harrison defeat the British at 
Moraviantown. Tecumseh killed. 
Oct. 26, Victory of French-Cana 
dian troops under de Salaberry 
at Chateauguay. Nov. 11, Defeat 
of the Americans at Crysler s 
Farm. British storm Fort Niagara 
and burn Buffalo. 

1814. March 30, Americans repulsed at 

La Colle. May 6, Capture of 
Oswego by the British. July 5, 
American victory at Chippawa. 
July 25, British victory at Lun- 
dy s Lane. July, British from 
Nova Scotia invade and occupy 
northern Maine. Sept. 11, British 
defeat at Plattsburg on lake Cham- 
plain. Dec. 24, Treaty of Ghent 
ends the war. Population Upper 
Canada, 95,000; Lower Canada, 
. 335,000. 

1815. July 3, Treaty of London regulates 

trade with the United States. 
The Red River settlement destroy 
ed by the Northwest Company 
but restored by Governor Semple. 

1816. June 19, Governor Semple killed. 

The Red River settlement again 
destroyed. 

1817. July 18, First treaty with the 

Northwest Indians. Lord Selkirk 
restores the Red River settlement. 
Opening of the Bank of Montreal; 
first note issued Oct. 1. Popula 
tion of Nova Scotia, 81,351. 

1818. Oct. 20, Convention at London 

regulating North American fish 
eries. Dalhousie College, Halifax, 
founded. Bank of Quebec founded. 
1819-22. Franklin s overland Arctic ex 
pedition. 

1820. Oct. 16, Cape Breton re-annexed to 

Nova Scotia. 

1821. March 26, The Northwest Com 

pany absorbed by the Hudson s 

62373 6} 



Bay Company. Charter given to 
McGill College. 
1822. Population of Lower Canada, 427,465. 

1824. Population of Upper Canada, 150,066; 

of New Brunswick, 74,176. 

1825. Oct. 6, Great fire in the Miramichi 

district, N.B. Opening of the 
Lachine canal. Population of 
Lower Canada, 479,288. 

1826. Founding of Bytown (Ottawa). 

1827. Sept. 29, Convention of London 

relating to the territory west of 
the Rocky mountains. Popula 
tion of Nova Scotia, including 
Cape Breton, 123,630. 

1828. The Methodist Church of Upper 

Canada separated from that of the 
United States. 

1829. Nov. 27, First Welland canal opened. 

Upper Canada College founded. 

1831. June 1, The North Magnetic Pole 

discovered by (Sir) James Ross. 
Population Upper Canada, 
236,702; Lower Canada, 553,131; 
Assiniboia, 2,390. 

1832. Outbreak of cholera in Canada. 

Incorporation of Quebec and Mon 
treal. Bank of Nova Scotia 
founded. May 30, opening of the 
Rideau canal. 

1833. Aug. 18, The steamer Royal William, 

built at Quebec, leaves Pictou for 
England. 

1834. Feb. 21, The Ninety-two Resolu 

tions on public grievances passed 
by the Assembly of Lower Can 
ada. Mar. 6, Incorporation of 
Toronto. Population of Upper 
Canada, 321,145; of New Bruns 
wick, 119,457; of Assiniboia, 3,356. 

1836. July 21, Opening of the first rail 

way in Canada from Laprairie to 
St. John s, Que. Victoria Uni 
versity opened at Cobourg (after 
wards moved to Toronto). 

1837. Report of the Canada Commis 

sioners. Rebellions in Lower 
Canada (Papineau) and Upper 
Canada (W. L. Mackenzie). Nov. 
23, Gas lighting first used in 
Montreal. 

1838. Feb. 10, Constitution of Lower 

Canada suspended and Special 
Council created. March 30, The 
Earl of Durham governor in chief. 
April 27, Martial law revoked. 
June 28, Amnesty to political 
prisoners proclaimed . Nov. 1 , Lord 
Durham, censured by British parlia 
ment, resigns. Population Upper 
Canada, 339,422; Assiniboia, 3,966; 
Nova Scotia, 202,575. 

1839. Feb. 11, Lord Durham s report 

submitted to parliament. John 
Strachan made first Anglican bishop 
of Toronto. 

1840 July 23, Passing of the Act of Union. 
First ship of the Cunard Line arrives 
at Halifax. July 28, death of Lord 
Durham. 



84 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



1841. Feb. 10, Union of the two provinces 

the province of Canada, with 
Kingston as capital. Feb. 13, 
Draper-Ogden administration. 
April 10, Halifax incorporated. 
June 13, Meeting of first united 1856 
Parliament. Sept. 19, Death of 
Lord Sydenharn. Population of 
Upper Canada, 455,688; of P.E.I., 
47,042. 

1842. March 10, Opening of Queen s Univer 

sity, Kingston. Aug. 9, The Ash- 
burton Treaty. Sept. 16, Baldwin- 
Lafontaine administration. 1857 

1843. June 4, Victoria, B.C. founded. 

Dec. 12, Draper-Vigor administra 
tion. King s (now University) Col 
lege, Toronto, opened. 1858 

1844. May 10, Capital moved from King 

ston to Montreal. Knox College, 
Toronto, founded. Population of 
Lower Canada, 697,084. 

1845. May 28 and June 28, Great fires 

at Quebec. Franklin starts on 
his last Arctic expedition. 

1846. May 18, Kingston incorporated. June 

15, Oregon Boundary Treaty. June 
18, Draper-Papineau administration. 

1847. May 29, Sherwood-Papineau admin 

istration. Electric telegraph sir- 1859. 
vice opened ; Aug. 3, Montreal to 
Toronto; Oct. 2, Montreal to Que 
bec. Nov. 25, Montreal-Lachine 1860, 
railway opened. 

1848. March 11, Laf ont aine-B aid win 

administration. May 30, Freder- 
icton incorporated. Responsible 
government granted to Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick. 

1849. April 25, Signing of the Rebellion 1861. 

Losses Act, rioting in Montreal 
and burning of the Parliament 
buildings. Nov. 14, Toronto made 
the Capital. Vancouver island 
granted to the Hudson s Bay Com 
pany. Population of Assiniboia, 
5,391. 

1851. April 6, Transfer of the postal system 1862. 

from the British to the Provincial 
Government; uniform rate of post 
age introduced. April 23, Postage 1863. 
stamps issued. Aug. 2, Incorpora 
tion of Trinity College, Toronto. 1864. 
Sept. 22, Quebec becomes the 
Capital. Oct. 28, Hincks-Morin 
administration. Responsible 
government granted to Prince 
Edward Island. Population 
Upper Canada, 952,004; Lower 
Canada, 890,261; New Brunswick, 
193,800; Nova Scotia, 276,854. 1865. 

1852. July 8, Great fire at Montreal. Dec. 

8, Laval University, Quebec, open 
ed. The Grand Trunk railway 
chartered. 

1854. June 5, Reciprocity Treaty with the 

United States. Sept. 11, MacNab- 
Morin ministry. Seignourial tenure 
in Lower Canada abolished. Secu- 1866. 
larization of the cl< rgy reserves. 

1855. Jan. 1, Incorporation of Ottawa. 

Jan. 27, MacNab-Tache administra 



tion. March 9, Opening of the 
Niagara suspension bridge. April 
17, Incorporation of Charlottetown. 
Oct. 20, Government moved to 
Toronto. 

The Legislative Council of Canada 
is made elective. First meeting 
of the legislature of Vancouver 
island. May 24, Tache-J. A. Mac- 
donald administration. Oct. 27, 
Opening of the Grand Trunk railway 
from Montreal to Toronto. Popu 
lation of Assiniboia, 6,691. 

Nov. 26, J. A. Macdonald-Cartier 
administration. Dec. 31, Ottawa 
chosen by Queen Victoria as 
future capital of Canada. 

Feb., Discovery of gold in Fraser 
River valley. July 1, Intro 
duction of Canadian decimal cur 
rency. Aug. 2, Brown-Dorion 
administration. Aug. 5, Comple 
tion of the Atlantic cable; first 
message sent. Aug. 6, Cartier- 
J. A. Macdonald administration. 
Aug. 20, Colony of British Columbia 
established. Control of Vancouver 
island surrendered by the Hudson s 
Bay Company. 

Jan., Canadian silver coinage issued. 
Sept. 24, Government moved to 
Quebec. 

Aug. 8, The Prince of Wales (King 
Edward VII) arrives at Quebec. 
Sept. 1, Laying of the corner stone 
of the Parliament buildings at 
Ottawa by the Prince of Wales. 
Prince of Wales College, Charlotte- 
town, founded. 

Aug. 14, Great flood at Montreal. 
Sept. 10, Meeting of the first 
Anglican provincial synod. Popula 
tionUpper Canada, 1,396,091; 
Lower Canada, 1,111,566; New 
Brunswick, 252,047; Nova Scotia, 
330,857; Prince Edward Island, 
80,857. 

May 24, Sand field Macdonald-Sicotte 
administration. Aug. 2, Victoria, 
B.C., incoiiporated. 

May 16, Sand field Macdonald-Dorion 
administration. 

March 30, Tache-J. A. Macdonald 
administration. Conferences on 
confederation of British North 
America; Sept. 1, at Charlotte- 
town; Oct. 10-29, at Quebec. 
Oct. 19, Raid of American Con 
federates from Canada on St. 
Albans, Vermont. 

Feb. 3, The Canadian Legislature 
resolves on an address to the 
Queen praying for union of the 
provinces of British North America. 
Aug. 7, Belleau-J. A. Macdonald 
administration. Oct. 20, Proclam 
ation fixing the seat of government 
at Ottawa. 

Mar. 17, Termination of the Reci 
procity Treaty by the United 
States. May 31, Raid of Fenians 
from the United States into Can- 



CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 



85 



ada; they are defeated at Ridge- 1877. 
way (June 2) and retreat across the 
border (June 3). June 8, First 
meeting at Ottawa of the Canadian 
legislature. Nov. 17, Proclamation 
of the union of Vancouver island 1878. 
to British Columbia. 

1867. March 29, Royal assent given to 

the British North America Act. 1879. 
July 1, The Act comes into force; 
Union of the provinces of Canada, 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 
as the Dominion of Canada; Upper 1880. 
and Lower Canada made separate 
provinces as Ontario and Quebec; 
Viscount Monck first governor 
general, Sir John A. Macdonald 
premier. Nov. 6, Meeting of the 
first Dominion Parliament. 

1868. April 7, Murder of D Arcy McGee 

at Ottawa. July 31, The Rupert s 
Land Act authorizes the acqui 
sition by the Dominion of the 
Northwest Territories. 

1869. June 22, Act providing for the govern 

ment of the Northwest Territories. 
Nov. 19, Deed of surrender to the 1881. 
Crown of the Hudson s Bay Com 
pany s territorial rights in the 
Northwest . Outbreak of the Red 1882. 
River Rebellion under Riel. 

1870. May 12, Act to establish the province 

of Manitoba. July 15, Northwest 
Territories transferred to the Dom 
inion and Manitoba admitted into 
Confederation. Sept. 24, Wolseley s 
expedition reaches Fort Garry (Win 
nipeg); end of the rebellion. 1883. 

1871. April 2, First Dominion census 

(populations at this and succeeding 
enumerations given in section on 
population). April 14, Act estab- 1884. 
lishing uniform currency in the 
Dominion. May 8, Treaty of 
Washington, dealing with questions 
outstanding between the United 
Kingdom and United States. July 1885. 
20, British Columbia enters Con 
federation. 

1873. March 5, Opening of the second 

Dominion Parliament. May 23, 
Act establishing the Northwest 
Mounted Police. July 1, Prince 
Edward Island enters Confedera 
tion. Nov. 7, Alexander Mac 
kenzie premier. Nov. 8, Incor- 1886. 
poration of Winnipeg. 

1874. March 20, Opening of the third 

Dominion Parliament. May, Ont 
ario Agricultural College, Guelph, 
opened . 

1875. April 8, The Northwest Territories 

Act establishes a Licutenant-Gov- 
ernor and Council of the Northwest 
Territories. June 15, Formation of 1887. 
the Presbyterian Church of Canada. 

1876. June 1, Opening of the Royal Military 

College, Kingston. June 5, First 
sitting of the Supreme Court f 
Canada. July 3, Opening of the 1888. 
Intercolonial Railway from Quebec 
to Halifax. 



June 20, Great fire at St. John, N.B. 
Oct., First exportation of wheat 
from Manitoba to the United 
Kingdom. Founding of the Uni 
versity of Manitoba. 

July 1, Canada joins the International 
Postal Union. Oct. 17, Sir J. A. 
Macdonald premier. 

Feb. 13, Opening of the fourth Dom 
inion Parliament. May 15, Adop 
tion of a protective tariff ("The 
National Policy"). 

Royal Canadian Academy of Arts 
founded, first meeting and exhi 
bition, March 6. May 11, Sir 
A. T. Gait appointed first Cana 
dian High Commissioner in Lon 
don. Sept. 1, All British posses 
sions in North America and 
adjacent islands, except New 
foundland and its dependencies, 
annexed to Canada by Imperial 
Order in Council ot July 31. Oct. 
21, Signing of the contract for 
the construction of the Canadian 
Pacific railway. 

April 4, Second Dominion census. 
May 2, First sod turned of the 
Canadian Pacific railway. 

May 8, Provisional Districts of 
Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Atha- 
baska and Alberta formed. May 
25, First meeting of the Royai 
Society of Canada. Aug. 23, 
Regina established as seat of 
government of Northwest Terri 
tories. 

Feb. 1, Opening of the fifth Dom 
inion Parliament. Sept. 5, 
Formation of the Methodist Church 
in Canada; United Conference. 

May 24, Sir Charles Tupper High 
Commissioner in London. Aug. 11, 
Order in Council settling the 
boundary of Ontario and Mani 
toba. 

March 26, Outbreak of Riel s second 
rebellion in the Northwest. April 
24, Engagement at Fish Creek. 
May 2, Engagement at Cut Knife. 
May 12, Taking of Batoche. May 
16, Surrender of Riel. Aug. 24, 
First census of the Northwest 
Territories. Nov. 16, Execution 
of Riel. 

April 6, Incorporation of Vancouver. 
June 7, Archbishop Taschereau 
of Quebec made first Canadian 
cardinal. June 13, Vancouver de 
stroyed by fire. June 28, First 
through train on the Canadian 
Pacific railway from Montreal to 
Vancouver. July 31, First quin 
quennial census of Manitoba. 

Interprovincial Conference at Quebec. 
April 4, First Intercolonial Con 
ference in London. April 13, Open 
ing of the sixth Dominion Parlia 
ment. 

Feb. 15, Signing of Fishery Treaty 
between United Kingdom and 
United States at Washington. 



86 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



Aug., Rejection of Fishery Treaty 
by United States Senate. 

1890. March 31, The Manitoba School 

Act abolishes separate schools. 1904 

1891. April 5, Third Dominion census. 

April 29, Opening of the seventh 
Dominion Parliament. June 6, 
Death of Sir J. A. Macdonald. 1905 
June 15, Sir John Abbott premier. 

1892. Feb. 29, Washington Treaty, pro 

viding for arbitration of the Behring 

Sea Seal Fisheries question. July 1906 

22, Boundary convention between 

Canada and the United States. 

Nov. 25, Sir John Thompson 1907 

premier. 

1893. April 4, First sitting of the Behring 

Sea Arbitration Court. Dec. 18, 
Archbishop Machray, of Rupert s 
Land, elected first Anglican primate 
of all Canada. 

1894. .June 28, Colonial Conference at 
Ottawa. Dec. 12, Death of Sir 
John Thompson at Windsor Castle. 
Dec. 21, (Sir) Mackenzie Bowell 
premier. 

1895. Sept. 10, Opening of new Sault Ste. 1908, 
Marie canal. Oct. 2, Proclama 
tion- naming the Ungava, Frank 
lin, Mackenzie and Yukon dis 
tricts of Northwest Territories. 

189C. April 24, Sir Donald Smith (Lord 
Strathcona) High Commissioner 
in London. April 27, Sir Charles 
Tupper premier. July 11, (Sir) 
Wilfrid Laurier premier. Aug., 
Gold discovered in the Klondyke. 
Aug. 19, Opening of the eighth 
Dominion Parliament. 

1897. July, Third Colonial Conference 

in London. Dec. 17, Award of J909. 
the Behring Sea Arbitration. 

1898. June 13, The Yukon district estab 

lished as a separate territory. 
Aug. 1, The British Preferential 
Tariff of Canada goes into force. 
Aug. 23, Meeting at Quebec of the 
Joint High Commission between 
Canada and the United States. 
Dec. 25, British Imperial Penny 1910. 
(2 cent) Postage introduced. 

1899. Oct. 11, Beginning of the South 

African war. Oct. 29, First Can- 
. adian Contingent leaves Quebec 
for South Africa. 

1900. Feb. 27, Battle of Paardeberg. April 

26, Great fire at Ottawa and Hull. 

1901. Jan. 22, Death of Queen Victoria 

and accession of King Edward 
VII. Feb. 6, Opening of the 1911. 
ninth Dominion Parliament. April 
1, Fourth Dominion census. Sept. 
16-Oct. 21, Visit to Canada of the 
Duke and Duchess of Cornwall 
and York (King George V and 
Queen Mary). 

1902. May 31, End of South African War, 

peace signed at Vereenigmg. June 
30, Meeting of fourth Colonial 
Conference in London. 1912. 

1903. Jan. 24, Signing of the Alaska Boun 

dary Convention. June 19, Incor 



poration of Regina. Oct. 20, 
Award of the Alaskan Boundary 
Commission. 

. Feb. 1, Dominion Railway Com 
mission established. April 19, 
Great fire in Toronto. Oct. 8, 
Incorporation of Edmonton. 
. Jan. 11, Opening of the tenth Domin 
ion Parliament. Sept. 1, Creation 
of the provinces of Alberta and 
Saskatchewan. 

. University of Alberta founded. Oct. 
8, Interprovincial Conference at 
Ottawa. 

. March 22, Industrial Disputes 
Investigation Act passed. April 
15-May 14, Fifth Colonial Con 
ference in London. New customs 
tariff including introduction of 
intermediate tariff. Sept. 19, New 
Commercial Convention with 
France signed at Paris. Oct. 17, 
First message by wireless tele 
graphy between Canada and the 
United Kingdom. University of 
Saskatchewan founded. 
. Jan. 2, Establishment of Ottawa 
branch of Royal Mint. April 11, 
Arbitration treaty between 
United Kingdom and United 
States. May 4, Ratification of 
Treaty for demarcation of bound 
ary between Canada and United 
States. June 21-23, Bicentenary of 
Bishop Laval celebrated at Quebec. 
July 20-31, Quebec tercentenary cele 
brations: visit to Quebec of Prince 
of Wales. Aug. 2, Great fire in 
Kootenay Valley, B.C. Univer 
sity of British Columbia founded. 
Jan. 11, Signing of International 
Boundary Waters Convention 
between Canada and United 
States. Jan. 20, opening of llth 
Dominion Parliament. May 19, 
Appointment of Canadian Com 
mission of Conservation. July 28, 
Conference on Imperial Defence in 
London. 

May 4, Passing of Naval Service Bill. 
May 6, Death of King Edward 
VII and accession of King George 
V. June 7, Death of Goldwin 
Smith. Sept. 7, North Atlantic 
Coast Fisheries Arbitration award 
of the Hague Tribunal. New 
trade agreement made with Ger 
many, Belgium, Holland and 
Italy. 

May 23-June 20, Imperial Conference 
in London. June 1, Fifth Dominion 
census. July 11, Disastrous fires 
in Porcupine district. Sept. 21, 
General election. Oct. 10, (Sir)R. L. 
Borden premier. Oct. 11, In 
auguration at Kitchener of Ontario 
Hydro-Electric Power Transmis 
sion System. Nov. 15, Opening 
of 12th Dominion Parliament. 
April 15, Loss of the steamship 
Titanic. April 15, Appointment 
of Dominions Royal Commission. 



CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 



87 



May 15, Extension of the bound 
aries of Quebec, Ontario and 
Manitoba. June 17, Judgment 
delivered by the Imperial Privy 
Council on the marriage question 
raised by the ne temere decree. 

1913. April 10, Japanese Treaty Act 

assented to. June 2, Trade agree 
ment with West Indies came into 
. force. 

1914. Jan. 21, Death of Lord Strathcona 

and Mount Royal, aged 94. May 
29, Loss of the steamship Empress 
of Ireland. Aug. 4, war with Ger 
many; Aug. 12, with Austria-Hun 
gary; Nov. 5, with Turkey. Aug. 
18-22, Special war session of Can 
adian Parliament. Oct. 16, First 
Canadian contingent of over 33,000 
troope land at Plymouth, Eng. 

1915. Feb., First Canadian -contingent 

lands in France and proceeds to 
Flanders. April 22, Second battle of 
Ypres. April 24, Battle of St. Julien. 
May 20-26, Battle of Festubert. 
June 15, Battle of Givenchy; 
gallantry of Canadian troops highly 
eulogized by F.-M. Sir John 
French. Oct. 30, Death of Sir 
Charles Tupper. Nov. 22, Issue 
of Canadian War Loan of 850,000,000. 
Nov. 30, War loan increased to 
S100,000,000. 

1916. Jan. 12, Order in Council author 

izing increase in number of Cana 
dian troops to 500,000. ,Feb. 3, 
Destruction of the Houses of 
Parliament at Ottawa by fire. 
April 3-20, Battle of St. Eloi. 
June 1, Census of prairie 
provinces. June 1-3, Battle of Sanc 
tuary Wood. Sept. 1, Corner 
stone of new Houses of Parliament 
laid by Duke of Connaught. Sept., 
Issue of second war loan,$100,000,000. 
.1917. Feb. 12-May 15, Visit to England 
of Prime Minister and colleagues 
for Imperial Conference. Feb. 21, 
Final Report of Dominions Royal 
Commission. March, Third war 
loan, $150,000,000. March 20-May 
2, Meetings in London of Imperial 
War Cabinet. March 21-April 27, 
Imperial War Conference. April 5, 
Declaration of war against Ger 
many by United States. April 9, 
Capture of Vimy Ridge. June 21, 
Appointment of Food Controller. 
Aug. 15, Battle of Loos, capture of 
Hill 70. Aug. 29, Passing of Mili 
tary Service Act. Sept. 20, Com 
pletion of Quebec bridge. Sept. 20, 
Parliamentary franchise extended 
to women. Dominion Government 
authorized to purchase 600,000 shares 
of C.N.R. stock. Oct. 26-Nov. 10, 
Battle of Passchendaele. Nov. 12, 
Fourth war loan (Victory Bonds). 
Dec. 6, Disastrous explosion at 
Halifax, N.S., Dec. 17, General 
election and Union Government 
sustained. 



1918. Mar. 18, Opening of first session of 
13th Parliament. Mar. 21, Germans 
launch critical offensive on west 
front. Mar.-April, Second battle 
of the Somme. April 17, Secret 
session of Parliament. JuneJuly 
Prime Minister and colleagues 
attend Imperial War Conference 
in London. July 18, Allies assume 
successful offensive on west iront. 
Aug. 12, Battle of Amiens. Aug. 26- 
28, Capture of Monchy le Preux. Sept. 
2-4, Breaking of Drocourt-Queant 
line. Sept. 16, Austrian peace note. 
Sept. 27-29, Capture of Bourlon 
Wood. Sept. 30, Bulgaria surrend 
ers and signs armistice. Oct. 1-9, 
Capture of Cambrai. Oct., Serious 
influenza epidemic. Oct. 6, First 
German peace note. Oct. 20, Cap 
ture of Denain. Oct. 25-Nov. 2, 
Capture of Valenciennes. Oct. 28, 
Issue of fifth war loan for 8300,000,000 
in the form of Victory Bonds. 
Oct. 31, Turkey surrenders and 
signs armistice. Nov. 4, Aus 
tria-Hungary surrenders and signs 
armistice. Nov. 10, Flight into 
Holland of German Emperor. 
Capture of Mons. Nov. 11, Germany 
surrenders and signs armistice. 
1919. Feb. 17, Death of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. 
Feb. 20-July 7, Second session of 
13th Parliament of Canada. Mar. 
7, * Appointment of government 
receiver of the Grand Trunk Pacific 
railway. May 1-June 15, Great 
strike at Winnipeg and other 
western cities. June 23, General 
election in Quebec, and retention of 
Liberal administration. June 28, 
Signing at Versailles of Peace 
Treaty and Protocol. July 24, 
General election in Prince Edward 
Island and defeat of Conservative 
administration. Aug. 5, Election 
of Right Hon. W. L. Mackenzie 
King as leader of Liberal party 
in Canada. Aug. 15, Arrival 
of H. R. H. the Prince of 
Wales for official tour, in Cana 
da. Aug. 22, Formal opening 
of Quebec Bridge by H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales. Sept. 1, H.R.H. 
the Prince of Wales lays founda 
tion stone of tower of new Par 
liament Buildings at Ottawa. Sept. 
1-Nov. 10, Third or special peace 
session of 13th Parliament of Can 
ada. Sept. 15, Opening at Ottawa 
ot the National Industrial Con 
ference. Oct. 20, General election in 
Ontario, and formation of ministry 
by E. C. Drury, United Farmers 
Organization. Issue of sixth war 
loan for $300.000,000 in the form of 
Victory Bonds. Dec. 20, Organ 
ization of "Canadian National 
Railways" by Order in Council. 
1920 Jan. 10, Ratifications of the Treaty 
of Versailles. Feb. 19, Share 
holders ratify agreement for sale 



88 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



of the Grand Trunk railway 
to the Dominion Government. 
Feb. 26-July 1, Fourth session 
of the thirteenth Parliament of 
Canada. May 31-June 18, Trade 
Conference at Ottawa between 
Dominion and West Indian Govern 
ments. June 7-19, Convention ot 
American Federation of Labour at 
Montreal. June 29, Provincial gen 
eral election in Manitoba, Liberal 
government retained in office. July 
10, Sir Robert Borden is succeeded 
by Right Hon. Arthur Meighen 
as Premier. July 16, Ratifications 
of the Treaty of St. Germain- 
en-Laye. July 27, Provincial gen 
eral election in Nova Scotia, 
Liberal government sustained. 
Aug. 5-7, Imperial Press Conference 
at Ottawa. Aug. 9, Ratifications 
of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. 
Sept. 18-23, Ninth Congress of 
Chambers of Commerce of the 
Empire at Toronto. Oct. 9, Provin 
cial general election in New Bruns 
wick, Liberal government is sus 
tained. Oct. 20, Prohibition defeat 
ed in British Columbia. Oct. 25 
Referendum re complete prohi- 
, bition of the liquor traffic is carried 

in Nova Scotia, Manitoba, Saskat 
chewan and Alberta. Nov. 15, 
First meeting of League of Nations 
Assembly begins at Geneva, Swit 
zerland. Dec. 1, Provincial general 
election in British Columbia, 
Liberal government is sustained. 
1921. Feb. 14-June 4, Fifth Session of 
Thirteenth Parliament of Canada. 
April 18, Ontario votes for pro 
hibition of the manufacture, im 
portation and sale of alcoholic 
liquors. May 1, Government 
control of liquor traffic becomes 
effective in Quebec. May 10, 
Preferential tariff arrangement with 
British West Indies becomes effect 
ive. June 20-August 5, Imperial Con 
ference at which Canada is represent 
ed by Rt. Hon. Arthur Mcighen. 
June 9, At general election in Saskat 
chewan, Liberal government is 
sustained. July 18, At general 
election in Alberta, the United 
Farmers secure majority of seats. 
Sept. 5-Oct. 5, Second meeting of 
Assembly of League of Nations 
at Geneva; Canada represented 
by Rt. Hon. C. J. Doherty. Nov. 
11, Opening of conference on limita 
tion of armament at Washington, 
Sir liobfc. Bordon representing 
Canada. Dec. 6, Dominion general 
election. Dec. 29, New ministry 
(Liberal), with Right Hon. W. L. 
Mackenzie King as premier, is 
sworn in. 

1922. Feb. 1, Arms Conference at Wash 
ington approves 5-power treaty 
limiting capital lighting ships and 
dodging against unrestricted sub 



marine warfare and use of poison 
gas. Feb. 10, Hon. P. C. Larkin 
appointed High Commissioner for 
Canada in the United Kingdom. 
Mar. 19, \ ilhjalniur Stefansson 
announces taking possession of 
Wrangell island in Sept., 1921. 
April 10, General Economic Con 
ference opened at Genoa, Sir 
Chas. B. Gordon representing Can 
ada. July 13, Conference between 
Canada and the United States re 
perpetuating the Rush-Bagot 
Treaty regarding armament on 
the Great Lakes. Aug. 2, Alex 
ander Graham Bell, inventor of 
the telephone, died. Aug. 7, Allies 
Conference on war debts and repar 
ations opened at London. Sept. 
4, Third assembly of League of 
Nations opened at Geneva. Oct. 4, 
Order in Council consolidating 
separate lines in Canadian National 
Railway system and appointing new 
board of directors. Oct. 5, Serious 
forest fires in northern Ontario; 
town of Haileybury destroyed. 
Oct. 10, Mudania Armistice signed 
by Britain, France and Turkey. Oct. 
14, Fourth International Labour 
Conference at Geneva. Nov. 10, 
Turkish Peace Conference opened 
at Lausanne. Dec. 4, Opening of 
First International Postal Con 
ference at Ottawa, between repre 
sentatives of the United States and 
Canada. Dec. 6, Irish Free State 
inaugurated as one of the Domin- 
ions in the British Empire. Dec. 
9, Reparations Conference opened 
at London. Dec. 15, Signing of 
trade agreement between Canada 
and France, Hon. W. S. Fielding 
and Hon. E. Lapointe representing 
Canada. Passing of Act by Imper 
ial parliament removing embargo 
on Canadian cattle. 

1923. Jan. 1, National Defence Act, 1922, 
comes into effect amalgamating 
Militia, Naval and Air Force de 
partments. Jan. 4, Signing of trade 
agreement between Canada and 
Italy, Hon. W. S. Fielding and 
Hon. E. Lapointe representing 
Canada. April 1, Removal of 
British embargo on Canadian cattle 
effective. June 25, Provincial elec 
tions in Ontario ; Conservative 
party under 1 on. C. Howard Fergu 
son returned to power. July 26, Pro 
vincial elections in Prince Edward 
Island; Conservative paity under 
1 on. J. D. Stewart returned- to 
power. Sept. 3, Fourth session of 
League of Nations at Geneva, 
Canada represented by Hon. Sir 
L. Gouinand i.on. Geo. P. Graham. 
Oct. ), Imperial Conference and 
Imperial ] cmiomic Conference at 
London. Canada represented at 
the former by Rt. Hon. W. L. 
Mackenzie King. 



III. THE CONSTITUTION AND GENERAL 
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA. 1 

The Dominion of Canada is the largest in area and the mosl populous cf the 
great self-governing Dominions of the British Empire, which also include the 
Commonwealth of Australia, the Union of South Africa, the Dominion of New 
Zealand and the island colony of Newfoundland (with Labrador). These Domi 
nions enjoy responsible government of the B.ritish type, administered by Executive 
Councils (or Cabinets) acting as advisors to the representative of the Sovereign, 
themselves responsible to and possessing the confidence of the representatives 
elected to Parliament by the people, and giving place to other persons more accept 
able to Parliament whenever that confidence is shown to have ceased to exist. 

Of these Dominions, Canada, Australia, and South Africa extend over enor 
mous areas of territory, the first two approximating in area to Europe. Each 
section has its own problems and its own point of view, so that local parliaments 
for each section ,as well as the central parliament for the whole country, are required. 
These local parliaments, established when transportation and communication were 
more difficult and expensive than at present, were chronologically prior to the 
central body, to which on its formation they either resigned certain powers, as in 
the case of Australia, or surrendered all their powers with certain specified except 
ions, as in Canada and South Africa. Of such local parliaments, Canada at the 
present time has nine, Australia six and South Africa four. 

Besides the Dominions above enumerated, the Irish Free State (Saorstat 
Eireann) now possesses full Dominion status. The great Empire of India has 
internationally been accepted as a member of the League of Nations, and in its 
internal administration has been placed on the road, formerly traversed by the 
Dominions which are now fully self-governing, towards responsible government. 
Indeed, the whole evolution of the Empire, throughout all its parts which are more 
than mere fortresses like Gibraltar or trading stations like Hong Kong, is in the 
direction of responsible government, to be attained in the dependencies as it has 
been in what used to be called the colonies, by the gradual extension of self-govern 
ment in proportion to the growing capacities of their respective populations. It 
is the recognized aim of British administrators, by the extension of educational 
facilities and by just administration, to develop these capacities to the utmost, 
so that in the dependencies, as wel 1 as in the Dominions and in the Mother Country, 
the constitutional history of the future may be a record of " freedom slowly broad 
ening down from precedent to precedent." 

It is the purpose of this article to relate as briefly as possible, the process of 
this development of free government hi the Dominion of Canada. 

I. CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONIES 
PRIOR TO CONFEDERATION. 

The French Regime. The settlement of Canada commenced at a time 
when the extension of European trade and commerce throughout the world was 
being mainly carried on by chartered companies of merchants belonging to various 
nations, more particularly England, France and Holland. These companies each 
tried to monopolize the trade of the regions in which they established themselves, 

iAdaptecl from an article by S. A. Cudmore, M. A., F.S.S., published in the Canada Year Book, 1921. 



90 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 

receiving from their sovereign charters which, theoretically at least, gave them a 
monopoly so far as their compatriots were concerned, while against foreign competi 
tion they maintained their position with the sword, even when their respective 
mother countries, thousands of miles and months of time distant, were at peace. 
Among such companies of this period were the English and Dutch East India 
Companies, the Guinea Company, the Russia Company, the Virginia Company, 
and a little later, the Hudson s Bay Company. Similarly, we find in the earliest 
stage of French enterprise in Canada that several short-lived companies successively 
possessed a monopoly of trade and employed such men as Champlain as governors 
and explorers of the new territories. The charters of these companies were, however, 
cancelled for violation of their terms, and at last in 1627, the monopoly of trade 
and the right to make grants of land was conferred upon the Company of One 
Hundred Associates, in consideration of its undertaking to settle the country and 
support missionaries to christianize the Indians. Governmentally, therefore, the 
first stage in Canadian history may be said to have been the autocratic government 
of a trading company. This company, however, failed to live up, to its agreement 
and its charter was cancelled in 1663, when Canada became a royal province, 
governed like an ordinary French province of those days, by a Governor to whom, 
as personal representative of the King, were entrusted the general policy of the 
country, the direction of its military affairs and its relations with the Indian tribes. 
The Bishop, as the head of the Church, was supreme in matters affecting religion, 
and the Intendant, acting under the authority of the King, not of the Governor, 
was responsible for the administration of justice, for finance and for the direction 
of local administration. A Superior Council also existed, with certain adminis 
trative powers which were more formal than real. This system continued until 
the end of the French regime. 

The British Colony. From the capitulation of Quebec on Sept. 18, 1759, 
and of Montreal on Sept. 8, 1760, to the signing of the Treaty of Paris on Feb. 10, 
1763, Canada was ruled by British military officers who instituted courts which 
applied French law and administered the country as an occupied territory, the 
final disposition of which was as yet unsettled. 

Upon the final surrender of the country by France under the Treaty of Paris, 
a Royal Proclamation of Oct. 7, 1763, defined the frontiers of the new province 
of Quebec, and provided that as soon as circumstances would admit, General Assem 
blies should be summoned, with power to enact laws for the public welfare and good 
government of the colony. In the meantime, courts were constituted for "dealing 
with civil and criminal cases according to the laws of England," with an appeal 
to the Privy Council. Under the Quebec Act of 1774, passed with the purpose of 
conciliating the new colonies at a time when the old colonies were falling off from 
their allegiance, the use of the old French civil law was resumed, while English 
criminal law continued to govern throughout the province, which was now extend 
ed to the banks of the Ohio and the Mississippi. These boundaries were, how 
ever, abandoned at the Treaty of Versailles, 1783, when the Great Lakes became 
the dividing line. The influx of the United Empire Loyalists, English-speaking 
people accustomed to English laws, necessitated the division of the colony and the 
establishment of representative institutions. The Constitutional Act was passed 
in 1791, dividing the Canada of those days (the St. Lawrence valley) into two 
provinces, establishing in each province a nominated Legislative Council and an 
elected Legislative Assembly. Under this Act, upon which the government! of 
Canada was based throughout half a century, " the Executive was (through Crown 



THE CONSTITUTION AT CONFEDERATION 91 

revenue and military grants from the Home Government) financially, and worse 
still, constitutionally independent, and the House of Assembly, in seeking vaguely 
to cure a disease which it had not in reality diagnosed, frequently overstepped its 
sphere, with the result that it was dissolved time after time." (Lefroy, Constitu 
tional Law of Canada, pp. 20-21). 

The Constitutional Act was at first accepted as an improvement on the previous 
ly existing method of government, but as time went on, the increasing population 
and wealth of the provinces, combined with the narrow and selfish policy of the 
privileged few, led to frequent clashes between the Executive and the Assembly, 
complicated in Lower Canada by the difference of races. In 1837, a rebellion in 
each province, though speedily stamped out, led to the appointment of Lord Durham 
by the Home Government as a special commissioner clothed with more extensive 
powers than had ever before been held by a representative of the Crown in British 
North America. 

The famous report made by Lord Durham to the British Government is almost 
universally regarded as the greatest political document in Canadian history. He 
saw clearly the necessity of re-establishing harmony between the executive and the 
legislative branches of the government by making the former, as in the Mother 
Country, responsible to the latter. He insisted also upon the desirability of establish 
ing a free democratic system of municipal government, by participation in which 
citizens would secure a training which would be of use in fitting them for the wider 
duties of public life. Upper and Lower Canada were to be united under a single 
Parliament, and in the Act provision was to be made for the voluntary admission 
to the union of the other British North American provinces. 

While Lord Durham was disavowed by the Home Government, his report 
formed the basis of the Act of Union of 1841, which united Upper and Lower Canada 
under a single Parliament, in which each province was equally represented. This 
equality of representation in a single Parliament, applied to provinces of differing 
race, religion and institutions, finally became unworkable; deadlock became the 
parent of Confederation, under which each province could legislate on its own local 
affairs, while a common Parliament was established for all the provinces agreeing 
to enter the federation. 

Confederation. While suggestions for the union of the British North 
American provinces date as far back as 1789, the first legislative action looking to 
this end was taken by the Assembly of Nova Scotia in 1861. In 1864 delegates 
from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island assembled in Charlotte- 
town to confer in reference to a union of these provinces. A second convention 
at which the province of Canada was represented, met in Quebec on Oct. 10, 1864, 
at which seventy-two resolutions, which afterwards formed the basis of the British 
North America Act, were adopted and referred to the respective legislatures for 
their concurrence, which was finally given. The British North America Act received 
the Royal Assent on March 29, 1867, and came into force on July 1 of that year. 



II. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE DOMINION AT 

CONFEDERATION. 

Constitution of Canada. In the preamble to the British North America 

.Act, it is stated that the provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 

" have expressed their desire to be federally united into one Dominion, with a 



92 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 



Constitution similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom." Thus the Canadian 
constitution is not an imitation of that of the United States; it is the British Consti 
tution federalized. Like the British and unlike the American Constitution, it is 
not wholly a written constitution. The many unwritten conventions of the British 
Constitution are also recognized in our own; what we have in the British North 
America Act is a written delimitation of the respective powers of the Dominion 
and Provincial Governments, and an enactement of the terms of the Confederation 
agreement. The British North America Act simply divides the sovereign powers 
of the State between the provincial and the central authorities. 

The British North America Act declares that the executive government of 
Canada shall continue to be vested in the sovereign of the United Kingdom (sec. 
9), represented for federal purposes by the Governor General, as for provincial 
purposes by the Lieutenant-Governor. The Governor General is advised by the 
King s Privy Council for Canada, a committee of which constitutes the ministry 
of the day , 

The Dominion Parliament consists of the King, the Senate and the House of 
Commons. It must meet at least once a year, so that twelve months do not elapse 
between the last meeting in one session and the first meeting in the next. Senators, 
now 96 in number, appointed for life by the Governor General in Council, must 
be 30 years of age, British subjects, residents of the province for which they are 
appointed, and possess $4,000 over and above their liabilities. Members of the 
House of Commons (235 in 1921, but subject to increase as a result of the census 
of that year), are elected by the people for the duration of the parliament, which 
must not be longer than five years. 

Dominion Finance. Among the most important provisions of the British 
North America Act are those relating to the appropriation of public money and the 
raising of taxes for Dominion purposes. The House of Commons has the sole right 
of initiating grants of public money and of directing and limiting appropriations, 
yet the House of Commons must not (sec. 54)adopt or pass any vote, bill, resolution 
or address for the payment of any part of the public funds for any purpose that 
has not first been recommended to the house by message from the Governor 
General in Council during the session in which such vote or bill is proposed. This 
rule is of the most vital importance in promoting public economy, as it eliminates 
all possibility of private members combining to secure expenditures of public money 
in their constituencies, and leaves to the executive authority the initiation of all 
legislation requiring the expenditure of public funds; it is also operative in the Pro 
vincial Legislatures. 

Powers of Parliament. The powers of the Dominion Parliament include all 
subjects not assigned exclusively to the provincial legislatures. More especially, 
under section 91, it has exclusive legislative authority in all matters relating to the 
following: public debt and property; regulation of trade and commerce; raising of 
money by any mode of taxation; borrowing of money on the public credit; postal 
service; census and statistics; militia, military and naval service and defence; 
fixing and providing for salaries and allowances of the officers of the government; 
beacons, buoys and lighthouses; navigation and shipping; quarantine and the 
establishment and maintenance of marine hospitals; sea-coast and inland fisheries; 
ferries on an international or interprovincial frontier; currency and coinage; bank 
ing, incorporation of banks, and issue of paper money; savings banks; weights 
and measures; bills of exchange and promissory notes; interest; legal tender; bank 
ruptcy and insolvency; patents of invention and discovery; copyrights; Indians 



THE CONSTITUTION AT CONFEDERATION 93 

and lands reserved for Indians; naturalization and aliens; marriage and divorce; 
the criminal law, except the constitution of courts of criminal jurisdiction, but 
including the procedure in criminal matters; the establishment, maintenance ?nd 
management of penitentiaries; such classes of subjects as are expressly excepted 
in the enumeration of the classes of subjects by this Act exclusively assigned to the 
legislatures of the provinces. 1 

Judicature. The appointment, salaries and pensions of judges are dealt with 
under sections 96 to 101. The judges (except in the courts of probate in New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia) are appointed by the Dominion Government from 
the bars of their respective provinces, and hold office during good behaviour, being 
removable by the Governor General only on address of the Senate and House of 
Commons. Their salaries are fixed and provided by Parliament. 

Under the provisions of section 101, empowering Parliament to establish a 
general Court of Appeal, the Dominion Parliament passed, in 1875, an Act to 
establish a Supreme Court and Court of Exchequer for the Dominion (38 Viet., 
c. 11). In 1877, however, these courts were separated and the Exchequer 
Court of Canada, with one judge, a registrar, and other proper officers, was establish 
ed. An additional judge was added to this court in 1912. 

The Supreme Court of Canada has appellate jurisdiction from all the courts 
of the provinces, and questions may be referred to it by the Governor General in 
Council. It has also jurisdiction in certain cases between the provinces, and in 
cases of controversies between provinces and the Dominion. While its judgment 
is final in criminal cases, there is in civil cases, subject to certain limitations, an 
appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in England, which also enter 
tains appeals direct from the provincial Courts of Appeal. The decisions of the 
Supreme Court and of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council constitute the 
case-law of our constitution, the legal interpretation of the constitution and of the 
varied powers of the Dominion and provincial legislatures. 

Finance. Under Part VIII of the British North America Act, the revenues 
which had previously accrued to the treasuries of the provinces were transferred 
to the Dominion, no tably the customs duties. The public works, cash assets and 
other property of the provinces, except lands, names, minerals and royalties, also 
became Dominion property. In its turn, the Dominion became responsible for 
the debts of the provinces. Since the main source of the revenues of the provinces, 
customs duties, was now taken over by the Dominion, the Dominion was to pay 
annual subsidies to the provinces for the support of then- governments and legis 
latures. These subsidies have from time to time been increased. 

Miscellaneous. Among the miscellaneous provisions contained in Part IX 
of the British North America Act, are sections providing for the retention of existing 
legislation of the provinces in force until repealed, the transfer of existing officials 
to the Dominion, and the appointment of new officials. The ParHament of Canada 
was also given power necessary to perform treaty obligations of Canada, as a part 
of the British Empire, towards foreign countries. 

Under section 133, either the English or the French language may be used by 
any person in the debates of Parliament or of the Legislature of Quebec, all Acts 
of which bodies are to be printed in both languages. Either language, too, may be 
used by any person in any court of Canada established under the Act, or in the 
courts of Quebec. 

1 Powers of Provincial Legislatures. For details of the general powers of Provincial Legislatures in Canada 
and their special powers in respect of education, as stated in sections 92 and 93 of the British North America 
Act, see commencement of the sub-section on Provincial and Local Government in Canada. 



94 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 

Veto Power. Under section 56, it is provided that Acts of the Dominion 
Parliament, after receiving the assent of the Governor General, may within two 
years be disallowed by the Sovereign in Council. Similarly Acts of the provincial 
Legislature, after receiving the assent of the Lieutenant-Governor, may be disallow 
ed within one year by the Governor General in Council. 

This veto power on Dominion legislation has practically never been exercised 
by the Sovereign in Council. 1 In the case of controversies between the Dominion 
and the j rovinces, while the veto power has been exercised in the past, the present 
tendency is to let the matter be decided by the courts rather than disallow by an 
executive act legislation duly passed by the provincial legislatures. The argument 
is that if such legislation is annulled as ultra vires of the provincial legislature, 
then the Dominion Government, an executive body, has made itself the judge in 
its own case, which could be more properly decided by the courts; if legislation, 
admittedly intra vires of the provincial legislature, is annulled, on the ground of 
its immorality or unwisdom, then the annulling power has set itself up as an author 
ity on morality and wisdom. The Dominion Minister of Justice, in 1909, on the 
question of disallowing the Ontario legislation with respect to the Hydro-Electric 

Power Commission, stated the case as follows: 



" In the opinion of the undersigned, a suggestion of the abuse of power, 
even so as to amount to practical confiscation of property, or that the exercise 
of a power has been unwise or indiscreet, should appeal to your Excellency s 
government with no more effect than it does to the ordinary tribunals, and 
the remedy in such case is an appeal to those by whom the legislature is 
elected." 

III. EVOLUTION OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTION 
SINCE CONFEDERATION. 2 

Since no attempt was made in the British North America Act to define the 
relations between the British and the Canadian Governments, those relations have 
necessarily passed and are still passing through a stage of gradual development in 
which they are influenced to a remarkable extent by custom and convention and the 
creation of "new conventions of the Constitution." From the very commence 
ment of our history as a nation there has been a gradual development of the powers 
of the Canadian Government, accompanied by a more liberal attitude on the part 
of British statesmen, largely due to the more advanced ideas of government which 
have permeated the administration of the mother country itself. In 1876, for 
example, the then Colonial Secretary proposed to issue permanent instructions to 
the Governor General providing that the latter should preside at meetings of the 
Council (a right which in the case of the Sovereign had long fallen into desuetude); 
that he might dissent from the opinion of the major part of the whole; and that 
in the exercise of the pardoning power in capital cases, he was to receive the advice 
of ministers, but to extend or withhold pardon or reprieve according to his own 
judgment (one of the last prerogatives to disappear in the case of the Sovereign). 

!This right has only baen exercised i i one rather technical case. In 1873 an Act of the Dominion Parliament 
empowered any committee of the Senate or House of Commons to examine witnesses upon oath when so 
authorized by resolution. "There was a confusion of opinion as to the competency of Parliament to enact 
it. The law officers of the United Kingdom eventually advised that the Act was ultra vires, and it was 
accordingly olisallowed for that reason and not upon considerations of policy." Borden, Canadian Consti 
tutional Studies, p. 65. 

2 In this part of the article, considerable use has been made of Sir Robert Borden s recently published 
volume, "Canadian Constitutional Studies." 



EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION SINCE CONFEDERATION 95 

The then Canadian Minister of Justice, Hon. Edward Blake, secured in 1878 the 
issuance of a new set of instructions, in which the only provision that the Governor- 
General might act except on the advice of Ministers, related to the exercise of the 
pardoning power, providing that in cases where a pardon or reprieve might affect 
Imperial interests, the Governor-General should take these interests into his person 
al consideration in conjunction with the advice of his Ministers. 

The development of inter-Imperial relations up to the Great War may be 
studied in the records of the Colonial Conference. In the first Colonial Conference 
of 1887, we have a purely consultative gathering in calling which the chief aim of 
the British Government was to devise a method of more effective co-operation in 
defence. After a second, but constitutionally unimportant Conference had been 
held in Ottawa in 1894, the third Colonial Conference, attended only by Prime 
Ministers, was held in London in 1897, and the fourth, which Dominion Ministers 
attended to assist their Prime Ministers, in London in 1902. At the latter Confer 
ence a resolution was passed favouring the holding of such Conferences at intervals 
not exceeding four years at which " questions of common interest could be discuss 
ed and considered as between the Colonial Secretary and the Prune Ministers of 
the self-governing Colonies." In 1905 the Colonial Secretary, Mr. Lyttleton, 
suggested to the Dominions that the Colonial Conference should be changed into 
an Imperial Council, consisting of the Colonial Secretary and the Prime Ministers 
or their representatives. On Canada objecting to the use of the term " Council " 
the name was changed to "Imperial Conference." In 1907 the first "Imperial 
Conference " assembled; by an extraordinarily significant change, it was provided 
that future Conferences should be between the Government of the United King 
dom and the Governments of the self-governing Dominions, and that the Prime 
Minister of the United Kingdom (not the Colonial Secretary) was to be ex officio- 
President of the Conference, while the Prime Ministers of the Dominions and the 
Colonial Secretary were to be ex officio members. This was a move toward recogniz 
ing that the Home Government was simply primus inter pares among. the nations 
of the Empire. The Conference of 1911 met under this arrangement, and in 1912 
the British Government gave Canada an assurance that a Dominion Minister 
resident in London would be regularly summoned to all meetings of the Committee 
of Imperial Defence and that no important step in foreign policy would be taken 
without consultation with such representatives. In 1917 there was evolved what 
was known as the Imperial War Cabinet, a gathering of the five members of the 
British War Cabinet and the Prime Ministers of the self-governing Dominions. 

A resolution on the question of future constitutional relations passed unani 
mously at this Conference is of profound significance. It was as follows: 

" The Imperial War Conference are of opinion that the readjustment of 
the constitutional relations of the component parts of the Empire is too 
important and intricate a subject to be dealt with during the war, and that 
it should form the subject of a special Imperial Conference to be summoned 
as soon as possible after the cessation of hostilities. 

" They deem it their duty, however, to place on record their view that 
any such readjustment, while thoroughly preserving all domestic affairs, should 
be based upon a full recognition of the Dominions as autonomous nations 
of an Imperial Commonwealth, and of India as an important portion of the 
same, should recognize the right of the Dominions and India to an adequate 
voice in foreign policy and in foreign relations, and should provide effective 
arrangements for continuous consultation in all important matters of common 
Imperial concern, and for such necessary concerted action, founded on consult 
ation, as the several Governments may determine." 



96 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 

In regard to the first paragraph of the above, the 14th resolution of the Confer 
ence of 1921 stated that " having regard to the constitutional developments since 
1917, no advantage is to be gained by holding a constitutional Conference." This 
sentence had reference to the consultation of the Dominions in regard to the terms 
of peace and their membership in the League of Nations. On Oct. 29, 1918, the 
question of representation of the Dominions in the peace negotiations was raised 
by the Prime Minister of Canada in a despatch to the Prime Minister of the United 
Kingdom. The Imperial War Cabinet eventually accepted the proposal, but when 
the question came before the Peace Conference at Paris on January 12, 1919, strong 
opposition wa? encountered, which was finally overcome. Through a combination 
of the panel system, by which the representatives of the British Empire might be 
selected from day to day as the nature of the subject demanded, with distinctive 
representation of each Dominion, the Dominions secured effective representation, 
and took no inconsiderable part in the Conference. 

As a natural development of this representation came the signature by the 
Dominion plenipotentiaries of ,the various treaties concluded at the Conference, 
the submission of these treaties for the approval of the Dominion Parliaments, 
and the appearance of the Dominions as Signatory Powers. Further, the Domi 
nions claimed that they should be accepted as members of the new League of 
Nations, and represented on its Council and Assembly. This claim was finally 
accepted, and the status of the Dominions as to membership and representation 
in the Assembly is precisely the same as that of other signatory members. As to 
representation on the Council, the Prime Minister of Canada obtained from Presi 
dent Wilson and Messrs. Clemenceau and Lloyd George, a signed declaration that 
"upon the true construction of the first and second paragraphs of that Article, 
representatives of the self-governing Dominions of the British Empire may be 
selected or named as members of the Council." At the first Assembly of the League 
of Nations at Geneva, from Nov. 15 to Dec. 18, 1920, Canada was represented by 
the Rt. Hon. Sir Geo. E. Foster, the Rt. Hon. Chas. Jos. Doherty and Hon. N. W. 
Rowell, the first of whom acted as a Vice-President of the Assembly. 1 

The participation of Canada in the Peace Treaty and in the League of Nations 
made it necessary for an official definition of Canadian nationals and Canadian 
nationality to be made, since among different measures adopted in connection 
with the operations of the League of Nations, were provisions defining certain 
rights and privileges to be enjoyed by the nationals of members of the League. A 
Canadian national was accordingly defined by 11-12 George V, chap. 4, as: (a) 
any British subject who is a Canadian citizen 2 within the meaning of The 
Immigration Act, chapter 27 of the Statutes of 1910, as heretofore amended; (6) 
the wife of any such person; (c) any person born out of Canada, whose father 
was a Canadian national at the time of that person s birth, or with regard to 
persons born before the passing of this Act, any person whose father at the time 
of such birth, possessed all the qualifications of a Canadian national as defined 
in this Act. In the debates on this Act it was thoroughly established that its 
effect was not in any way to supersede the term " British subject," but to 
create a sub-class of " Canadian nationals " within " British subjects." 

An account of the proceedings of this first Parliament of the Nations was given on pages 738 to 742 of 
the 1920 edition of the Year Book. 

According to the Immigration Act, 1910, a "Canadian citizen" is 

" (i) a person born in Canada who has not become an alien; 
(ii) a British subject who has Canadian domicile; 

(iii) a person naturalized under the laws of Canada who has not subsequently become 
an alien or lost Canadian domicile. 



EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION SINCE CONFEDERATION 97 

A similar advance toward recognition of the existence of a Canadian nation 
is to be found in the gradual tendency toward direct negotiation instead of negotia 
tion through London with the diplomatic or consular representatives of other 
powers. For many years the consuls-general of other countries at Ottawa or Mont 
real, more especially the consuls-general of the United States, Japan, Italy and 
Germany, discharged diplomatic or semi-diplomatic functions in Canada, and Sir 
Wilfred Laurier in 1910 considered that while " this has been done without autho 
rity and is contrary to the rules that apply among civilized nations, it became a 
necessity because of the development of the larger colonies of the British Empire, 
which have become practically nations." Further, Mr. Blake in 1882, Sir Richard 
Cartwright in 1889, and Mr. Mills in 1892 moved resolutions in favour of Canadian 
diplomatic representation at Washington, emphasizing the fact that a Canadian 
diplomatic representative would be an envoy of the Queen, that he would act in 
co-operation with the British Ambassador at Washington, that he would be in 
direct communication with the Government of Canada, to whom he would be 
responsible, and that the growing importance of Canada s relations with the United 
States made such an appointment desirable. While at that time these proposals 
were regarded as premature, in 1918, when Canada and the United States were 
both devoting their energies to the great struggle against a common foe, it was 
found necessary to establish a Canadian War Mission at Washington, which in 
effect, though not in form, was a diplomatic mission. This brought to a head 
the question of Canadian diplomatic representation at Washington; the authorities 
in London were consulted, with the result that on May 10, 1920, it was announced 
to Parliament that " it has been agreed that his Majesty on advice of his Canadian 
ministers, shall appoint a Minister Plenipotentiary who will have charge of Canadian 
affairs and will at all times be the ordinary channel of communication with the 
United States Government in matters of purely Canadian concern, acting upon 
instructions from, and reporting direct to the Canadian Government. In the 
absence of the Ambassador, the Canadian Minister will take charge of the whole 
embassy and of the representation of Imperial as well as Canadian interests. He 
will be accredited by His Majesty to the President with the necessary powers for 
the purpose. This new arrangement will not denote any departure either on the 
part of the British Government or of the Canadian Government from the principle 
of the diplomatic unity of the British Empire." The principle involved in this 
arrangement had, as a matter of fact, already been accepted in the appointment 
of the International Joint Commission. Up to October, 1923, however, no Cana 
dian Minister to Washington had been appointed. 

Negotiation of Treaties. The right to negotiate commercial and other 
treaties has been developing almost from the beginning. In 1871, the Prime 
Minister of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald, became one of the British commis 
sioners acting under instructions from the British Government, at the conference 
that resulted in the Treaty of Washington. This dual function, however, he found 
a very difficult one. In 1874, Hon. Geo. Brown was associated with the British 
Minister at Washington for the purpose of negotiating a commercial treaty between 
Canada and the United States. In 1878, Sir A. T. Gait, later High Commissioner, 
was commissioned to undertake negotiations with France and Spain for better 
commercial relations, these negotiations, however, to be conducted by the British 
Ambassador. In 1884, the High Commissioner for Canada, Sir Charles Tupper, 
in conjunction with the British Ambassador to Spain, was given full powers to 
conduct negotiations for a commercial treaty between Canada and Spain, the 
623737 



98 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 

negotiations to be conducted by Sir Charles Tupper and the convention to be 
signed by both plenipotentiaries. In 1891, the Canadian Parliament petitioned 
for the denunciation of the commercial treaties with the German Zollverein and 
Belgium, which prevented Canada from extending preferential treatment to British 
products. The Canadian tariff of 1897 provided for the grant of preferential treat 
ment to British goods, and at the Colonial Conference of that year, the Premiers 
of the self-governing colonies unanimously recommended "the denunciation at 
the earliest convenient time of any treaties which now hamper the commercial 
relations between Great Britain and her colonies." The treaties were accordingly 
denounced. In 1907, Mr. Fielding and Mr. Brodeur negotiated a commercial 
convention between Canada and France, and in 1911, the negotiations regarding 
reciprocity with the United States were carried on directly between the Govern 
ment of Canada and the government of the United States. In 1914, the Arbitra 
tion Treaty concluded between the British Empire and the United States, made 
provision that in case the British interests affected were mainly those of some 
one or other of the self-governing Dominions, the minister of the International 
Commission of Arbitration chosen from the British Empire might be selected 
from the Dominion principally interested. In December, 1918, commissioners 
were appointed by Canada and the United States to make a joint inquiry into 
fisheries questions arising between the two countries. As a result, a treaty looking 
to the preservation of the Pacific coast fisheries was signed by the Commissioners, 
but failed to secure ratification by the United States Senate. 

Defence. As early as 1862 the Government of Canada, following British 
precedents, successfully asserted the principle that the raising and maintenance 
of Canadian military forces were subject to the absolute control of the represent 
atives of the Canadian people. During the South African war, the last of the 
British garrisons was temporarily, and in 1905, permanently withdrawn and the 
defence of the naval stations at Halifax and Esquimalt was taken over by the Cana 
dian Permanent Force. When on the outbreak of war in 1914 Canadian forces 
were sent overseas, an important constitutional question was the sufficiency of 
Canadian legislation for the control and discipline of the forces when outside the 
Dominion. However, the Governor in Council is authorized by section 69 of the 
Militia Act to place the militia on active service beyond Canada for the defence 
thereof, and by section 4 of the same Act, the Army Act, the King s Regulations 
and other relevant laws not inconsistent with Canadian enactments have force 
and effect for the governance of the militia as if enacted by the Parliament of 
Canada. But the Army Act, in section 177, provides that where a force of militia 
is raised in a colony, any law of the colony may extend to those belonging to that 
force, whether within or without the boundaries of the colony. This settled the 
question of extra-territorial jurisdiction. Another important development was 
the establishment in London in October, 1916, of a Canadian Ministry of Over 
seas Military Forces with a resident Minister. In course of time this became an 
Overseas Canadian War Office, with an adequate staff and a systematic arrange 
ment of branches, administering the Canadian forces as a thoroughly autonomous 
body, under the primary direction of the Overseas Ministry, but finally responsible 
to the Canadian Parliament. 

Immigration. Though provinces may legislate in the matter of immigra 
tion, their legislation falls to the ground if it is inconsistent with the legislation or 
with the international obligations of the Dominion. Several Acts of the province 
of British Columbia restricting immigration have been disallowed on this account. 



EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION SINCE CONFEDERATION 99 

Under the Dominion law, Chinese immigrants are subjected to a head tax of $500, 
while Japanese immigrants are handled under a " gentlemen s agreement " with 
the Imperial Japanese Government, Japan undertaking to restrict the flow of 
Japanese to Canada. The restriction of immigration from other parts of the 
Empire, and more particularly from India, is, however, a very difficult question 
because of its reaction on the loyalty of the Indian peoples to the Empire. The 
question was discussed at the Colonial Conference of 1897 and at the Imperial 
Conference of 1911, when it was pointed out that the reasons for existing restrictions 
were purely economic and did not involve the question of the inferiority of those 
restricted. In 1917. the matter was discussed at the Imperial War Conference. 
The principle of reciprocity of treatment was accepted, and at the 1918 Conference 
it was agreed that "It is an inherent function of the Governments of the several 
communities of the British Commonwealth, including India, that each should enjoy 
complete control of the composition of its own population by means of restriction 
on immigration from any of the other communities." Provision was, however, 
made for permitting temporary visits. This arrangement has settled, at least for 
the time, a dispute which endangered the stability of the Empire. 

Naturalization. For a long period a very vexed question was the right of 
naturalization. Up to 1914, the Dominions were unable to grant full naturaliza 
tion which would hold good throughout the Empire. In that year an Act of the 
British Parliament (4-5 Geo. V, c. 17), provided for the issue of a naturalization 
certificate to an alien by the Secretary of State on proof of five years residence, 
and the fulfilment of certain other conditions. Where the Parliaments of the 
Dominions enforced the same conditions of residence, their Governments were 
given power to issue certificates of naturalization, taking effect in all parts of the 
Empire that had adopted the Act. This was done by Canada in 1914 (4-5 Geo 
V, c. 44). 

Copyright. A difficult and anomalous situation with regard to copyright 
was similarly cleared up in 1911, the Imperial Copyright Act of that year being 
based on the principle that the Dominions must be free to legislate as they saw fit. 
The Act of 1911, therefore, does not extend to any Dominion unless the Parliaments 
of these Dominions have declared it to be in force; similarly, Dominion Parliaments 
may repeal it where it is in force. 

Granting of Titles. Another source of difficulty between the British 
Government and the Dominions has been the granting of titles by the former to 
citizens of the latter who have rendered services to the Empire as a whole. Oppor 
tunities of rendering such service came to many citizens of the Dominions during 
the war, and the British Government was generous in its recognition of these ser 
vices. Exception was taken in the Canadian Parliament to the granting of titles 
to Canadians, and in 1919 Parliament passed an address to His Majesty praying 
that he should "refrain from conferring any title of honour or titular distinction 
upon any of his subjects domiciled or ordinarily resident in Canada, save such 
appellations as are of a professional or vocational character or which appertain 
to an office." 

General Conclusion. While it can hardly be maintained that the Domin 
ions have as yet secured an adequate voice and influence in the direction of the 
Empire s foreign policy, it is to be observed that the powers of the Dominions 
have hitherto developed as the need for more extended powers has arisen. Without 
any violent break with the past, the Dominions have secured through the League 
62373 1\ 



!00 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 

of Nations a voice in international affairs at least as powerful as that of such inde 
pendent nations as Argentina and Brazil. Ten years ago this would have been 
considered unthinkable without a total separation from the Empire, yet it has 
actually occurred. This progress of the Dominions in international status in the 
past decade is thus set forth by Oppenheim, in the third edition of his International 
Law, Vol. 1, sees. 94a and 94b: 

" 94a. Formerly the position of self -governing Dominions, such as Canada, 
Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, did not, in Inter 
national Law, present any difficulties. Then they had no international position 
whatever, because they were, from the point of view of International Law, 
mere colonial portions of the Mother Country. It did not matter that some 
of them, as, for example, Canada, and Australia, flew as their own flag the 
modified flag of the Mother Country, or that they had their own coinage, their 
own postage stamps, and the like. Nor did they become subjects of Inter 
national Law (although the position was somewhat anomalous) when they were 
admitted, side by side with the Mother Country, as parties to the adminis 
trative unions, such as the Universal Postal Union. Even when they were 
empowered by the Mother Country to enter into certain treaty arrangements 
of minor importance with foreign States, they still did not thereby become 
subjects of International Law, but simply exercised for the matters in question 
the treaty-making power of the Mother Country which had been to that extent 
delegated to them." 

" 94b. But the position of self-governing Dominions underwent a fundamental 
change at the end of the World War. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South 
Africa, and also India, were not only separately represented within the British 
Empire delegation at the Peace Conference, but also became, side by side 
with Great Britain, original members of the League of Nations. Separately 
represented in the Assembly of the League, they may, of_course, vote there 
independently of Great Britain. Now the League of Nations is not a mere 
administrative union Uke the Universal Postal Union, but the organized Family 
of Nations. Without doubt, therefore, the admission of these four self-govern 
ing Dominions and of India to membership gives them a position in International 
Law. But the place of the self-governing Dominions within the Family of 
Nations at present defies exact definition, since they enjoy a special position 
corresponding to their special status within the British Empire as " free com 
munities, independent as regards all their own affairs, and partners in those 
which concern the Empire at large." Moreover, just as, in attaining to that 
position, they have silently worked changes, far-reaching but incapable of 
precise definition, in the Constitution of the Empire, so that the written law 
inaccurately represents the actual situation, in a similar way they have taken 
a place within the Family of Nations, which is none the less real for being hard 
to reconcile with precedent. Furthermore, they will certainly consolidate the 
positions which they have won, both within the Empire and within the Family 
of Nations. An advance in one sphere will entail an advance in the other. 
For instance, they may well acquire a limited right of legation or limited treaty- 
making power. But from this time onward the relationship between Great 
Britain and the self-governing Dominions of the British Empire is not likely 
to correspond exactly to any relationship hitherto recognized in International 
Law unless the British Empire should turn into a Federal State." 

A list of the Departments of the Dominion Government, of the Acts which 
they administer and of the principal publications of each Department will be found 
in the section " Statistics and other Information relating to Canada." See, in 
the index, the entries " Acts of Parliament administered by Departments of 
Dominion Government," and "Publications of the Dominion Government." 



IV. PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

IN CANADA. 

The source of the powers of the provincial governments of Canada is the 
British North America Act, 1867 (30-31 Viet., c. 3 and amendments). Under 
section 92 of the Act, the legislature of each province may exclusively make laws 
in relation to the following matters: amendment of the constitution of the 
province, except as regards the Lieutenant-Governor; direct taxation within 
the province; borrowing of money on the credit of the province; establishment 
and tenure of provincial offices and appointment and payment of provincial 
officers; the management and sale of public lands belonging to the province 
and of the timber and wood thereon; the establishment, maintenance and 
management of public and reformatory prisons in and for the province; the 
establishment, maintenance and management of hospitals, asylums, charities 
and eleemosynary institutions in and for the province, other than marine 
hospitals; municipal institutions in the province; shop, saloon, tavern, auctioneer 
and other licenses issued for the raising of provincial or municipal revenue; local 
works and undertakings other than interprovincial or international lines of ships, 
railways, canals, telegraphs, etc., or works which, though wholly situated within 
one province, are declared by the Dominion parliament to be for the general advant 
age either of Canada or of two or more provinces; the incorporation of companies 
with provincial objects; the solemnization of marriage in the province; property 
and civil rights in the province; the administration of justice in the province, inclu 
ding the constitution, maintenance and organization of provincial courts both of 
civil and criminal jurisdiction, and including procedure in civil matters in these 
courts; the imposition of punishment by fine, penalty, or imprisonment for enforcing 
any law of the province relating to any of the aforesaid subjects; generally all 
matters of a merely local or private nature in the province. 

Further, in and for each province the Legislature may, under section 93, exclu 
sively make laws in relation to education, subject to the following provisions. 

" (1) Nothing in any such law shall prejudicially affect any right or 
privilege with respect to denominational schools which any class of persons 
have by law in the province at the union. 

(2) All the powers, privileges and duties at the union by law conferred 
and imposed in Upper Canada on the separate schools and school trustees of 
the Queen s Roman Catholic subjects shall be and the same are hereby extend 
ed to the dissentient schools of the Queen s Protestant and Roman Catholic 
subjects in Quebec. 

(3) Where in any province a system of separate or dissentient schools 
exists by law at the union or is thereafter established by the legislature of the 
province, an appeal shall lie to the Governor-General in Council from any 
act or decision of any provincial authority affecting any right or privilege 
of the Protestant or Roman Catholic minority of the Queen s subjects in 
relation to education. 

(4) In case any such provincial law as from time to time seems to the 
Governor-General in Council requisite for the due execution of the provisions 
of this Section is not made, or in case any decision of the Governor-General 
in Council on any appeal under this Section is not duly executed by the proper 
provincial authority in that behalf, then and in every such case, and as far 
only as the circumstances of each case require, the Parliament of Canada may 
make remedial laws for the due execution of the provisions of this Section 
and of any decision of the Governor-General in Council under this Section." 



102 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 

The purpose of these sections was to preserve to a religious minority in any 
province the same privileges and rights in regard to education which it had at the 
date of Confederation, but the provincial legislatures were not debarred from 
legislating on the subject of separate schools provided they did not thereby pre 
judicially affect privileges enjoyed before Confederation by such schools in the 
province. 

These powers, given to the four original provinces in Confederation, have, 
with some slight changes, been retained ever since and the more recently admitted 
provinces have assumed the same rights and responsibilities on their inclusion as 
units in the federation as were previously enjoyed by the older members. 

I. NOVA SCOTIA. 1 

The province of ;Nova Scotia has made no important changes in its constitu 
tion since it became one of the original members of Confederation in 1867. In 
that year the Legislative Council consisted of 36 members and the Legislative 
Assembly of 55 members. The number of members of the Council is now 21 and 
of the Assembly 43. Legislative councillors are appointed for life, and the mem 
bers of the Assembly are elected for four years, the maximum duration of its exist 
ence. The constitutional relations of the Ministry to the Assembly are based on 
the principles of responsible government by which it retains office only so long 
as it is supported by a majority in the Legislative Assembly. The local Ministry 
or Cabinet, styled the Executive Council, consists of the Prime Minister 
and President of the Council, the Provincial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the 
Minister of Works and Mines and the Minister of Highways. These are salaried 
officials; six other members have office without salaries. Agriculture, immigra 
tion and education are under the control and management of the government 
through certain boards and councils, each with its secretary and staff of officials. 

Municipal Institutions. Previous to Confederation, the local government 
of counties and townships was confided to the magistracy, which was an appointed 
body, holding commissions for life and not responsible in any way to the electorate. 
In the early years of its history this body did much useful and important public 
service, yet abuses here and there existed on account of the irresponsible nature of 
their tenure of office, which rendered reform and public accountability very difficult 
to obtain. Public opinion, however, and the controlling influence of the legislatures 
operating steadily upon even irresponsible bodies of life-appointed magistrates 
made the institution as it existed fairly acceptable to the people generally. In 
1875, the incorporation of the counties and certain townships, hitherto an optional 
action, was made compulsory, twenty-four municipalities being then established. 
In 1895, the Towns Incorporation Act was passed, making the incorporation of 
towns throughout the province optional. In 1921 there were 41 incorporated 
towns. 

The county councils consist of councillors elected by the ratepayers every 
three years. The warden or presiding officer is chosen by the council and holds 
office until the next election of councillors. The mayors of towns are elected by the 
ratepayers and hold office for one year. Halifax, the capital of the province, has 
a special charter, the mayor being elected annually and the eighteen aldermen for 
three years, six retiring each year but being eligible for re-election. 

1 This article, as well as those on the government of the other Maritime Provinces, is adapted from the 
article by the late Thomas Barnard Flint, D.C.L., Clerk of the House of Commons, in the Canada Year 
Book, 1915. 



NEW BRUNSWICK 103 



Judiciary. The provincial courts consist of (1) the supreme court, which is 
a court of appeal and also a circuit court, and (2) the county courts. Presiding 
over the supreme court are a chief justice and six other judges. One of these is a 
judge in equity, who also acts in divorce cases and one is admiralty judge of the 
exchequer court of Canada. The county courts have a limited original jurisdiction 
and an appeal jurisdiction from probate and magistrates courts in certain cases. 
The judges of this court are seven in number, each having a district of jurisdiction 
covering a county or group of counties and holding terms of court in the county 
towns of their respective districts. 

The judges of the supreme and county courts are appointed and paid by the 
Dominion Government, but the procedure of the courts in all civil matters is regu 
lated by provincial legislation. The purely provincial courts and courts of probate 
have jurisdiction over wills and intestate estates. Stipendiary and police magistrates 
courts and courts of justices of the peace are also under provincial jurisdiction. 
The judges of these courts and justices of the peace are appointed by the local 
government and are paid, in some cases by salaries and in others by fees. The 
sheriffs, clerks, registrars and officers of all the courts are appointed by the pro 
vincial authorities. 

In criminal cases the jurisdiction and procedure of all the courts are fixed by 
federal statutes. The procedure as to the selection of grand and petit jurors, of 
revisers of voters lists and assessment courts is fixed by the provincial statutes. 
In each county, and in some counties in one or more districts of a county, are offices 
for the registry of deeds and of all documents pertaining to transfers of or affecting 
titles to real estate as well as those creating and discharging liens on personal pro 
perty. 



II. NEW BRUNSWICK. 

The province of New Brunswick in all essential features of provincial adminie- 
tratior is similar to its neighbour, Nova Scotia. The province entered Confeder 
ation with a Legislative Council of 40 members holding their seats for life, a Legis 
lative Assembly of 40 members and an Executive Council of nine members. Under 
its powers of changing the provincial constitution, the Legislative Council was 
abolished by an act passed on April 16, 1891. The Assembly at present is com 
posed of 47 members, and the Executive Council is composed of (1) the Premier, 
(2) the Minister of Lands and Mines, (3) the Minister of Public Works, (4) the 
Provincial Secretary-Treasurer, (5) the Minister of Agriculture, (6) the Minister 
of Public Health, and (7) the Attorney-General. 

In New Brunswick the subject of public instruction is under the management 
of a Board of Education consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor of the province, 
the member? of the Executive Council, the Chancellor of the University of New 
Brunswick and the Chief Superintendent of Education. 

Municipal Institutions. In the matter of municipal institutions and the 
establishment of responsible local government, New Brunswick has passed through 
several stages of development very similar to those of Nova Scotia, and the old 
regime of county government by magistrates, who were in no way responsible to 
the people, in time gave way to more modern forms. Municipal incorporation 
was rendered optional by an early Act of 1851, which, however, had but little effect 
beyond the division of counties into parishes with a certain amount of local auto- 



104 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 

nomy and some limited powers of administration which have been recognized in 
subsequent legislation. Later, however, an Act of 1877, providing for compulsory 
incorporation, was put into force, and, with its amendments, is substantially effect 
ive at the present time. It provides that county councils be constituted as bodies 
corporate, having two councillors elected yearly from each parish in the county. 
The councils elect from among their members a presiding officer who is styled the 
warden and who holds office until the next election of councillors. Councils may 
themselves, however, provide by by-law for their election biennially, a provision 
which does not apply to the municipality of the city and county of St. John which 
still holds a charter granted in the year 1785. In addition to a warden, each council 
elects a secretary, a treasurer and an auditor who may not be a councillor nor hold 
any office under the council. The councils also appoint overseers of the poor, 
constables, commissioners of highways, collectors of rates and other parish and 
county officials as may be necessary. 

The qualifications of voters for the councils are very liberal. In general every 
British subject of legal age, having real property of any value if a resident, or if 
not, having real property to the value of one hundred dollars, is entitled to vote . 

Judiciary. The provincial courts of New Brunswick, similar to those of 
Nova Scotia, consist of the supreme court and of county courts, the supreme court 
consisting of the appeal division presided over by the chief justice of New Bruns 
wick and two puisne judges, and the King s bench division, presided over by a chief 
justice and three puisne judges. There are six county court judges with juris 
diction in the fifteen counties of the province. Parishes are provided with local 
courts presided over by commissioners who are ex officio justices of the peace, and 
in some cases they are provided with stipendiary or police magistrates. These 
commissioners have civil jurisdiction in debts not exceeding eighty dollars and in 
cases of tort when the damages claimed to not exceed thirty-two dollars. 



III. PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

At the time of entering the Union, the government of Prince Edward Island 
consisted of a Governor and an Executive Council, a Legislative Council of 13 
members, and a House of Assembly of 30 members. The Legislative Council was 
made elective in 1862 and so continued until its abolition after the union in 1873. 
The former Legislative Council districts, after the passage of the Abolition Act, 
elected members to the Legislative Assembly, fifteen in number, while the same 
districts elected members to the Assembly on a different franchise, thus practically 
amalgamating the two houses into one Assembly of 30 members. The electoral 
system, as far as voting is concerned, is practically one of manhood suffrage. The 
Executive Council of Prince Edward Island consists of (1) the President of the 
Council, and Attorney-General, (2) the Provincial Secretary-Treasurer, who is also 
Commissioner of Agriculture, (3) the Commissioner of Public Works, and (4) six 
members without portfolio. 

With regard to the judiciary, the supreme court has a chief justice and two 
assistant judges. The judge of the county court for Queen s county is 
also the local judge in admiralty of the exchequer court. The supreme 
court is also a court of appeal and has jurisdiction in appeal chancery 
cases. It has original jurisdiction both in civil and criminal matters. In 
civil cases of debt the action must be for an amount above $32, and 



QUEBEC 105 



all cases beyond the jurisdiction of the county court may be tried before a judge 
of the supreme court. The assistant judges of this court have also chancery powers. 
There is a surrogate and probate court for the province with one judge. A system 
of county courts is established consisting of three judges, one for each county. 
These are appointed and paid by the federal government and have jurisdiction 
in suits up to the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars. Education is under the 
direction of a Board of Education consisting of the members of the Executive 
Council of the province, the Superintendent of Education, who is also secretary 
of the Board, and the Principal of Prince of Wales College. 



IV. QUEBEC. 1 

Political and Administrative Organization. The first assembly of repre 
sentatives of the people to be elected by popular vote sat at Quebec, the capital 
of Lower Canada, in 1792, after the establishment of the parliamentary government 
which still exists and which originated in the Constitutional Act of 1791. A similar 
form of government was at the same time established in the province of Upper 
Canada. This state of affairs lasted down to 1840, when the two provinces were 
united, and the territory formed by the union of the two Canadas received the 
name of province of Canada. Finally, in 1867. a confederation of four provinces 
was set up. The provinces of Ontario. Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia 
were the first to join in establishing a central government, the seat of which was 
fixed by the Imperial Government at Ottawa. 

The legislature of Quebec is composed of three branches: the Legislative 
Assembly of eighty-five members representing the eighty-six electoral divisions 
of the province (the counties of Charlevoix and Saguenay have the same repre 
sentative); the Legislative Council of twenty-four members nominated for life by 
the Lieut enant-Governor in Council; and finally an Executive Council composed 
of the Lieutenant-Governor and his advisors, the ministers of the Crown. 

The Legislative Assembly and also the Legislative Council have the power 
to bring forward bills relating to civil and administrative matters and to amend or 
repeal the laws which already exist. A bill, to be approved by the Lieutenant- 
Governor, must have received the assent of both Houses. Only the Legislative 
Assembly can bring forward a bill requiring the expenditure of public money. The 
extreme length of a Parliament is five years. The premier is assisted by seven 
ministers, each with departmental portfolios (one of them, the treasurer, having 
two portfolios) and by two ministers without portfolio. 

Municipal Organization. For the purposes of local or municipal adminis 
tration, the province of Quebec is divided into county municipalities, 74 in number; 
these include rural municipalities and villages, as well as town municipalities hitherto 
organized under the former municipal code. In 1922 there were 22 city, 87 town 
and 261 village municipalities, as well as 943 rural municipalities, a total of 1,313 
local municipalities. Each local municipality is administered by a corporation 
composed of seven members in the rural municipalities and of a number varying 
according to the municipality in the cities and towns. In rural municipalities, the 
election of candidates for the municipal council takes place annually in the month 
of January when three of the six councillors are replaced, while the mayor is elected 

J Adapted from the article by G. E. Marquis, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of Quebec, in the 1921 
Year Book. 



106 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 

for a two year term. The county council is composed of all the mayors of the 
villages and rural municipalities in the county. The head of this body bears the 
name of warden and is elected at the March quarterly meetings of the council. 

Most of the towns and cities are organized into separate corporations inde 
pendent of any county council, in virtue of special charters granted by the legis 
lature. The composition varies in different municipalities. The powers of the 
municipal councils are very extensive, being applicable, however, only to questions 
of purely local interest, while their regulations must contain no provisions incom 
patible with the municipal laws of the country. They can appoint officials to 
manage the business of the municipality ; form committees to undertake particular 
branches of the administration; make all highway regulations; nominate a local 
board of health; see to the maintenance of order; and finally aid colonization and 
agriculture by imposing direct taxes upon the taxable property of municipalities. 

All sums necessary for local public administration may be raised by the muni 
cipal council by means of direct taxation on the property in the municipality as 
well as on certain business stock. 

Every two years assessors are named by the council who establish the value 
of the real property of their municipality. These assessors must make a new 
assessment roll every three years, but must amend and correct this roll every year. 
With this assessment as a basis, the municipal council raises the taxes which it 
needs to meet the expenses of administration. A few years ago a Department of 
Municipal Affairs was established to supervise more closely the carrying out of 
the municipal law and especially the borrowing of money. 

School Organization. Public instruction in the province of Quebec 
is governed by a single act called the Law of Public Instruction, although there 
are two kinds of schools, one for the Catholics and the other for the Protestants 
or non-Catholics. This is what is called the confessional system. Regulations for 
each of these religious units are prepared by the Catholic Committee or the Pro 
testant Committee of the Council of Public instruction, respectively, and submitted 
for the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council before going into force. 
The territorial unit administered by a school corporation is called a school muni 
cipality. This may differ in boundaries from the parish and even from the local 
municipality. There are 1,746 of these school municipalities, of which 1,394 are 
Catholic and 352 Protestant. School municipalities are constituted at the request 
of a group of ratepayers by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council on the recommend 
ation of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or occasionally by an Act of the 
legislature. Each of them must be divided into school districts, except in cities 
and towns. School administration is in the hands of five commissioners or three 
trustees. In the same municipality the dissentients or religious minority elect the 
trustees to direct the affairs of the dissentient schools while the majority elect the 
commissioners. 

The school commissioners and trustees are elected for three years, five of the 
former or three of the latter forming a school corporation. Their duties are nume 
rous, but in brief it may be said that they must erect a school in each school district, 
look after the maintenance, provide the necessary equipment, engage teachers, 
supervise their teaching and settle the differences which may arise between teachers 
and parents. 

Like the municipal corporations, the school corporations have the right to 
impose taxes for the construction and maintenance of schools and for the payment 
of the teaching staff. School taxation is distributed over all the taxable property 



ONTARIO 107 



of the school municipality; the assessment roll prepared by the Municipal Council 
must, except in rare cases, serve as a basis for the taxation imposed by the school 
corporations. 

Formerly the school corporations had under their control schools of four kinds; 
kindergartens, elementary primary, intermediate primary and superior primary 
schools. A modification of the above classification was made in September, 1923, 
under which the last three types of schools were reduced to two which are the 
primary course (4 years) and the intermediate course (4 years). The programme 
of studies has been modified so as to give a more suitable type of education to country 
children, so as to keep them on the land, and to provide for town and city children 
an education which will fit them for industry, commerce and finance. 

Besides the schools under control of the school corporation, there are also the 
classical colleges where secondary instruction is given, as well as four universities, 
not including several special schools. The whole school organization is directed by 
the Council of Public Instruction, which prepares the school regulations and the 
programme of studies. It chooses also the professors and principals of the Normal 
schools, as well as the examiners of candidates for teachers certificates; finally, 
it approves as it sees fit, the textbooks which are submitted to it. When the two 
Committees of the Council sit together, thus constituting the Council, its 
chairman is the Superintendent of Public Instruction, who also directs the Depart 
ment of Public Instruction. He is named for life by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, but the Provincial Secretary is the spokesman of this department, and is 
responsible before the provincial legislature for its administration. 



V. ONTARIO. 1 

Historical. The northern part of what is now the province of Ontario came 
under British rule in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht, the southern part in 1763, 
by the Treaty of Paris. At the latter date the whole white population was only 
about 1,000, mainly settled along the Detroit river. By Royal Proclamation of 
Oct. 7, 1763, the eastern part of the province, and by the Quebec Act of 1774 (14 
Geo. Ill, c. 83), the whole of what is now southern Ontario, became part of the 
province of Quebec, under French civil and English criminal law and without any 
representative government. The immigration of the United Empire Loyalists 
and their settlement in the country led to an increasing demand both for English 
civil law and for representative institutions. This demand was met by the passing 
of the Constitutional Act of 1791 (31 Geo. Ill, c. 31), which established the pro 
vince of Upper Canada with a Lieutenant-Governor, a Legislative Council of not 
fewer than seven, and a Legislative Assembly of not fewer than sixteen members, 
to be elected by the people. These representatives of the people, however, had 
little control over the Executive Council, and the result was the struggle for respon 
sible government which culminated in the rebellion of 1837, after which Lord 
Durham s report paved the way for its introduction and the union of the Canadas 
by the Act of Union (3-4 Viet., c. 35). 

Present Constitution. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario, the single 
chamber of the legislature of the province, was originally composed of 82 elected 
members, the number, however, having been increased until the present when 

Adapted from the article by S. A. Cudmore, Editor Canada Year Book, in the 1921 Year Book. 



108 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 

its total is 111. It is elected for four years on an adult suffrage basis and holds 
annual sessions so that 12 months shall not intervene between the last sitting in 
one session and the first sitting in the next. 

The Executive Council consists (1923) of thirteen members, nine of them 
holding portfolios as follows: Prime Minister and Minister of Education; Attorney- 
General; Secretary and Registrar; Treasurer; Lands and Forests; Agriculture; 
Public Works and Highways; Labour; Mines. 

Besides the regular departments, certain commissions have been created for 
specific purposes. They include the Niagara Falls Park Commission, the Railway 
and Municipal Board, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission and the Timiskaming 
and Northern Ontario Railway Commission. 

Municipal Government. Under the system established by the Constitu 
tional Act of 1791, municipal administration was carried on in the mam by the 
courts of quarter sessions, whose members were appointed by and responsible to 
the governor in council. As urban communities began to grow, there commenced 
an agitation for local self-government, which after many rebuffs, resulted in 1832 
in the grant to Brockville of a limited measure of control of the local police. In 
1833 Hamilton and in 1834 Belleville, Cornwall, Port Hope and Prescott received 
similar powers, while in the latter year York became a self-governing city with a 
mayor, aldermen and councillors under the name of Toronto, Kingston receiving 
in 1838 a similar constitution, though being denied the name of city. 

Upon the introduction of responsible government, the District Councils Act 
of 1841 was passed, giving a considerable measure of local self-government with a 
large measure of control by the central authorities and a few years later, a more 
comprehensive measure, the Municipal Act of 1849 came into force. 

This Act has been called the Magna Charta of municipal institutions, not only 
for Ontario, but for the newer provinces which largely copied Ontario institutions. 
Its main features are still clearly visible in the municipal system of to-day. 

Under this system there existed in 1868, when the first legislature of Ontario 
assembled, 539 local self-governing units, including 36 counties, 399 townships, 
and 104 cities, towns and villages. In 1921, there were in the province 911 local 
self-governing units, including 38 county municipalities, 557 townships, 149 villages, 
143 towns and 24 cities. There was thus m that year a local self-governing body for 
every 3,200 of the population of the proyince, and the general effect has been to 
inil iate the masses of the people in the problems of self-government, so that Ontario 
has been described by eminent students of democratic governments as one of the 
most perfect democracies in existence. 

Townships and Villages. Township municipalities may be organized in 
hitherto unorganized territory when the population of the geographical township 
of six miles square is not less than 100, and where the inhabitants of an area not 
surveyed into townships exceed 100 on not more than 20,000 acres. The township 
is governed by a chief executive officer styled reeve, and four others who may be 
deputy reeves or councillors, depending on the number of municipal electors. These 
provisions apply also to villages, which may be created out of districts or parts 
of townships where a population of 750 exists on an area not exceeding 500 acres. 
Police villages with certain limited rights of self-government may be formed by 
county councils where a population of not less than 150 exists upon an area of not 
less than 500 acres and where the majority of freeholders and resident tenants of 
the locality petition therefor. Police villages are administered by three trustees 
who may be created a body corporate where the population exceeds 500. 



ONTARIO log 



Towns. Towns may be incorporated on conditions prescribed by the Ontario 
Railway and Municipal Board, but must have not less than 2,000 population. A 
town in unorganized territory is governed by a mayor and six councillors, or if the 
population is not less than 5,000, by a mayor and nine councillors. A town not in 
unorganized territory is governed by a mayor, a reeve, as many deputy reeves 
as the town is entitled to have as its representatives in the county council, and three 
councillors for each ward where there are less than five wards, or two councillors 
for each ward where there are five or more wards. Towns having not less than 
5,000 population may, by by-law approved by the electors, withdraw from the 
jurisdiction of the county council. 

Cities. Cities, which are always entirely separate in government from their 
counties, must have, when constituted, a population of 15,000. They are governed 
by a mayor, a Board of Control if such exists, and, at the option of the council, 
two or three aldermen for each ward. Boards of Control, who may be elected by 
general vote in any city of more than 45,000 people and must be so elected in cities 
of over 100,000, form a sort of executive authority for the larger cities 
giving a large portion of their tune to the public service, and being paid a salary 
considerably higher than the alderman s indemnity. The duties of the Board of 
Control include the preparation of estimates, the awarding of contracts, the inspec 
tion of municipal works, and the nomination of officers and their dismissal or sus 
pension. The Board reports to the council, in which its members also have a vote, 
and its action is subject to approval or reversal by the whole council. The council 
may not ma.ke appropriations or expenditures of sums not provided for by the 
Board s estimates, without a two-thirds vote of the members present. 

Counties. All members of county councils are also members of the councils 
of the municipalities within the larger county municipality, being the reeves and 
deputy reeves of townships, villages and towns. The presiding officer of the county 
council is called the warden, and is annually chosen from among the reeves who 
are members of the council. The county council has charge of the main highways 
and bridges, the courthouse, gaol, house of refuge, registry office, etc. Its rates are 
collected through the constituent local municipalities. Provisions for the erection 
of one kind of urban municipality into another are given hi the Municipal Act. 

Judiciary. Under the Law Eeform Act of 1909 (9 Edw. VII, c. 28), the 
Supreme Court of Ontario is established hi two divisions, the appellate division 
and the high court division, the former being a continuation of the old court of 
appeal and the latter a continuation of the old high court of justice. The appellate 
division is composed of not less than two divisional courts, each with five justices, 
who. try appeals from the high court and the other courts of the province, and 
from whose decision appeals may in certain cases be made to the Supreme Court 
of Canada. The justices of the High Court hold assizes at least twice a year in 
each county, with a very comprehensive jurisdiction. In each county or district 
there is a court presided over by a judge, who sits at least twice a year, with or 
without a jury, to try minor civil actions. Each county judge also presides at 
least twice yearly over a court of general session, with a limited jurisdiction in 
criminal matters. Criminals may, with their own consent, be tried by the county 
judge without a jury. Each judicial district is divided into court divisions in each 
of which a division court is held by the county judge, or his deputy, at least once in 
every two months. These courts are for the recovery of small debts and damages. 
The county judges hold revision courts for the revision of assessment rolls and of 
voters lists; they are also judges of the surrogate courts, which deal with the 
estates of deceased persons. 



110 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 

VI. MANITOBA, SASKATCHEWAN AND ALBERTA. 1 

Historical. On the prairies there have been two distinct trends of historical 
and political development that of the Red River and that of the Territories. 
The whole region was originally under the sway of the Honourable Company of 
Adventurers trading into Hudson s Bay. In the case of Red River, responsible 
self-rule came with the transfer to Canada. The Territories possessed absolutely 
no form of government prior to their incorporation in the Dominion. 

On September 4, 1812. Captain Miles Macdonell, in the name of Lord Selkirk, 
took formal possession of the District of Assiniboia at the forks of the Red and 
Assiniboine rivers. This was the first act of government in what is now western 
Canada. 

The district was governed for several years by a governor and council appoint 
ed by Selkirk, and although it was responsible to only a slight degree to those whose 
interests it was expected to regard and foster, its membership was largely represent 
ative of the leaders in the community. In 1841, the Municipal District of Assini 
boia was formed, its establishment marking the beginnings of self-government in 
the west. 

The series of Dominion Acts relating to the west begins with "An Act for 
the temporary government of Rupert s Land and the Northwestern Territory when 
united with Canada," June 22, 1869. This Act sought to prepare for the transfer 
of the Territories from the local authorities to the government of Canada. A year 
later the Manitoba Act (33 Viet., c. 3) launched upon its independent constitutional 
career the eld district of Assiniboia, now in possession of complete self-govern 
ment. For a short time there was a temporary government with two ministers and 
the Legislative Assembly. After this, government was carried on with the Legis 
lative Assembly and a Legislative Council, but without a premier. At the end 
of six years the Legislative Council was abolished. Without a Legislative Council 
but with a premier and a Legislative Assembly, the province assumed the constitu 
tional form which has endured to the present day. 

On the establishment of the province of Manitoba, the Territories were not 
at first given a separate government. They were administered from Fort Garry 
by the Lieut enant-Governor of Manitoba with the aid, first of a small executive 
council of three, and then with the aid of a more formal but still provisional North 
west Council. The charter of the separate political existence of the Territories 
is the Northwest Territories Act, 1875 (38 Viet., c. 49). The development of the 
country had already become a rapid one. The construction of the Canadian 
Pacific railway exerted a powerful influence on its growth and tended to a great 
extent to determine the course of settlement. While the capital was still at Battle- 
ford, in 1881, Chief Factor Lawrence Clarke was elected to represent the district 
of Lome on the Northwest Council. Three years later the elected representatives 
of the people became numerous enough to exert an influence upon legislation. In 
1886 a territorial judiciary was established. Then followed a parliamentary struggle 
for the control of the purse. In quick succession came the Advisory Council, the 
Executive Committee, the Executive Council. In the contest between represent 
atives of the settlers and the Dominion officials, victory lay with the people and 
with the cause of popular government. It was not, however, till 1897, on the eve 
of a remarkable growth in population and economic development, that the govern 
ment of the Territories, which for half a decade had been giving expression to the 

Adapted from the article by Rev. E. H. Oliver, Ph. D., F.R.S.C., in the 1921 Year Book. 



MANITOBA 



people s wi l, was made completely responsible in form as it had already be 
fact. 

The increased volume of immigration necessitated heavier expenditures upon 
education, public works and local administration. It was impossible to introduce 
municipal organizations into many districts outside the limits of the denser settle- 
The result was to impose excessive burdens upon the territorial govern 
ment. Financial embarrassments gave rise to constitutional aspirations Finally 
after a prolonged agitation, the Saskatchewan and Alberta Acts (4-5 Edw VIl 
cc. 42 and 43), provided for the erection on September 1st, 1905, of two provinces 
Saskatchewan and Alberta. 

Provincial Constitutions. -Each of the three provinces has a Lieutenant- 
Governor, appointed by the Dominion Government, who holds office for five years 
Within his term he is not removable except for cause assigned, communicated to 
him in writing. His powers are exercised in accordance with the principles of 
responsible government, with the advice and consent of the provincial cabinet 
Each province also, has in its cabinet a Minister of Public Works, an Attorney- 
General, a Minister of Agriculture, a Provincial Treasurer, a Minister of Education 
and a Provincial Secretary. More than one department or sub-department is 
frequently under one responsible minister. In addition each province has a Legisla 
ture consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor and the Legislative Assembly. There 
must be a yearly session. Though the Assembly may be dissolved at any time it 
must not continue longer than a fixed period of years after a general election. 

1. Manitoba. 

Municipal Government. The stages in the growth of municipal institu 
tions in Manitoba are marked by the legislation of the years 1871, 1873, 1882 and 
1900. In 1871, the County Assessment Act and the Parish Assessment Act made 
provision for dealing with local finance. An Act of 1873 provided for the erection 
of a local municipality in districts containing not less than 30 freeholders. In 
1883, the province was divided into 26 counties and 3 judicial districts. Then 
by the General Municipal Act of 1900, every city, town, village and rural municipal 
ity became a body corporate. Over all of these bodies, excepting cities having 
separate charters of incorporation, is the supervision of a department of Municipal 
Affairs. By legislation enacted in 1921, a Tax Commission was established in 
order to improve the standard of municipal assessment throughout the province, 
and especially in rural areas where some laxity had existed. 

A feature peculiar to local government in Manitoba is the "Improvement 
District," that portion of a rural municipality or incorporated village formed into 
a particular territory to provide for local improvements. It differs in both nature 
and functions from the improvement districts of Saskatchewan and Alberta. In 
general, the other forms of municipal organization are the rural municipalities 
villages, towns and cities. 

School Districts. The most elementary and in many ways the most import 
ant unit of self-government on the prairies is the school district, the local organiza 
tion for the support and administration of educational affairs. Its individual 
character depends largely on whether it is a rural, village, town, city or consolidated 
district, but the most common of these, the rural district, is governed by a board 
of three trustees elected by the ratepayers for three years, one being elected and 
one retiring annually. Still another form also exists, the rural municipality school 
organization, an aggregation of rural schools under one board of trustees. 



112 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 

Other Forms. As mentioned above, the other forms of municipal organiza 
tion in addition to the improvement district are the rural municipalities, villages, 
towns and cities. The rural municipality is a permanent corporate body with 
powers to legislate on matters such as public health, cemeteries, hospitals, cruelty 
to animals, fires, municipal buildings, etc. It collects the school taxes in the 
district and may borrow by means of debenture issues. Certain license fees may 
be collected but taxation constitutes the principal source of revenue. The council 
consists of the reeve and six or four councillors as determined by by-law. 

Villages are incorporated under the Municipality Act in which a primary 
requirement is that a minimum number of 500 inhabitants be resident on an area 

of 640 acres. 

Towns may be erected on a petition from any locality with over 1,500 inhabi 
tants. The council consists of the mayor and two councillors from each ward. 

A city in Manitoba may be formed on application from a town containing over 
10,000 inhabitants. Its council is composed of a mayor, a board of control similar 
to those of Ontario, and two aldermen from each ward. Its powers are the familiar 
ones including the acquisition of property, public safety, public order and morality, 
fire protection, libraries, drainage, sewerage and water supply. 

Judiciary. The courts of the three provinces are essentially the same. In 
Manitoba there are the court of appeal, with a chief justice and four puisne judges, 
the court of King s bench, the surrogate court and the county courts. In Saskat 
chewan are the court of appeal and the court of King s bench (with the supreme 
court judges having jurisdiction in bankruptcy) and several district courts. In 
Alberta there are the trial and appellate divisions of the supreme court (the judges 
acting in bankruptcy as above) and also several judicial districts and sub-judicial 
districts presided over by district judges. 

2. Saskatchewan. 



The province- of Saskatchewan began its existence in 1905 with numerous 
municipal customs and organizations which it received as a legacy from the old 
Northwest Territories. Many of them were soon discarded on the recommend 
ation of investigating commissions and among the earliest moves of the new pro 
vince in the direction of municipal government was the amending of local improve 
ment Acts and the consolidating of other Acts relating to municipalities. 

In general, local government in Saskatchewan is similar to that of Manitoba. 
The school district is the most important governmental unit. Improvement 
districts in both Saskatchewan and Alberta differ from those in Manitoba in that 
they consist of those sparsely settled areas where there exists either no municipal 
organization whatever or one of a very simple character. As a rule each local 
improvement district has exactly the same area as the rural municipality into which it 
may subsequently be transformed. This is generally the territorial unit of 18 
miles square or 9 townships. Taxes are collectible by the Department of Municipal 
Affairs and are expended within the district on highways, the destruction of animal 
and insect pests, etc. 

Villages may be incorporated when 50 people actually resident in a hamlet 
make application. Taxes may be levied on land at its fair actual value, on 
buildings and improvements at 60 p.c. of their value and on personal property 
and income. On written petition of two-thirds of the number of ratepayers, a 
by-law providing for the assessment of land only may be passed. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 113 



Towns may be erected from villages having over 500 inhabitants. The land 
and improvements are assessed on the same basis as in villages, but in addition, 
the town has the power of imposing an income tax, a tax on personal property and 
a tax on improvements. 

Towns of 5,000 inhabitants may be incorporated as cities under a general City 
Act. The city may, at its own volition, assess land values, exempting buildings 
and improvements. City government is by mayor and aldermen elected by the 
people and by appointed commissioners, a contrast to the elective boards of control 
common to eastern cities. 

3. Alberta. 

From the standpoint of government, the development of Alberta since its 
creation in 1905 has been very similar to that of Saskatchewan, in much the 
same way as these two provinces have been closely allied with Manitoba in the 
application of older, eastern methods of government to western conditions. 

In Alberta also, the five main forms of municipal organization exist: improve 
ment and municipal districts, villages, towns and cities. The school district is again 
a vital element in the organization of government and, in Alberta, is similar in 
constitution to those of the other prairie provinces. The council of rural muni 
cipalities is generally elected at large, although, with the electors approval, it 
may provide for election by divisions in a manner similar to that seen in Saskat 
chewan where the reeve is elected at large while each of the six councillors is chosen 
by a division of a township and a half. A village in Alberta is not a corporate 
body and its powers are very limited. It may be established where any centre of 
population contains 25 occupied dwelling houses within an area of 640 acres. When 
a village population reaches 700 it may be established as a town and towns again 
may become cities on application and granting of a special charter. As each city 
conducts its affairs according to the provisions of its charter (since there is no City 
Act governing their creation) methods of city government in the province show 
considerable differences. 



VII. BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 . 

British Columbia entered Confederation on July 20, 1871. The province 
had been constituted in 1866 by the union of the colony of Vancouver Island and 
its dependencies with that of British Columbia. Local responsible government 
began before Confederation, but previously the colonies had been administered by 
two mixed elective and appointed councils. The Lieutenant-Governor and a Cabinet 
not to exceed twelve ministers constitute the present administration . The Cabinet 
is composed of the following: the Premier, who is also Minister of Railways and 
President of the Council; Attorney-General and Minister of Labour; Minister of 
Finance and Minister of Industries; Provincial Secretary and Minister of Educa 
tion; Minister of Lands; Minister of Mines and Commissioner of Fisheries; Minister 
of Public Works; Minister of Agriculture. 

British Columbia has a single chamber legislature, consisting of 47 members. 
Vancouver s representation has been increased from 2 members in 1894 to 6 at 
present, elected at large. Victoria returns 4 members, while the other 36 ridings 
are one-member constituencies. The term of the Legislative Assembly, formerly 
four years, was increased to five years in 1913. 

Adapted from the article by John Hosie in the 1921 Year Book. 
623738 



114 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 

Judiciary. The principal courts of the province in the order of authority 
are as follows: 

1. Court of Appeal, consisting of a chief justice and four puisne judges. The 
appellate jurisdiction of this court is wide, covering appeals from all judgments 
and orders of the supreme court, appeals from the county courts, appeals from 
the opinion of a judge of the supreme court on constitutional questions referred 
to him by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, etc. It is also the court of ^appeal 
for the province in all criminal cases under the Criminal Code of Canada. 

2. The Supreme Court, consisting of a chief justice and five puisne judges. 
It has general jurisdiction throughout the province as a superior court of record, 
and there are certain appeals under provincial legislation which are heard before 
it. Its jurisdiction is exercisable by each individual judge as and for the^ court. 

3. County Courts, of which there are nine. These have jurisdiction in all 
personal actions where the amount involved does not exceed $1,000; in actions of 
ejectment where the value of the premises does not exceed $2,500; in equity cases 
where the amount involved does not exceed $2,500. They have wide jurisdiction 
under the provincial mining acts, and upon appeals from small debts courts. 
The administration of criminal justice is also largely in their hands. 

4. Small Debts Courts, with jurisdiction in personal actions up to $100. They 
are presided over by judges appointed by the provincial government. 

In addition to the above courts there are many stipendiary magistrates "and 
justices of the peace, exercising a more or less limited jurisdiction under the Criminal 
Code of Canada as well as under the Summary Convictions Act. 

Education. The Department of Education is under a Minister who is also 
Provincial Secretary. The Superintendent of Education has the rank of a deputy 
minister. Supervision is in the hands of two high school inspectors, sixteen inspec- 
ors of schools, and one inspector of manual training schools. The system is non- 
sectarian. Attendance is compulsory fron} the age of 7 to 14. The provincial 
university was authorized by legislation in 1908, but was not opened until 1915. 
It confers degrees hi Arts, Applied Science and Agriculture, and has power to grant 
degrees in all branches except theology. 

Other educational institutions include two normal schools and over forty high 
schools. There are also night schools for instruction in academic and technical 
subjects. Manual training and household science departments are in operation L in 
many high schools and elementary schools. 

The maintenance of all city and town schools, and a large majority of the 
rural schools, is provided for by local or district assessment, supplemented by 
grants from the provincial treasury. Control of these schools is vested in the local 
authorities, subject to the regulations of the department. Cities and organized 
municipalities elect their boards by popular vote. These boards appoint municipal 
inspectors and other officers. 

Municipal Government. Local administration is at present based on the 
Municipal Act and amending statutes, together with the Village Municipalities 
Act. Large powers of local self-government are conferred by the existing system. 
An urban municipality may be formed by a community of not less than 100 male 
British subjects, provided the owners of more than half of the land petition for it. 
District municipalities may be organized by 30 resident male British subjects of 
full age. Village municipalities may be formed by petition where the number of 
residents does not exceed 1,000 but the provisions of the Municipal Act shall not 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 115 



apply thereto. The city organizations are of the same general type, differing only 
in details. In all, the chief executive officer is the mayor, and all have elective 
councils. 

The Municipal Act has provision for the board of control, but neither this nor 
the Commission system is in operation. All the larger cities have dropped the ward 
system. Vancouver, the largest city, has reduced its council to eight members. 
The municipal franchise for ordinary purposes is open to adult male residents and 
to female householders and real estate owners. Only owners of real estate, male 
or female, may vote on money by-laws. Such by-laws are necessary for expendi 
tures beyond the ordinary revenue, requiring the issue of debentures. They require 
a three-fifths majority of the votes cast. The chief executive of a district muni 
cipality is the reeve and in most other respects the district municipality is similar 
to the city government. 

While tfie general municipal system is established by common legislation, 
several municipalities have secured certain modifications by special enactment. 
Each has its own system of assessment and taxation. Vancouver, for example, 
levies taxes upon fifty per cent of the value of improvements. 

Under the Municipal Cemeteries Act, 1921, municipalities are given power 
to establish cemeteries, mausoleums and crematoriums. Two or more municipali 
ties may act together in the matter, with a joint board of control appointed by the 
respective councils. 

Aid is now given the municipalities from the receipts from government sale 
of liquor, from receipts for motor licenses, and from a newly imposed tax on betting 
at race meetings. The apportionment of such moneys is on a basis of population. 



62373 8 i 



V. PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN 

CANADA. 

I. DOMINION PARLIAMENT. 

The Dominion Parliament is composed of the King, represented by the Governor- 
General, the Senate and the House of Commons. The Governor-General is appoint 
ed by the King in Council. Members of the Senate are appointed for life by the 
Governor-General in Council and members of the House of Commons are elected 
by the people. As a result of the working out of the democratic principle, the 
part played by the King s representative and the Upper Chamber of Parliament 
in the country s legislation has been, in Canada as in the mother country, a steadily 
decreasing one, the chief responsibilities involved in legislation being assumed 
by the House of Commons. 

The Governor-General of Canada The Governor-General is appointed by the 
King as his representative in Canada, usually for a term of five years, with a salary 
fixed at 10,000 sterling per annum and forming a charge against the consolidated 
revenue of the country. Trie Governor-General is bound by the terms of his com 
mission and can only exercise such authority as is expressly entrusted to him. 
He acts under the advice of his Ministry, which is responsible to Parliament, and, 
as the acting head of the executive, summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament 
and assents to or reserves bills. In the discharge of these and other executive 
duties, he acts entirely by and with the advice of his Ministry (the Governor- 
General in Council). In matters of Imperial interest affecting Canada, he consults 
with his Ministers and submits their views to the British government. The royal 
prerogative of mercy in capital cases, formerly exercised on the Governor-General s 
own judgment and responsibility, is now Exercised pursuant to the advice of the 
Ministry. 

A list of the Governors-General from the time of Confederation, with the 
dates of their appointment and assumption of office, is given in Table 1. 

1. Governors-General of Canada, 1867-1923. 



Name. 


Date of 
appointment. 


Date of 
assumption 
of office. 


Viscount Monck GCMG 


June 1, 1867 


July 1, 1867 


Lord Lisgar GCMG 


Dec. 29, 1868 


Feb. 2, 1869 


Thp Farl of T~)iiffprin KPKCBGCMG 


May 22, 1872 


June 25, 1872 


Thp Marnnis of T ornp KT GCMG 


Oct. 5, 1878 


Nov. 25, 1878 




Aug. 18, 1883 


Oct. 23, 1883 


Lord Stanley of Preston G C B 


May 1, 1888 


June 11, 1888 


T he Earl of Aberdeen KT GCMG 


May 22, 1893 


Sept. 18, 1893 


The Earl of Minto GCMG 


July 30, 1898 


Nov. 12, 1898 


The Earl Grey GCMG 


Sept. 26, 1904 


Dec. 10, 1904 




Mar. 21, 1911 


Oct. 13, 1911 


Thp Dnlcfi nf Dftvnnshirp KG GCMG GCVO 


Aug. 19, 1916 


Nov. 11, 1916 




Aug. 2, 1921 


Aug. 11, 1921 









The Ministry A system of government based upon the British, by which a 
Cabinet or Ministry (composed of members of the House of Commons or the 
Senate), responsible to Parliament, holds office while it enjoys the confidence of 



DOMINION MINISTRIES 



117 



the people s representatives, is found in Canada. The Cabinet is actually a com 
mittee of the King s Privy Council for Canada. Without enlarging upon the 
features of the system, it may be sufficient to note that the Cabinet is responsible 
to the House of Commons, and, following established precedent, resigns office 
when it becomes evident that it no longer holds the confidence of the people s 
representatives. Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the Prime Minister; 
each of them generally assumes charge of one of the various departments of the 
government, although one Minister may hold two portfolios at the same time, 
while other members may be without portfolio. The present Ministry consists 
of 19 members. Three of them are without portfolio while four others, including 
the Prime Minister, are in charge of two or more departments. 

The Prime Ministers since Confederation and their dates of office, together 
with the members of the present Ministry, are given in Table 2. 

2. Ministries since Confederation. 

1. Rt. Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald, Premier. From July 1, 1867 to Nov. 6, 1873. 

2. Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, Premier. From Nov. 7, 1873 to Oct. 16, 1878. 

3. Rt. Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald, Premier. From Oct. 17, 1878 to June 6, 1891. 

4. Hon. Sir John J. C. Abbott, Premier. From June 16, 1891 to Dec. 5, 1892. 

5. Hon. Sir John S. D. Thompson, Premier. From Dee. 5, 1892 to Dec. 12, 1894. 

6. Hon. Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Premier. From Dec. 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. 

7. Hon. Sir Charles Tupper, Premier. From May 1, 1896 to July 8, 1896. 

8. Rt. Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Premier. From July 11, 1896 to Oct. 6, 1911. 

9. Rt. Hon. Sir Robert L. Borden, Premier. (Conservative Administration). From Oct. 10, 1911 to 

Oct. 12, 1917. 

10. Rt. Hon. Sir Robert L. Borden, Premier. (Unionist Administration). From Oct. 12, 1917 to July 10, 

1920. 

11. Rt. Hon. Arthur Meighen, Premier. (Unionist "National Liberal and Conservative Party"). From 

July 10, 1920 to Dec. 29, 1921. 

12. Rt. Hon. William Lyon Mackenzie King, Premier. From Dec. 29, 1921. 

NOTE. A complete list of the members of Dominion Ministries from Confederation to 1913 appeared 
in the Year Book of 1912, pp. 422-429. A list of the members of the Dominion Ministries from 1911 to 
1921 appeared in the Year Book of 1920, pp. 651-653. 

TWELFTH DOMINION MINISTRY. 

(According to precedence of the Ministers as at the formation of the Cabinet.) 



Office. 



Occupant. 



Date of 
Appointment. 



Prime Minister, Secretary of State for 
External Affairs, President of the Privy 
Council 



Minister of Finance 

Minister of National Defence. 



Right Hon. William Lyon Mackenzie King 
Right Hon. William S. Fielding 



Hon. George P. Graham. . 
Hon. Edward Macdonald 1 . 
Hon. Edward Macdonald. 



Postmaster General 

Minister without Portfolio. 



Hon. Charles Murphy. . . 
Hon. Raoul Dandurand. 



Minister of Soldiers Civil Re-Establish 
ment and the Minister in charge of and to 
administer the Department of Health 

Minister of Public Works 



Hon. Henri S. Beland. 

Hon. Hewitt Bostock. 
Hon. James H. King.. 



Minister of Justice and Attorney General. . . 

Minister of Customs and Excise 

Minister of Marine and Fisheries 

Solicitor General. . 



Hon. Sir Lomer Gouin. 
Hon. Jacques Bureau. . . 
Hon. Ernest Lapointe.. 



Hon. Daniel D. McKenzie. 
Hon. E. J. McMurray 



Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

April 28, 1923 

Aug. 17, 1923 
4 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 



Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Feb. . 3, 1922 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 
< 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Sept. 12, 1923 



Acting Minister. 



118 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 



TWELFTH DOMINION MINISTRY concluded. 



Office. 



Minister of Immigration and Colonization. . 
Minister of Trade and Commerce. . . 



Minister without Portfolio 

Secretary of State 

Minister of Railways and Canals. 



Minister of the Interior, Superintendent 

L. General of Indian Affairs and Minister of 

Mines.. 



Minister of Agriculture 

Minister of Labour 

Minister without Portfolio. 



Occupant. 



Hon. James A. Robb. 



Hon. James A. Robb.. 
Hon. Thomas A. Low. 



Hon. Thomas A. Low. 
Hon. Arthur B. Copp. . 



Hon. William C. Kennedy. 
Hon. George P. Graham... 



Hon. Charles Stewart 

Hon. William R. Motherwell. 

Hon. James Murdock 

Hon. John. E. Sinclair... 



Date of 
Appointment. 



Aug. 17, 1923 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Aug. 17, 1923 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

April 28, 1923 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 

Dec. 29, 1921 



In Table 3 are given the dates of the opening and prorogation of the sessions 
of the various Dominion Parliaments from 1867 to 1923. 



3. Duration and Sessions of Dominion Parliaments, 1867-1923. 



Number of 
Parliament. 


Ses 
sion. 


Date of 
Opening. 


Date of 
Prorogation. 


Days 
of 

ses 
sion. 


Elections, writs 
returnable, dissolutions, 
and lengths of 
Parliaments. 10 


1st Parliament 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 


Nov. 1, 1867 
April 15, 1869 
Feb 15, 1870 


May 22, 1868 
June 22, 1869 
May 12 1870 


1181 
69 
87 


Aug., Sept., 1867. 
Sept 24 1867 4 


2nd Parliament 1 


4th 
5th 

1st 


Feb. 15, 1871 
April 11, 1872 

Mar. 5 1873 


April 14, 1871 
June 14, 1872 

Aug 13 1873 


59 
65 

81 2 


July 8, 1872.5 
4 y., 9 m., 15 d. 
July, Aug. .Sept., 72.3 
Sept 3 1872 * 


3rd Parliament 


2nd 

1st 
2nd 
3rd 


Oct. 23, 1873 

Mar. 26, 1874 
Feb. 4, 1875 
Feb. 10, 1876 


Nov. 7, 1873 

May 26, 1874 
April 8, 1875 
April 12 1876 


16 

62 
64 
63 


Jan. 2, 1874/ 
ly.,4m.,0d. 
Jan. 22, 1874.3 
Feb. 21, 1874." 
Aug 17 1878 5 


4th Parliament 


4th 
5th 
1st 
2nd 


Feb. 8, 1877 
Feb. 7, 1878 
Feb. 13, 1879 
Feb. 12, 1880 


April 28, 1877 
May 10, 1878 
May 15, 1879 
May 7 1880 


80 
93 
92 
86 


4 y., 5 m., 25 d. 

|Sept. 17, 1878. 
Nov 21 1878 4 


5th Parliament 


3rd 
4th 
1st 
2nd 


Dec. 9, 1880 
Feb. 9, 1882 
Feb. 8, 1883 
Jan. 17, 1884 


Mar. 21, 1881 
May 17, 1882 
May 25, 1883 
April 19 1884 


103 
98 
107 
94 


^May l8, l882.s 
3 y., 5 m., 28 d. 
June 20, 1882. 
Aug 7 1882 4 


6th Parliament . 


3rd 
4th 
1st 
2nd 


Jan. 29, 1885 
Feb. 25, 1886 
April 13, 1887 
Feb 23 1888 


July 20, 1885 
June 2, 1886 
June 23, 1887 
May 22 1888 


173 
98 
72 
90 


Jan. l5, 1887.5 
4 y., 5 m., 10 d. 
Feb. 22, 1887. 
April 7 1887 * 


.7th Parliament 


3rd 

4th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 


Jan. 31, 1889 
Jan. 16, 1890 
April 29, 1891 
Feb. 25, 1892 
Jan 26, 1893 


May 2, 1889 
May 16, 1890 
Sept. 30, 1891 
July 9, 1892 
April 1 1893 


92 
121 
155 
136 
66 


Feb. 3, 1891.5 
3y.,9m., 27 d. 

March 5, 1891. 
April 25 1891 4 


8th Parliament i 


4th 
5th 
6th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 


Mar. 15, 1894 
April 18, 1895 
Jan. 2, 1896 
Aug. 19, 1896 
Mar. 25, 1897 
Feb. 3, 1898 


July 23, 1894 
July 22, 1895 
April 23, 1896 
Oct. 5, 1896 
June 29, 1897 
June 13, 1898 


131 
96 
111 
48 
97 
131 


April 24, 1896.5 
5 y., Om., Od. 

June 23, 1896. 
July 13, 1896. 1 




4th 
5th 
1st 
2nd 


Mar. 16, 1899 
Feb. 1, 1900 
Feb. 6, 1901 
Feb. 13, 1902 


Aug. 11, 1899 
July 18, 1900 
May 23, 1901 
May 15, 1902 


149 
168 
107 
90 


Oct. 9, 1900. 
4 y., 2 m., 26 d. 
Nov. 7, 1900. 3 
Dec. 5, 1900 4 




3rd 
4th 


Mar. 12, 1903 
Mar. 10, *)04 


Oct. 24, 1903 
Aug. 10, 1904 


227 
154 


Sept. 29, 1904. 
3y., 9 m., 26 d. 



DOMINION PARLIAMENTS 



119 



3 Duration and Sessions of Dominion Parliaments, 1867-1923 concluded. 



Number of 
Parliament. 


Ses 
sion. 


Date of 
Opening. 


Date of 
Prorogation. 


Days 
of 

ses 
sion. 


Elections, writs 
returnable, dissolutions, 
and lengths 
of Parliaments. 10 


10th Parliament 


1st 
2nd 


Jan. 11, 1905 
Mar. 8, 1906 


July 20, 1905 
July 13, 1?06 


191 
128 


Nov. 3, 1904. 3 
Dec. 15, 1904. 


llth Parliament 


3rd 
4th 

1st 


Nov. 22, 1906 
Nov. 28, 1907 

Jan. 20, 1909 


April 27, 1907 
July 20, 1908 

May 19, 1909 


157 

236 

120 


Sept. 17, 1908.6 
3 v., 9 m., 4d. 
Oct. 26, 1908.3 
Dec. 3, 1908.- 1 


12th Parliament 


2nd 
3rd 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


Nov. 11, 1909 
Nov. 17, 1910 
Nov. 15, 1911 
Nov. 21, 1912 
Jan. 15, 1914 
Aug. 18, 1914 


May 4, 1910 
July 29, 1911 
April 1, 1912 
June 6, 1913 
June 12, 1914 
Aug. 22, 1914 


175 

196 7 
139 
173 
148 
5 


July 29, 1911. 6 
2 y., 7 m., 28 d. 

Sept. 21, 1911. 
Oct. 7, 1911. 4 


13th Parliament 


5th 
6th 
7th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 


Feb. 4, 1915 
Jan. 12, 1916 
Jan. 18, 1917 
Mar. 18, 1918 
Feb. 20, 1919 
Sept. 1, 1919 


April 15, 1915 
May 18, 1916 
Sept. 20, 1917 
May 24, 1918 
July 7, 1919 
Nov. 10, 1919 


71 
127 
207 9 
68 
138 
71 


Oct. 6, 1917. 6 
6y., m., d. 

Dec. 17, 1917.3 
}Feb. 27, 1918.< 


llth Parliament 1 


4th 
5th 
1st 
2nd 


Feb. 26, 1920 
Feb. 14, 1921 
Mar. 8, 1922 
Jan. 31, 1923 


July 1, 1920 
June 4, 1921 
June 28, 1922 
June 30, 1923 


127 
111 
113 
151 


Oct. 4, 1921.5 
3y., 7m., 6 d. 
\Dec. 6, 1921.3 
/Jan. 14, 1922.* 



1 Adjourned from 21st December, 1867, to 12th March, 1868, to allow the local Legislatures to meet. 
1 Adjourned 23rd May till 13th August. 3 Period of general elections. 4 Writs returnable. 6 Dissolution 
of Parliament. * Duration of Parliament in years, months and days. The life of a Parliament is counted 
from the date of return of election wiits to the date of dissolution, both days inclusive. 7 Not including 
days (59) of adjournment from May 19th to July 18th. 8 Not including days (25) of adjournment from Dec. 
19th, 1912, to Jan. 14th, 1913. Not including days (39) of adjournment from Feb. 7th to April 19th, 1917. 
10 The ordinary legal limit of duration for each parliament is five years. 

A brief resume of the history of parliamentary representation follows. Attention 
may be drawn to the growth in the number of members of both the Senate and 
the House of Commons since Confederation and to the greatly increased unit of 
representation in the lower house. 

The Senate. The British North America Act, 1867, provides in sections 21 
and 22 that "the Senate shall consist of seventy-two members, who shall be styled 
Senators. In relation to the constitution of the Senate, Canada shall be deemed 
to consist of three divisions, (1) Ontario; (2) Quebec); (3) The Maritime Provinces, 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; which three divisions shall be equally represented 
in the Senate as follows, Ontario by twenty-four Senators; Quebec by twenty-four 
Senators; and the Maritime Provinces by twenty-four Senators, twelve thereof 
representing New Brunswick and twelve thereof representing Nova Scotia. In the 
case of Quebec, each of the twenty-four Senators representing the province shall be 
appointed for one of the electoral divisions of Lower Canada specified in schedule 
A to Chapter I of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada." The upper chamber of 
the Dominion Parliament, while it has been distinctly secondary in importance 
to the lower, as in most other bi-cameral legislatures, has still remained an integral 
part of the Canadian Parliamentary system. 

The first increase in the membership of the upper chamber took place in 1871, 
when Manitoba and British Columbia, upon entering Confederation, were given 
two and three Senators respectively. In 1873 Prince Edward Island was civen 
four Senators, the representation of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick being reduced 
by two Senators each. In 1882 Manitoba was given an additional member and 
in 1892 another. The Northwest Territories, in 1888, were given representation 



120 PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 



by two Senators, the number being increased to four in 1904. Saskatchewan 
and Alberta, on their creation in 1905, were each allotted four seats. At that time 
the membership by Provinces was .--Ontario, 24; Quebec, 24; Nova Scotia, 10- 
New Brunswick, 10; Prince Edward Island, 4; British Columbia, 3; Manitoba 4- 
Saskatchewan, 4; Alberta, 4, a total of 87 members. Following the increased 
representation given to the western provinces by the Representation Act, 1914 
the number of senators was increased in 1917 to 96 by 5-6 Geo. V, c. 45 (an Act 
of the Imperial Parliament). A fourth "division," represented by 24 members 

comprising the area of the Dominion situated to the west of Ontario was created, 
and each of the four western provinces was represented in the Senate by 6 members 
While the total number is thus 96, provision is made by the Act for the creation 
of additional senators by the Governor-General. The total, however, must never 
exceed a maximum of 104. Senators are entitled to be addressed as "Honourable" 

The personnel of the Senate, by provinces, as at Oct. 31, 1923, is shown in 
Table 4. 

^-Representation in the Senate of Canada, by Provinces, according to the British 
^orth America Act, 1867, and amending Acts, as at Oct. 31,1923. 



Names of Senators. 



Prince Edward Island (4 

senators) 

Yeo, John 

Prowse, Benj. C 

Murphy, Patrick C 

McLean, John 



Post Office 
Address. 



Nova Scotia (10 senators) 

Farrell, Edward M 

Roche, William 

Curry, Nathaniel 

Ross, Wm.B 

Girroir, E. L 

McLennan, John S 

Tanner, C. E 

Stanfield, John 

McCormick, John 

Martin, Peter 



New Brunswick (10 senators) 

Poirier, Pascal 

King ( G. G 

Daniel, J. W 

Bourcjue, T. J 

Fowler, G. W . 

Todd, Irving R 

McDonald, J. A 

Black, Frank B 

Turgeon, Onesiphore 



Quebec (24 senators) 1 

Bolduc, Joseph, P.C 

Montplaisir, H 

Thibaudeau, A. A 

Dandurand, R..P.C 

Catgrain, J. P. B 

Beique, F. L 

Legrie, J. H 

Tessier, Jules 

David, L. O 

Cloran, H. J 

Mitchell, Wm 

DessaulJes, G. C 

Lavergne, Louis 



Port Hill. 
Charlottetown. 
Tignish. 
Souris. 



Liverpool. 

Halifax. 

Amherst. 

Middleton. 

Antigonish. 

Sydney. 

Pictou. 

Truro. 

Sydney Mines. 

Halifax. 



Shediac. 

Chipman. 

St. John. 

Richibucto. 

Sussex. 

Mill town. 

Shediac. 

Sackville. 

Bathurst. 



St. Victor de Tring 

Three Rivers. 

Montreal. 

Montreal. 

Montreal. 

Montreal. 

Louiteville. 

Quebec. 

Montreal. 

Montreal. 

Drummondville. 

St. Hyacinthe. 

Arthabaska. 



Names of Senators. 



Quebec concluded. 
Wilson, J. M. . 

Pope, RufusH 

Beaubien, C. P 

L Esperance, D. O 

Foster, G. G.. 

White, R. S 

Blondin, P. E., P.C 

Chapais, Thomas 

Webster, L. C 

Boyer, Gustavo 



Post Office 
Address. 



Ontario (24 senators) 

Mcflugh, Geo 

Belcourt, N. A., P.C 

Ratz, Valentine 

Gordon, Geo 

Smith, E. D ......! 

McCall, Alexander 

Donnelly, J. J 

Lynch -Staunton, G 

Robertson, G. D., P.C . 

Blain, Richard 

Fisher, J. H 

Bennett, W. H . 

Webster, John 

Mulholland, R. A... 
O Brien, M. J.... 
White, G. V... 
Reid, J. D..P.C.... 
Foster, Sir G. E., P.C 

Kemp, Sir A. E., P.C . 

Macdonell, A. H 

McCoig, A. B 

Hardy, A. C 

Pardee, F. F 



Montreal. 

Cookshire. 

Montreal. 

Quebec. 

Montreal. 

Montreal. 

Grand .Mere. 

Quebec. 

Montreal. 

Rigaud. 



Aylesworth, Sir A. B., P.C. . 

lanitoba (6 senators) 

Watson, Robt 

Sliarpe, W. H . . 

McAieans, L 

B6nard, Aim6 

Schaffner, F. L 

Bradbury, G. H 



Lindsay. 

Dttawa. 

NTew Hamburg. 

Slorth Bay. 

Winona. 

Simcoe. 

Pinkerton. 

Hamilton. 

Welland. 

Brampton. 

Paris. 

Midland. 

Brockville. 

Port Hope. 

lienfrew. 

Pembroke. 

Prescott. 

Ottawa. 

Toronto. 

Toronto. 

Chatham. 

Brockville. 

Sarnia. 

Toronto. 



3 ortage la Prairie, 
klanitou. 
Vinnipeg. 
Vinnipeg. 
Vinnipeg. 
Selkirk. 



One seat vacant. 



THE SENATE 



121 



4. Representation in the Senate of Canada, by Provinces, etc. concluded. 



Names of Senators. 


Post Office 
Address. 


Names of Senators. 


Post Office 
Address. 


Saskatchewan (6 senators) 
Ross, James H 


Regina. 


Alberta concluded. 
Harmer, Wm J 




Laird, H. W 


Regina. 


Griesbach, W A 




Willoughby, W. B 


Moosejaw. 


Cote, Jean Leon 




Turriff, J. G 


Ottawa, Ont. 






Calder, J. A., P.C 


Regina. 


British Columbia (6 senators) 




Gillis, A. B 


Whitewood. 


Bostock Hewitt P C 








Planta, A. E 


Nanaimo 


Alberta (6 senators) 




Barnard, G. H 


Victoria 


Lougheed, Sir J. A., P.C 


Calgary. 


Tavlor, J. D 


New Westminster 


De Veber, L. George 


Leth bridge. 


Green, R. F 




Michener, Edward 


Red Deer. 


Crowe, S. J.. 













The House of Commons. The British North America Act provides under 
section 37 that "The House of Commons shall consist of one hundred and eighty-one 
members, of whom eighty-two shall be elected for Ontario, sixty-five for Quebec, 
nineteen for Nova Scotia and fifteen for New Brunswick." Further, under section 
51, provisions were made for decennial re-adjustments of representation in accordance 
with the results of the decennial census of the Dominion. The section provides 
that the province of Quebec shall always have a fixed number of 65 members, 
and that there shall be assigned to each of the other provinces such number of 
members as will bear the same proportion to the number of its population (ascer 
tained by the census) as the number 65 bears to the population of Quebec (within 
its area as in 1911). A further provision in subsection 4 of section 51 stipulates 
that "on any such re-adjustment the number of members for a province shall not 
be reduced unless the proportion which the number of the population of the province 
bore to the number of the aggregate population of Canada at the then last preceding 
re-adjustment of the number of members for the province is ascertained at the then 
latest census to be diminished by one twentieth part or upwards." By an amend 
ment to the British North America Act passed by the Imperial Parliament in 1915 
(5-6 Geo. V, c. 45), it was enacted that "notwithstanding anything in the said Act, 
a province shall always be entitled to a number of members in the House of Com 
mons not less than the number of senators representing such province." As a 
consequence of this amendment the representation of Prince Edward Island has 
remained at 4 members. 

Re-adjustments in Provincial Representation. The first Dominion Parlia 
ment was chosen by the electors in the general election held from Aug. 7 to Sept. 20, 
1867. Its lower chamber was composed of 181 members, as set out by the foregoing 
provisions of the British North America Act. During its existence, the inclusion 
of Manitoba as a province of the Dominion on May 12, 1870, and of British Columbia 
on July 20, 1871, resulted in the addition of four and six members respectively. 
As a result of the census of 1871, a further increase took place through the addition 
of six new members for Ontario, two for Nova Scotia and one for New Brunswick, 
at the general election of 1872; further, in 1874, after the admission of Prince Edward 
Island to the Dominion, six members were added from that province. The results 
of the general election of 1882 again show increased representation arising out of 
the census of 1881 increases of three for Ontario and one for Manitoba bringing 
the total number of members up to 210. The elections of 1887, in which an addi 
tional member for Ontario and four new members for the Northwest Territories 
(later Saskatchewan and Alberta) were returned, brought a further increase to a 



122 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 



total of 215. Later redistributions following the censuses of 1891 and 1901 resulted 
u/increases in the number of members from the new electoral districts of the western 
provinces and the Yukon, and reductions in the representation given to Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, the total number, however, remaining practically 
the same. The number of members for Ontario also showed, as a consequence 
of the census of 1901, a decrease, after the election of 1904, from 92 to 86. The 
results of the four elections of 1891, 1896, 1900 and 1904 show the number of members 
returned to have been 215, 213, 216 and 214 respectively. In 1908, following the 
passing of the Representation Act of 1907, a total of 35 members from the Maritime 
provinces, 10 members each from Manitoba and Saskatchewan, together with 
7 from Alberta, a new member for British Columbia and unchanged representation 
from Quebec and Ontario showed a grand total of 221 members in the House of 
Commons. No further changes were made until after the election of 1911, when an 
amendment to the Representation Act provided that the House of Commons should 
consist of 221 members as follows, Ontario, 86; Quebec, 65; Saskatchewan, 10; 
British Columbia, 7; Alberta, 7; Manitoba, 10; Nova Scotia, 18; New Brunswick, 
13; Prince Edward Island, 4; Yukon Territory, 1. A further Representation Act 
of 1914 provided for an increase in the number of members to 235, divided among 
the provinces as follows, Ontario, 82; Quebec, 65; Nova Scotia, 16; New Brunswick, 
11; Manitoba, 15; British Columbia, 13; Prince Edward Island, 4; Saskatchewan, 
16; Alberta, 12; Yukon Territory, 1. This Act is now in force but as a result of the 
census of 1921 a further Bill, providing for increases in the number of members 
from the western provinces and for a decrease in the number of members from 
Nova Scotia and a grand total of 245 members, was given a first reading on February 
13, 1923. It establishes the basis on which the fifteenth Parliament of Canada 
will probably be constituted. 

The effect of the various Representation Acts, as shown by the number of 
rhembers returned to the House of Commons for the various provinces, at the general 
elections in the years for which figures are given is shown in Table 5. 

5. Representation in the House of Commons of Canada, showing the effect of 

Representation Acts, 1867 to 1921. 



Province. 


1867. 


1872. 


1882. 


1896. 


1904. 


1908. 


1911. 


1917. 


1921. 


Ontario 


82 


88 


91 


92 


86 


86 


86 


82 


82 


Quebec 


65 


65 


65 


65 


65 


65 


65 


65 


65 


Nova Scotia 


19 


21 


21 


20 


18 


18 


18 


16 


16 


New Brunswick 


15 


16 


16 


14 


13 


13 


13 


11 


11 


Manitoba 




4 


5 


7 


10 


10 


10 


15 


15 


British Columbia 


_ 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


13 


13 


Prince Edward Island 
Saskatchewan 


- 




6 


5 

\ 


4 


4 
10 


4 
10 


4 
16 


4 
16 


Alberta 


_ 


_ 


m 


/ 4 


10 


7 


7 


12 


12 


Yukon 


m 


_ 


_ 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






















Total 


181 


200 


210 


213 


214 


221 


221 


235 


235 























While the number of members of the House of Commons has been growing 
fairly steadily since Confederation, the unit of representation one-sixty-fifth 
of the population of Quebec within its 1911 boundaries has also been increased 
after each census in consequence of the expanding population of Quebec. The 
units of representation as shown by the six decennial censuses taken since Con- 



THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 



123 



federation, are as follows: 1871, 18,331 persons; 1881, 20,908; 1891, 22,901; 1901, 
25,368; 1911, 30,819; 1921, 36,283. 

The Present Redistribution Problem. The method by which the repre 
sentation of provinces is determined may be further explained. The population 
of Quebec, it has been shown, constitutes the basis from which the unit of repre 
sentation in the other provinces is determined, Quebec s representation of 65 mem 
bers in the House of Commons remaining constant. The provisions of the Quebec 
Boundaries Extension Act, 1912, however, while they provided for an enlargement 
of the area of the province, stipulated that the population of the newly added areas 
should not be included in any computations relative to representation. Quebec s 
population in 1921 (excluding the population of Ungava) was 2,358,412, which, 
divided by 65, gives a unit of representation of 36,283. The quotient, therefore, 
obtained by dividing the population of each province (Prince Edward Island ex- 
cepted) as shown at the date of the census, by the unit 36,283 indicates, except 
where subsection 4 of section 51 of the Act applies, the number of members to 
which each province is entitled. The method is illustrated in Table 6. 

. Representation of the Provinces and Territories of Canada in the House of 

Commons, as determined by the British North America Act and the 

Censuses of 1911 and 1921. 







Census 1911. 






Census 1921. 




Province. 


Population. 


Quotient 
based on 
Unit. 


Repre 
sentation. 


Population. 


Quotient 
based on 
Unit. 


Repre 
sentation. 


Prince Edward Island 


93,728 


3-04 


4 


88,615 


2-44 


4 


Nova Scotia 


492,338 


15-98 


16 


523,837 


14-44 


14 


New Brunswick 


351,889 


11-42 


11 


387,876 


10-69 


11 


Ontario 


2,527,292 


82-00 


82 


2,933,662 


80-86 


82 


Manitoba 


461,394 


14-97 


15 


610,118 


16-82 


17 


Saskatchewan 


492,432 


15-98 


16 


757,510 


20-88 


21 


Alberta 


374,295 


12-14 


12 


588,454 


16-22 


16 


British Columbia 


392,480 


12-74 


13 


524,582 


14-46 


14 


Quebec (without Ungava) . . . 


2,003,232 


65-00 


65 


2,358,412 


65-00 


65 


Totals 


7,189,080 


_ 


234 


8,773,066 


_ 


244 


Quebec (Ungava) 


2,544i 






2,787 






Yukon... 


8,512 


_ 


1 


4,157 


_ 


1 


N.W.T 


6,507 


_ 




7,988 


_ 




R.C, Navy 




_ 


_ 


485 


_ 


_ 
















Canada 


7,206,643 


_ 


235 


8,788,483 


_ 


245 

















1 Represents the population in the area added to Quebec by the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 
1912, the population of which by sec. 2, ss. "A" of said Act, is to be excluded from the population of the 
province in ascertaining the unit of representation. 

From the foregoing figures it is evident that the representation of the four 
western provinces should be increased while that of Nova Scotia should be 
diminished. 

Again, the application of the provisions of subsection 4 of section 51 of the 
Act (quoted above) to Nova Scotia and Ontario (the only provinces in which a 
noticeable decrease in the rate of growth of population is found) is shown in Table 7. 



124 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 



7. Table showing Application of Section 51, Subsection 4, of British North America 
Act, to Representation of Ontario and Nova Scotia. 



Province. 


Proportion which Popula 
tion of each Province bears 
to the Total Population of 
Canada. 


Decrease in 
proportion 
from 1911 
to 1921. 


Ratio of 
Decrease in 
proportion 
from 1911 to 
1921 to 
proportion 
in 1911. 


Decrease, 
greater, 
equal to or 
less than one- 
twentieth of 
proportion 
in 1911. 


1911. 


1921. 


Ontario 


35069 
06831 


33380 
05960 


01689 
00871 


0481 
1275 


less, 
greater. 


Nova Scotia 





The above table shows that under the provisions of section 51, subsection 4 
of the B.N.A. Act, no reduction should take place in the representation of Ontario 
because the proportion which the number of the population of the province bore 
to the number of the aggregate population of Canada at the readjustment of the 
number of members for the province based on the census of 1911 is ascertained 
at the census of 1921 to be diminished by less than one-twentieth part. The pro 
portion for Nova Scotia, having diminished by more than one-twentieth part, 
the provisions of subsection 4 of section 51 do not apply and the representation 
of Nova Scotia should be reduced in accordance with the provisions of section 51, 
sub-sections 2 and 3 of the Act. 

Therefore the representation to which each province is entitled as a result 
of redistribution based upon the 1921 census will be as follows: Alberta 16, British 
Columbia 14, Manitoba 17, New Brunswick 11, Nova Scotia 14, Ontario 82, Prince 
Edward Island 4, Quebec 65, Saskatchewan 21, Yukon I. 1 

The electoral districts for the House of Commons of Canada, with their popu 
lations by the census of 1921, number of qualified voters and numbers voting in 
1921, together with the names and addresses of members, as at Oct. 31, 1923, are 

shown in Table 8. 

, 

8. Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923. 



Provinces and 
Districts. 


Popu 
lation, 
1921. 


Voters 
on 
list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled. 2 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


Prince Edward Island 

(4 members) 
King s 


20,445 


11,189 


8,728 


Hughes J J 




Prince 


31,5l 


16,172 


13,332 


Mac-Lean A E 




Queen s 


36,650 


19,518 s 


30 496 3 




l- iMor-tlrJ "P I- 1 T 










\Mackinnon, D. A 


Charlottetown P E I 


Nova Scotia (16 mem 
bers) 
Antigonishand Guys- 
borough 


27,098 


15,104 


11,748 


Mclsaac C F 




Cape Breton North 
and Victoria 


31,325 


16,652 


11.588 4 


Kelly, F. L... 


North Sydney N S 


Cape Breton South 








Carroll, VV. F.... 


Sydney N S 


and Richmond 


76,362 


37,635 


51,5553 


IKyte, Geo. W 


St Peter s N S 


Colchester 


25,196 


15,458 


11,483 


Putnam H 




Cumberland 


41,191 


24,033 


17,346 


Logan H J 


Am hpr^t X" ^ 


Digby and Anna 
polis 


28,965 


16,368 


12,596 


Lovett.L. J. . 


Bear River. N.S. 



1 Under the British North America Act, 1886 (49-50 Viet., chap. 35) the Parliament of Canada is given 
power to provide for the representation in the Senate and House of Commons of territories forming part 
of the Dominion of Canada, but not included in any province, In virtue of this provision, the Yukon 
Territory was by 2 Edw. VII, c. 37, granted representation by one member in the House of Commons 

2 From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. 

3 Each voter could vote for two candidates. 

4 Votes and voters from returns of general elections, 1921. 



THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 



125 



8. Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923 continued. 



Provinces and 
i, ^ Districts. 


Popu 
lation, 
1921. 


Voters 
on 

list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled, i 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


Nova Scotia con. 
Halifax 


97,228 


53,839 


60,639 


\Finn, RE 1 


Halifax N S 


Hants 


19,739 


11,781 


8,843 


/Maclean, Hon. A. K. 5 . 
Martell L H 


Halifax, N.S. 
Windsor N S 


Inverness 


23,808 


12,712 


8,825 


Chisholm A W 




King s 


23,723 


14,359 


10,948 


Robinson E \V 


Wolfville N S 


Lunenburg 


33,742 


18,591 


12,495 


Duff, Wm 




Pictou 


40,851 


27,680 


20,014 


Macdonald Hon E M 


Pj/tnii M 


Shelburne and 
Queen s 


23 435 


13 155 


9 877 


Fielding Rt Hon W S 


Ottawa Onf 


Yarmouth and Clare 


31,174 


17,106 


12,903 


Hatfield, P.LaC 


Yarmouth, N S 


New Brunswick (11 

members) 
Charlotte 


21,435 


13,066 


10 304 


Grimmer R, W 


St Stephen N B 


Gloucester 


38,684 


16,565 


10 632 4 


Robichaud J G 




Kent 


23,916 


10,847 


7,755 


Leger AT 5 


Richibucto N B 


Northumberland .... 


33,985 


17,110 


12,112 


Morrissy , John 


Newcastle, N.B. 


Restigouche and 
Mada waska 


42,977 


19,108 


9 407 


Michaud Pius 




Royal 


32,078 


19,492 


13 704 


Jones G 13 




St. John City and 
Counties of St. 
John and Albert... 

Victoria and Carle- 
ton 


69,093 
33,900 


38, 838 2 
18,194 


45,1072 
11 822 


\Baxter, Hon. J. B. M.. 
/MacLaren, Murray 

Caldwell, T W 


St. John, N.B. 
St. John, N.B. 

^lorenceville N B 


Westmoreland 


53,387 


29 619 


20 670 


Copp Hon A B 




York-Sunbury 


38,421 


21 736 


14 750 


Hanson, R B 


Fredericton N B 


Quebec (65 members)- 
Argenteuil 


17,165 


8,927 


7 295 < 


Stewart, Hon Chas 


Ottawa Ont 


Bagot 


18,035 


9,333 


7 214 


Marcile J E 


Yctonvale Que 


Beauce 


53,841 


20,968 


13 442 


Beland Hon H. S 


Ottawa Ont 


Beauharnois 


19,888 


10 076 


8 541 


Papineau, L J 


Valleyfield Que. 


Bellechasse 


21,190 


9 157 


6 335 


Fournier, C. A 


St Charles Co., Belle 


Berthier 


19 817 


9 462 


7 540 


Gervais, Theodore 


chasse, Que. 
Berthier (en haut), Que. 


Bonaventure 


29 092 


13 090 


7 781 


Marcil Hon Chas 


Ottawa Ont. 


Brome 


13 471 


7 441 


5 978 


McMaster, A R 


Vestmount, Que. 


Chambly-Vercheres. 


34,643 


14,800 


13,844 


\rchambault, J 


Montreal, Que. 


Champlain 


48 009 


21 377 


16 982 


Desaulniers, A L 


Ste Anne de la Perade, 


C harlevoix-Montmo- 
rency 


28 874 


12 589 


10 646 


Casgrain, P. F 


Que. 
Montreal, Que. 


Chateauguay-Hunt- 
ingdon 


26 731 


13 427 


10,582 


Robb, Hon. J.A 


Ottawa, Ont. 


Chicoutimi - Sague- 
nay 


90 609 


34 432 


27,152 


Savard, Edmond 


Chicoutimi, Que. 


Compton 


32 285 


15 561 


12,144 


Hunt, A. B 


Bury, Que. 


Dorchester... . 


28 954 


11 898 


8,474 


Cannon, Lucien 


Quebec, Que. 


Drummond and Ar- 
thabaska 


44 823 


19 925 


15,882 


Laflamme, J. N. K 


Montreal, Que. 


Gaspe . 


40 375 


17 063 


12 092 


Lemieux, Hon. R.. 


Ottawa, Ont. 


Hull... 


43 541 


20 873 


14 543 


Fontaine, J. E . . . 


Hull, Que. 


Joliette 


25 913 


12 370 


10,275 


Denis , J . J 


oliette, Que. 


Kamouraska. . 


22 014 


10 139 


7,367- 


Bouchard, G 


Ste. Anne de la Poca- 


Labelle 


35 927 


14 654 


10 447 


Fortier, H. A 


tiere, Que. 
lull, Que. 


Laprairie and Na- 
pierville 


20 065 


9 691 


5 675 


Lanctot, Roch 


St. Constant, Que. 


L Assomption - Mont- 
calm 


28 318 


14 183 


9,788 


Seguin, P. A 


L Assomption, Que. 


Laval-Deux Mon 
tagues 


38,314 


13,575 


10,095 


Ethier, J. A. C 


St. Scholastique, Que. 


Levis... 


33,323 


15,465 


12,864 


Bourassa, J. B 


St. Romuald, Que. 



1 From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. 

2 Each voter could vote for 2 candidates. 

3 Mr. Finn was elected on Dec. 4, 1922. 

4 Votes and voters from returns of general elections, 1921. Rt. Hon. Mr. Fielding, Mr. Kobichaud, 
Hon. Mr. Stewart and Mr. Bouchard were elected by acclamation on Jan. 19, Nov. 20, Feb. 28 and May 
15, 1922, respectively. 

* This seat is now vacant. 



126 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 



8. Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923. continued. 



Provinces and 
Districts. 


Popu 
lation, 
1921. 


Voters 
on 
list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled. 1 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


Quebec con. 

L Islet 


17,859 


7,743 


5,878 


Fafard, J. F 


L Islet Co L Islet Que 


Lotbiniere 


21,837 


10,064 


7,566 


Vien, Thos 


Quebec Que 


Maskinonge . 


16,945 


7,959 


6,133 


Desrochers, E 




Matane 


36,303 


15,189 


10,411 


Pelletier, F. J .... 


kinonge, Que. 
Matane Que 


Megantic .... 


33,633 


14,188 


10,5162 


Roberge, E . . 


Laurierville Que 


Missisquoi 


17,709 


9,558 


8,097 


Kay, W.F . . . 


Phillipsburg Que 


Montm agny 


21,997 


10,245 


6,507 


Dechene, A. M 


Alontmagny Que 


Montreal Island 
Hochelaga 


73,526 


30,322 


22,573 


St. Pere, E. C 


Montreal Que 


Jacques Cartier 


89,297 


42,636 


30, 131 J 


Rheaume, J T 


Montreal Que 


Laurier-Outremont 
Maisonneuve 


72,047 
64,933 


31,492 
24,838 


21,7252 
18,487 


Gouin, Hon. Sir Lomer. 
Robitaille, C 


Ottawa, Ont. 
Maisonneuve, Que. 


St. Ann 


52,049 


22,024 


17,453 


Walsh, J.C 


Montreal, Que. 


St. Denis 


78,920 


33,418 


23,948 


Denis, J. A 


Montreal, Que. 


Westmount-St. 
Henry 


62,909 


30 906 


25,042 


Mercier, Paul . ... 




St James 


42,443 


17,593 


12,906 


Rinfret, F ... 




St. Antoine 


32,394 


17,155 


14,464 


Mitchell, W. G 


Montreal, Que. 


St. Lawrence-St. 
George 


36,912 


16 754 


13,774 






George Etienne 
Cartier 


54,800 


19,523 


13,946 


Jacobs, S. W 


Montreal, Que. 


St. Mary . . . 


63,975 


27,330 


20,635 


Deslauriers, H 


Montreal, Que. 


Nicolet 


29,695 


13,536 


10,6322 


Descoteaux, J. F 


St. Monique, Que. 


Pontiac 


46 4 201 


24,326 


16,701 


Cahill, F. S 


Campbell s Bay, Que. 


Portneuf 


34,452 


15,772 


11,259 


Delisle.M. S 


Portneuf, Que. 


Quebec County 


31,130 


13,249 


11,409 


Lavigueur, H. E 


Quebec, Que. 


Quebec East 


38,330 


14,736 


10, 490 2 


Lapointe, Hon. E 


Ottawa, Ont. 


Quebec South 


27, 706 


12,971 


10,667 


Power, C . G 


Quebec, Que. 


Quebec West 


37 993 


16,104 


13,486 


Parent, Geo . ... 


Quebec, Que. 


Richelieu 


18,764 


9,095 


6,758 


Cardin, P. J. A 


Sorel, Que. 


Richmond and Wolfe 


42 248 


18 420 


13,372 


Tobin, E.W 


Bromptonville, Que. 


Rimouski 


27,520 


11,221 


7,642 


d Anjou, J. E. S. E 


Rimouski, Que. 


St. Hyacinthe-Rou- 

ville 


36,754 


17 636 


14,076 


Morin, L. S. R 


St. Hyacinthe, Que. 


St. Johns and Iber- 
ville 


23,518 


11,388 


8 765 




Iberville, Que. 


Shefford 


25 644 


12 003 


9 044 


Boivin G H 


Granby, Que. 


S herbrooke 


30 786 


17 290 


13 661 


McCrea F. N 


Sherbrooke, Que. 


Stanstead 


23 380 


12 619 


10 041 


Baldwin W K 


Coaticook, Que. 


Temiscouata 


44 310 


18 141 


13 837 




Fraserville, Que. 


Terrebonne 


33 908 


15 270 


12 593 


Prevost J E 


St. Jer6me, Que. 


Three Rivera and St. 
Mnuriof* . . 


50,845 


24,570 


803 ! 


Bureau, Hon. J 


Ottawa, Ont. 




21 620 


10 397 


8 473 




St. Polycarpe, Que. 


Wright 


21,850 


10, 169 


7 737 


Gendron, R. M 


Maniwaki, Que. 


Yamaska 


18,840 


8,715 


6 638 


Boucher, Aime 


Pierreville, Que. 


Ontario (82 members) 
Algoma, E 


40,618 


16,879 


12,356 


Carruthers , John 


Little Current, Ont. 


Algoma, W 


33,676 


16,091 


10,728 


Simpson, T . E 


Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 


Brant 


20,085 


11,174 


8,134 


Good, W. C 


Paris, Ont., R.R. 4. 


Brantford 


33,292 


18,537 


13,049 


Raymond, W. G 


Brantford, Ont. 


Bruce, N 


20 872 


12,278 


10 467 


Malcolm, James 


Kincardine, Ont. 


Bruce, S .. 


23 413 


13,752 


10,871 


Findlay, J. W 


Elmwood, Ont., R.R. 1. 


Carleton 


32 673 


17,185 


13,473 


Garland, W. F 


Ottawa, Ont. 


Dufferin. 


15 415 


10 260 


7 823 


Woods, R. J 


Corbetton, Ont., R.R. 2. 


Dun das 


24 388 


15 184 


11 255 


Elliott, Preston 


Chesterville, Ont. 


Durham 


24 629 


16 392 


12,516 


Bowen, Fred. W 


Newcastle, Ont., R.R. 2. 


Elgin, E 


17 306 


11 057 


8,186 


Stansell, J. L 


Staffordville, Ont. 


Elgin, W 


27 678 


19 027 


12,041 


McKillop, H. C 


West Lome, Ont. 


Essex, N . 


71 150 


40 837 


19,840 


Healy, A. F 


Windsor, Ont. 


Essex, S 


31,425 


17,242 


12.410 5 


Graham, Hon. G. P 


Ottawa, Ont. 


Ft. William and 
Rainy River 


39 661 


16,912 


11,090 


Manion, Hon. R. J 


Fort William, Ont. 


Frontenac 


20 390 


11,694 


9,358 


Reed, W. S 


Harrowsmith, Ont., 












R.R. 2. 



From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. 

2 Votes and voters from returns of general election, 1921. Messrs. Roberge, Rheaume, Gouin, Lapointe, 
Descoteaux, Bureau and Graham were elected by acclamation on Nov. 20, Nov. 20, Jan. 19, Jan. 19, 
May 14, May 21 and Jan. 19, 1922, respectively. 



THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 



127 



. Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923 continued. 



Provinces and 
Districts. 


Popu 
lation, 
1921. 


Voters 
on 

list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled. 1 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


Ontario con. 
Glengarry and Stor- 
mont 


38,573 


21,145 


16,224 


Kennedy, J W 


Apple Hill Ont 


Grenville 


16,644 


10,748 


7,331 


Meighen, Rt Hon A 


Ottawa Ont 


Grey, N 


30,667 


18,945 


14,996 


Duncan, M R 




Grey, S. E 


28,384 


17,371 


13,996 


Macphail, Agnes C 




Haldimand 


21,287 


13,106 


9,828 


Senn, M C 


Caledonia Ont R R 3 


Halton 


24,899 


15,685 


12,207 


Anderson, R K 


Milton Ont 


Hamilton, E 


49,820 


32,092 


15,162 


Mewburn Hon S C 




Hamilton, W 


39,298 


28,342 


13,553 


Stewart, T J 




Hastings, E 


23,072 


12,613 


9,852 


Thompson, T. H 




Hastings, W 


34,451 


19,029 


13,488 


Porter, E G 


Belleville Ont 


Huron, N 


23,540 


15,227 


11,838 


King J W 




Huron, S 


23,548 


14,735 


12,148 


Black, Wm 


Seaforth Ont R R 3 


Kent 


52,139 


30,590 


23,6293 


Murdock Hon J 


Ottawa Ont 


Kingston 


24,104 


16,789 


11,974 


Ross, A. E 


Kingston, Ont 


Lamb ton, E 


25,801 


15,704 


12,532 


Fansher, B W 




Lambton, W 


32,888 


20,301 


15,314 


LeSueur, R V 




Lanark 


32,993 


20,885 


15,571 


Preston, R F 




Leeds 


34,909 


22,526 


17,298 


Stewart, H A 


Brockville Ont 


Lennox and Adding- 
ton 


18,994 


11,962 


9,371 


Sexsmith, E. J 


Bath Ont 


Lincoln 


48,625 


28,778 


17,433 


Chaplin, J D 


St Catharines Ont 


London 


53,838 


32,907 


22,026 


White, J F 


London Ont 


Middlesex, E 


27,994 


15,945 


10,712 


Hodgins, A L 


Ettrick Ont 


Middlesex, W 


25,033 


15,342 


12,027 


Drummond J D. F 


Ailsa Craig Ont R R 3. 


Muskoka 


19,439 


11,175 


7,189 


Hammell.W J 


Raymond Ont 


Nipissing 


58,565 


30,022 


18,834 


Lapierre E 4. 




Norfolk 


26,366 


15,943 


11,686 


Wallace J A 


Simcoe Ont , R.R. 4. 


Northumberland .... 


30,512 


18,444 


14,733 


Maybee, M. E 


Trenton, Ont., R.R. 6. 


Ontario, N 


15,420 


9,478 


7,708 


Halbert R H 


U xbridge Ont 


Ontario, S 


31,074 


17,968 


13,158 


Clifford L O 


Oshawa Ont 


Ottawa 


93,740 


67,821 


84,369 


/Chevrier ERE. . 


Ottawa Ont. 










\McGiverin H B 


Ottawa Ont. 


Oxford, N... 


24,527 


15,043 


12,149 


Sinclair D J 


Woodstock, Ont. 


Oxford, S 


22,235 


14,175 


11,236 


Sutherland D 


Ingersoll, Ont. 


Park dale 


80,780 


52,233 


18,956 


Spence, David 


Toronto, Ont. 


Parry Sound 


27,022 


13,365 


9,190 


Arthurs James 


Powassan, Ont. 


Peel 


23,896 


16,037 


12,057 


Charters Samuel 


Brampton, Ont. 


Perth, N 


32,461 


19,072 


14,811 


Rankin J P 


Stratford, Ont. 


Perth, S .. . 


18,382 


11,291 


9,102 


-Forrester Wm 


Mitchell, Ont. 


Peterborough , E . 


13,716 


8,032 


6 471 


Brethen G A 


Norwood, Ont., R.R. 1. 


Peterborough, W 


29,318 


18,001 


11,655 


Gordon, G. N 


Peterborough. Ont. 


Port Arthur and Ke- 
nora . 


43,300 


17,438 


10 814 


Kennedy, D 


Dryden, Ont. 


Prescott. .... 


26,478 


12,726 


8 821 


Binette Joseph . ... 


St Anne de Prescott, 


Prince Edward 


16,806 


10,809 


8,943 


Hubbs, John 


Ont. 
Picton, Ont. 


Renfrew, N 


23,856 


13,368 


10 252 


AlcKay, Matthew 


Pembroke, Ont. 


Renfrew, S 


27,061 


14,550 


11,4403 


Low, Hon. Thos. A. 4 . . . . 


Renfrew, Ont. 


Russell 


43,413 


21.G79 


15 965 3 


Murphy, Hon. Chas 


Ottawa, Ont. 


Simcoe, E 


37,122 


20,409 


15,697 


Chew, Manley 


Midland, Ont. 


Simcoe, N 


22,100 


13,737 


10,347 


Ross.T.E 


Guthrie, Ont. 


Simcoe, S 


24,810 


15,130 


11,329 


Boys, W. A 


Barrie, Ont. 


Timiskaming 


51,568 


27,363 


16,926 


McDonald , A 


Cobalt, Ont. 


Toronto, Centre 


51,768 


30,528 


11,161 


Bristol, Hon. E 


Toronto, Ont. 


Toronto, E 


64,825 


39 435 


15 002 


Ryckman E B 


Toronto, Ont. 


Toronto, N 


72,478 


47,622 


20,985 


Church, T. L 


Toronto, Ont. 


Toronto, S 


37,596 


31,907 


7,566 


Sheard, Chas 


Toronto, Ont. 


Toronto, W 


68,397 


37,199 


11,764 


Hocken, H. C 


Toronto, Ont. 


Victoria 


33,995 


20,433 


15 886 


Thu^ston, J. J 


Fenelon Falls, Ont. 


Waterloo, N.... 


41,698 


23,778 


12,531 


Euler, W. D 


Kitchener, Ont. 


Waterloo, S... 


33,568 


21,484 


14,149 


Elliott, Wm 


Gait, Ont., R.R. 7. 


Welland 


66 668 


30,947 


21,259 


German, W . M 


Welland, Ont. 


Wellington, N. 


19 833 


12 204 


9 029 


Pritchard, John . . . 


Harriston, Ont. 


Wellington, S... 


34.327 


23,008 


16.957 


Guthrie. Hon. Hugh . . 


Guelph, Ont. 



1 From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. 

2 Each voter could vote for two candidates. 

3 Votes and voters from returns of general election, 1921. 
were elected by acclamation on Jan. 19, 1922. 

4 Hon. Mr. Low was elected by acclamation after his appointment to office on Aug. 17, 1923. 



Hon. Mr. Murdock and Hon. Mr. Murphy 



128 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 



8. Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923 continued. 



Provinces and 
Districts. 


Popu 
lation, 
1921. 


Voters 
on 
list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled.^ 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


Ontario con. 

Wentworth 


64,449 


37,976 


21,857 


Wilson, G. C... 




York, E 


77,950 


48,783 


18,536 


Harris J H 




York, N 


23,136 


14,418 


12,273 


King Rt Hon W L M 


Ottawa Ont 


York, S 


100,054 


58,499 


21,723 


Maclean W F 




York, W 


70,681 


41,925 


19,719 


Drayton Hon Sir H L 


Ottawa Ont 


Manitoba 

(15 members) 
Brandon 


40,183 


18,896 


14,126 


Forke Robert 




Dauphin 


35,482 


15,281 


9,974 


Ward.W.J 




Lisgar 


29,921 


9,739 


7,783 


Brown J L 




Macdonald 


23,824 


11,744 


9,084 


Lovie, W.J 




Marquette 


41,254 


19,828 


14,864 


Crerar Hon T A 




Neepawa 


28,356 


. 13.539 


10,069 


Milne Robert 




Nelson 


19,806 


5,888 


4,181 


Bird, T. W 




Portage la Prairie. . . 


22,254 


10,491 


8,615 


Leader, Harry 




Provencher 


29,308 


9,859 


6,824 


Beaubien, A. L 




Selkirk . . . 


55 395 


21,997 


14 926 


Bancroft L P 




Souris. . . . . 


26,410 


13 953 


11,110 






Springfield 


58,870 


19,832 


12,454 


Hoey, R. A ... 




Winnipeg, Centre. . . . 


76,470 


35,000 


19 , 643 


Woodsworth, J. S 




Winnipeg, N 


62,957 


17,623 


10,647 


McMurray, E. J. 2 . 




Winnipeg, S 


59,628 


31,473 


19,641 


Hudson, A. B ... 




Saskatchewan 

(16 members) 
Assiniboia 


34,789 


15,411 


, 11,640 


Gould, O. R 




Battleford .... 


33,641 


16,077 


10 822 


McConica T H 




Humboldt 


55 225 


24,135 


16 264 


Stewart C W 




Kindersley 


44,772 


24,163 


17,002 


Carmichael, A. M 




Last Mountain 


50,055 


20,195 


12,720 


Johnston, J. F ... 


Blad worth Sask 


Mackenzie 


55 629 


17 931 


11 706 


Campbell M N 


Pelly Sask 


Maple Creek 


56 064 


25 284 


17 256 


McTaggart N H 


Gull Lake Sask 


Moosejaw 


50 403 


25 896 


16 322 


Hopkins E N 




N. Battleford 


47,381 


20,696 


14,196 


Davies, C C .... 


N Battleford Sask 


Prince Albert 


56,829 


25,496 


15, 983 J 


Knox, Andrew 


Prince Albert Sask 


Qu Appelle 


34 836 


16 021 


12 100* 


Millar John 




Regina 


49,977 


24,389 


17,388 2 


Motherwell, Hon. W. R 




Saltcoats 


43,785 


15,602 


11,084 


Sales, Thomas . . . 




Saskatoon 


55,151 


26,507 


15,066 


Evans, John 




Swift Current 


53,375 


23,776 


16,290 


Lewis, A. J 




Weyburn 


35,668 


14,263 


9,247 


Morrison, John . . 


Yellow Grass Sask. 


Alberta (12members)- 
Battle River 


49,173 


22,111 


15,389 


Spencer, H. E 




Bow River . . . . 


55,356 


24,720 


15,569 


Garland, E. J 




Calgary, E 


44,995 


22,591 


14,285 


Irvine, William 




Calgary, W 


44,311 


23,534 


16,181 


Shaw, J. T 




Edmonton, E 


56.548 


27,755 


13,440 


Kellner, D. F 




Edmonton, W 


74.267 


38,557 


23,167 


Kennedy, D. M .. . . 


Waterhole Alts. 


Lethbridge.. 


37,699 


14,570 


10,106 


Jelliff, L. H " 


R/aloy Alta. 


Macleod 


34 008 


15 148 


10 212 


Coote G G 




Medicine Hat 


43,179 


21,449 


14,212 


Gardiner, Robert .... 


Excel Alta. 


Red Deer 


49,629 


23,190 


15,746 


Speakman, A 


Penhold Alta. 


Strathcona 


42,520 


18,611 


11,350 


Warner, D W 


Edmonton, Alta. 


Victoria ..... 


56 739 


21 470 


14 167 


Lucas W T 




British Columbia 

(13 members) 
Burrard 


69 922 


35 463 


21 991 


Clark, J A 


Vancouver B C. 


Cariboo 


39,834 


16 055 


11 135 


McBride, T G 


Stump Lake, Kamloops, 


Comox-Alberni 


32,009 


11,357 


7,725 


Neill A W 


B.C. 
Alberni, B C. 


Fraser Valley 


28,811 


11,130 


8 452 


Munio, E A . 


Chilliwack, B C..R.R. 2. 


Kootenay, E 


19,137 


14,634 


5 201 


King, Hon J H 


Ottawa Ont. 


Kootenay, W 


30,502 


12,874 


9,856 


Humphrey, L*. W . . 


Nelson, B C. 


Nanaimo... 


48,010 


21,300 


15,066 


Dickie. C. H.. 


Duncan, B.C. 



!From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. 

2 Votes and voters from returns of general election, 1921. Rt. Hon. Mr. King, and Hon. Mr. Mother- 
well were elected by acclamation on Jan. 19, 1922, Hon. Mr. McMurray was elected on Oct. 24, 1923, after 
his appointment to office. 



PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS 



129 



8. Representation in the House of Commons according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at June 39, 1923. concluded. 



Provinces and 
Districts. 


Popu 
lation, 

1921. 


Voters 
on 
list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled.i 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


Br. Columbia con. 

New Westminster. . . 


45,982 


18,983 


12,765 


McQuarrie, W. G.. 


New Westminster B C 


Skeena 


28,934 


9,605 


6,579 


Stork, Alfred 


PrinoA frnnprt R C* 


Vancouver, Centre. . . 


60,879 


31,436 


18.219 


Stevens, Hon. H. H.... 


Vancouver B C 


Vancouver, S 


46,137 


19,847 


12,985 


La drier, L J 




Victoria City 


38,727 


18,563 


12,603 


Tolmie, Hon S F 


Victoria B C 


Yale 


35,698 


16,228 


12 468 


MacKelvie J A 


Vprnnn Tl O 


Yukon Territory 

(1 member) 
Yukon 


4,157 


1,658 


1,388 


Black. George.. , 


Dawson. Y.T. 



Votes and voters from returns of general election, 1921. 

II. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS. 

Table 9 gives the names and areas, as in 1923, of the several provinces, terri 
tories and provisional districts of the Dominion, together with the dates of their 
creation or admission into the Confederation and the legislative process by which 
this was effected. 

. Provinces and Territories of Canada, with present Areas, Dates of Admission to 
Confederation and Legislative Process by which this was effected. 



Province, 

Territory 
or District. 


Date of 
Admission 
or Creation. 


Legislative Process. 


Present Area (square miles). 


Land. 


Water. 


Total. 


Ontario 


July 1, 1867.. 
" 1, 1867.. 
" 1, 1867.. 
" 1, 1867.. 

" 15, 1870.. 

" 20, 1871.. 
" 1, 1873.. 
Sept. 1, 1905.. 
" 1. 1905.. 
June 13, 1898.. 

Jan. 1, 1920 . 
" 1, 1920.. 
" 1, 1920.. 


Act of Imperial Parliament 
The British North America 
Act, 1867 (30-31 Vict.,c. 3), and 
Imperial Order in Council of 
May 22, 1867. 
Manitoba Act, 1870 (33 Viet., c. 3) 
and Imperial Order in Council, 
June 23, 1870. 
Imperial Order in Council, May 
16, 1871. 
Imperial Order hi Council, June 26, 
1873. 
Saskatchewan Act, 1905 (4-5 Edw. 
VII, c. 42). 
Alberta Act, 1905 (4-5 Edw. VII, 
c. 3). 
Yukon Territory Act, 1898 (61 
Viet., c. 6). 

{Order in Council, March 16, 1918 


365,880 
690,865 
21,068 
27,911 

231,926 

353,416 
2,184 
243,381 
252,925 
206,427 

501,953 
205,973 
500,000 


41,382 
15,969 
360 
74 

19,906 
2,439 

8,319 
2,360 
649 

27,447 
6,851 


407,262* 
706,834* 
21,428 
27,985 

251,8323 

355,855 
2,184 
251,700* 
255,285* 
207,076 

529,4005 
212,824* 
500,000= 


Quebec 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 
Manitoba 


British Columbia 

Prince Edward 
Island. 
Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


Yukon 


Mackenzie . ... 


Keewatin . . ... 


Franklin 


Total. . . 


3.603.909 


125.756 


3.729.665 



1 This area was increased by the Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889, and the Ontario Boundaries 
Extension Act, 1912 (2 Geo. V, c. 40). 

Increased by Order in Council of July 6, 1896, and Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912 (2 Geo. V, 
c. 45). 

Increased by Extension of Boundaries of Manitoba Act, 1881, and Manitoba Boundaries Extension 
Act, 1912 (2 Geo. V, c. 32). 

4 Alberta and Saskatchewan now cover approximately the area formerly comprised in the districts of 
Assiniboia, Athabasca, Alberta and Saskatchewan, established May 17, 1882, by minute of Canadian P. C. 
concurred in by Dominion Parliament and Order in Council of Oct. 2, 1895. 

6 By an Order in Council of June 23, 1870, Rupert s Land, acquired under the Rupert s Land Acts of 
1867 and 1868, and the undefined Northern Territories were admitted into the Confederation. The original 
Northwest Territories, mentioned in the Manitoba Act, 1870, was established by the Northwest Terri 
tories Act, 1880 (43 Viet., c. 25), the district of Keewatin haying been previously defined by an Act of the 
Dominion Parliament (39 Viet., c. 21). The provisional districts of Yukon. Mackenzie, Franklin and Ungava 
were defined in an Order in Council of Oct. 2, 1895, their boundaries being changed by Order in Council 
of Dec. 18, 1897. By Order in Council of July 24, 1905, the area of Keewatin not included in the Northwest 
Territories was annexed to the latter from Sept. 1. 1905. By the Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912, Ungava 
was made a part of the province of Quebec and the remaining area of the Northwest Territories south of 
60 N. latitude was divided between Manitoba and Ontario. 

623739 



130 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION 



Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and Ministries in the Provinces. 

In each of the provinces the King is represented by a Lieutenant-Governor, appoint 
ed by the Governor-General in Council, and governing with the advice and assistance 
of his Ministry or Executive Council which is responsible to the Legislature and 
resigns office when it ceases to enjoy the confidence of that body. The Legislatures 
of all the provinces with the exception of Quebec and Nova Scotia are uni-cameral, 
consisting of a Legislative Assembly elected by the people. In Quebec and Nova 
Scotia there is a Legislative Council as well as a Legislative Assembly. 

The Lieutenant-Governors of the provinces, details regarding the Legislature* 
and Ministries since Confederation, together with the names of the Ministers of 
the present administrations, are given in Table 10. For a detailed description of 
the Provincial Governments the reader is referred to Section IV of the Year Book, 
"Provincial and Local Government." 

10. Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces. 1867-1923. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


W. C. F. Robinson 


June 10, 1873 


P. A. Maclntyre 


May 13, 1899 


Sir Robert Hodgson 


Nov. 22, 1873 


D. A. McKinnon 


Oct 3 1904 


Thomas H. Haviland 


July 14, 1879 


Benjamin Rogers 


June 1 1910 


Andrew Archibald Macdonald 


Aug. 1, 1884 


A. C. Macdonald 


June 2 1915 


Jedediah S. Carvell 


Sept. 21, 1889 


Murdock MicKinnon. . . . 


Sept. 3 1919 


Geo. W. Howlan 


Feb. 21, 1894 















LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 

Sessions. 


Date of First 
Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st 


3 i 


Mar. 5, 1874 


July 1, 1876 


2nd 


3 


Mar. 15, 1877 


M<ar. 12 1879 


3rd 


4 


April 24, 1879 


April 15, 1882 


4th 


4 


Mar. 20, 1883 


June 5, 1886 


5th 


3 


Mar. 29, 1887 


Jan 7, 1890 


6th 


4 


M.ar. 27, 1890 


Nov. 18, 1893 


7th 


4 


Mar. 28, 1894 


June 2, 1897 


8th Gen Assembly 


3 


April 5, 1898 


Nov. 14, 1900 


9th Gen. Assembly 


4 


Mar. 19, 1901 


Nov. 9, 1904 


lUth Gen Assembly 


4 


Feb. 8, 1905 


Oct. 15, 1908 


1 1th Gen. Assembly 


3 


Feb. 2, 1909 


Dec. 5, 1911 


12th Gen. Assembly 


4 


Mar. 7, 1912 


Aug. 21, 1915 


13th Gen. Assembly 


5 


Mar. 29, 1916 


June 26, 1919 


14th Gen. Assembly 


4 


Mar. 6, 1920 


June 14, 1923 











MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation . 


1 


Hon. L. C. Owen 


July __ 1873 


2 


Hon. L. H. Davies 


Aug. , 1876 


3 ... 


Hon. W. W. Sullivan 


April , 1879 


4 


Hon. N. McLeod 


Nov. , 1889 


5 


Hon. F. Peters 


April , 1891 


6 


Hon. A. B. Warburton 


Oct. , 1897 


7 


Hon. D. Farquharson 


Aug. , 1898 


8 


Hon. A. Peters 


Dec. 29, 1901 


g 


Hon. F. L. Haszard 


Feb. 1, 1908 


10. 


Hon. James Palmer 


May 16, 1911 


11 


Hon. John A. Mathieson 


Dec. 2, 1911 


12 


Hon. Aubin E. Arsenault 


June 21, 1917 


13 


Hon. J. H. Bell 


Sept. 9, 1919 


14 . . 


Hon. J. D. Stewart 


Sept. 5, 1923 









PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 



131 



19. Lieutenant- Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 con. 

THE STEWART (PRESENT) MINISTRY. 



Office. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Premier, President of the Council, and 
Attorney and Advocate General. . . . 


Hon. J. D. Stewart 


Sept. 5, 1923 


Provincial Secretary Treasurer and 
Commissioner of Agriculture 


Hon. J. H. Myers 


Sept. 5, 192.3 


Commissioner of Public Works 


Hon. J. A. Macdonald 


Sept. 5, 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. J. A. McNeill 


Sept. 5, 192.3 


Alinister without Portfolio 


Hon. Murdock Kennedy 


Sept. 5, 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. L. J. Wood 


Sept. 5, 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. A. P. Prowse 


Sept. 5, 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. W. J. P. McMillan 


Sept. 5, 1923 


Alinister without Portfolio 


Hon. A. F. Arsenault 


Sept. 5, 1923 









NOVA SCOTIA. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Lieut -Gen Sir W F Williams 


July 1, 1867 


IJalachv Bowes Dalv 


Julv 11, 1890 


Major-Gen Sir C Hastings Doyle 


Oct. 18, 1867 


Malachv Bowes Daly 


Julv 29, 1895 


Lieut -Gen Sir C Hastings Doyle 


*Jan 31, 1868 


Alfred G . Jones 


Aug. 7, 1900 




May 31, 1870 


Duncan C . Fraser 


Mar. 27, 1906 




May 1, 1873 


James D. McGregor 


Oct. 18, 1910 


\ G Archibald 


July 4, 1873 


David MacKeen 


Oct. 19, 1915 




July 4, 1883 


McCallum Grant 


Nov. 29, 1916 


A W McLelan 


July 9, 1888 


McCallum Grant 


Mar. 21, 1922 











J Second term. 



LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


l s t 


4 


Jan. 30, 1868 


April 17, 1871 


2nd . 


3 


Feb. 22, 1872 


Nov. 23, 1874 


3rd 


4 


Mar. 11, 1875 


Aug. 21, 1878 


4th 


4 


Mar. 6, 1879 


May 23, 1882 


5th . . . 


4 


Feb. 8, 1883 


May 20, 1885 


gth 


4 


Mar. 10, 1887 


April 21, 1890 


7th . ... 


4 


April 2, 1891 


Feb. 15, 1894 


8th 


3 


Jan. 31, 1895 


Mar. 20, 1897 


gth 


4 


Jan. 27, 1898 


Sept. 3, 1901 


10th .... 


4 


Feb. 13, 1902 


May 27, 1906 


Hth 


5 


Feb. 19, 1906 


May 15, 1911 


12th 


6 


Feb. 23, 1911 


Mav 22, 1916 


13th 


4 


Feb. 22, 1917 


June 28, 1920 


14th 




Mar. 9, 1921 














MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


i 


Hon H. Blanchard 


July 4 1867 


2 


Hon. Wm. Annard 


Nov. 7 1867 


? 


Hon. P. C. Hill 


May 1875 


4 


Hon. S. D. Holmes 


Oct. 1878 


5 


Hon. J. S. D. Thompson 


May 1882 


> 


Hon. W. T. Pipes 


Aug. 1882 


7 


Hon. W . S. Fielding 


July 1884 


a 


Hon. Geo. H. Murray 


July 20 1896 


9 


Hon. E. H. Armstrong 


Jan. 24 1923 









62373 9 i 



132 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION 



!. Lieu tenant- Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 con. 

THE ARMSTRONG (PRESENT) MINISTRY. 



Office. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Premier, President of Council, and 
Minister of Public Works and Mines. . 


Hon. E. H. Armstrong... . 


Jan 24 1923 


Provincial Secretary 


Hon. D. A. Cameron 


Jan 24 19 9 3 


Attorney General 


Hon. W. J. O Hearn 


Jan 24 19 i:> 3 


Minister of Highways 


Hon. W. Chisholm 


J-in 24 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. R. M. Macgregor 


June 28 1911 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. O. T. Daniels. 


Jan 24 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. J.C.Tory 


Mar 22 1921 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. J. W . Comeau 


May 26 19 9 1 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. J. McKinley 


Feb 13 192 1 ? 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. J. A. McDonald 


Feb 13 1923 









NEW BRUNSWICK. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Major-Gen. Sir C. Hastings Doyle. . 


July 1, 1867 


John A . Fraser 


Dec. 20 1893 


Col F. P. Harding 


Oct. 18, 1867 


A. R. McClelan 


Dec 9 1896 


L A. Wilmot 


July 14, 1868 


Jabez B. Snowball 


Feb. 5 1902 


Samuel Leonard Tilley 


Nov. 5, 1873 


L. J. Tweedie 


Mar 2 1907 


E. Baron Chandler 


July 16, 1878 


Josiah Wood 


Mar. 6, 1912 


Robert Duncan Wilmot 


Feb. 11, 1880 


G. W. Ganong 


June 29, 1916 


Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley 


Oct. 31, 1885 


William Pugsley 


Nov. 6, 1917 


John Boyd 


Sept. 21, 1893 


William F. Todd 


Feb. 24, 1923 











LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st 


3 


Feb. 13, 1868.. 


June 3, 1870 


2nd 


5 


Feb. 16, 1870 


May 15, 1874 


3rd : 


5 


Feb. 18, 1875 


May 14, 1878 


4th 


4 


Feb. 27, 1879 


May 25, 1882 


5th 


5 


^eb. 28, 1883 


April 2, 1886 


6th 


3 


Mar. 3, 1887 


Dee. 30, 1889 


7th 


3 


Mar. 13, 1890 


Sept. 28, 1892 


1st (new order) * 


3 


Mar. 9, 1893 


Sept. 26, 1895 


2nd 


3 


Feb. 13, 1896 


Jan. 28, 1899 


3rd 


4 


Mar. 23, 1899 


Feb. 5, 1903 


4th 


5 


Mar. 26, 1903 


Jan. 23, 1908 


5th 


5 


April 30, 1908 


May 25, 1912 


fith 


4 


Feb. 13, 1913 


Jan 20, 1917 


7th 


4 


May 10, 1917 


Sept. 16, 1920 


8th 




Mar. 17, 1921 













1 Since the abolition of the Legislative Council of New Brunswick in 1892, the legislatures of that province 
have been officially re-numbered. 

MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


1 


Hon. A. R. Wotmore 


1867 


2 


Hon. G.E.King 


1872 


3 


Hon. J. J. Fraser 


1878 


4 


Hon. D. L. Hannington 


1882 


5 


Hon. A. G. Blair 


1883 


g . 


Hon. Jas. Mitchell 


July , 1896 


7 . . 


Hon. II. It. Emmerson 


Oct. , 1897 


g 


Hon. L. J. Tweedie 


Aug. 31, 1900 


o 


Hon. Wm. Pugsley 


Mar. 6, 1907 


10 


Hon. C. W. Robinson 


May 31, 1907 


H 


Hon. J. D. Hazen 


Mar. 24, 1908 


12 


Hon. James K. Flemming 


Oct. 16, 1911 


13 


Hon. George J. Clarke 


Dec. 17, 1914 


14 


Hon. James A. Murray 


Feb. 1, 1917 


15 . 


Hon. Walter E. Foster 


April 4, 1917 


16... 


Hon. P. J. Veniot 


Jan. 25, 1923 



NEW BRUNSWICK 



133 



li. Lieutenant- Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 con. 

THE VENTOT (PRESENT) MINISTRY. 



Office. 



Name. 



Date of 
Appointment. 



Premier and Minister of Public Works 

President of Council 

Attorney General 

Provincial Secretary-Treasurer 

Minister of Lands and Mines 

Minister of Agriculture 

Minister of Health 

Minister without Portfolio . . 



Hon. P. J. Veniot 

Hon. Fred Magee 

Hon. James P. Byrne 

Hon. Judson E. Hetherington. 

Hon. C. W. Robinson 

Hon. D. W. Mersereau 

Hon. W. F. Roberts 

Hon. J. E. Michaud.... 



Jan. 25, 1923 

Oct. 1, 1920 

April 4, 1917 

Dec. 2, 1920 

Oct. 1, 1920 

Dec. 2, 1920 

April 4, 1917 

Jan. 4, 1921 



QUEBEC. 

LIE UTENA NT-GOVERNORS. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Sir N. F. Belleau... 


July 1, 1867 


L. A. Jette 


Feb 2 1898 


Sir N. F. Belleau 


Jan 31, 1868 


L. A. Jette 


"Feb 2 1903 


Rene Edouard Caron 


Feb. 11, 1873 


Sir Charles A P.Pelletier 


Sept 4 1908 


Luc Letellier de St. Just 


Dec. 15, 1876 


Sir Francois Lano elier 


May 5 1911 


Theodore Robitaille 


July 26, 1879 


Sir Pierre E Leblanc 


Feb 9 1915 


L. F. R. .Wasson 
A. R. Angers 


Nov. 7, 1884 
Oct. 24, 1887 


Right Hon. Sir Charles Fitz- 
patrick 


Oct 21, 1918 


Sir J . A . Chapleau 


Dec. 5, 1892 


Hon. L. P Brodeur 


Oct. 31, 1923 











*Second term. 



LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st... 


4 


Dec 27 1867 


May 27 1871 


2nd 


4 


Nov 7 1871 


June 7 1875 


3rd 


3 


Nov 4 1875 


Mar 22 1878 


4th 


4 


June 4 1878 


Nov 7 1881 


5th 


5 


Mar 8 1882 


Sept 9 1886 


6th 


4 


Jan 27 1887 


May 10 1890 


7th 


1 


Nov. 4, 1890 


Dec 22 18S1 


8th.. 


6 


April 26, 1892 


Mar. 6, 1897 


8th 


3 


Nov 23, 1897 


Nov. 14, 1900 


10th 


4 


Feb. 14, 1901 


Nov. 4, 1904 


llth 


4 


Mar 2, 1905 


May 6, 1908 


12th 


4 


Mar. 2, 1909 


April 15, 1912 


13th 


4 


Nov. 5, 1912 . . 


April 14, 1916 


14th 


3 


Nov. 17, 1916 


May 22, 1919 


15th 


4 


Dec. 10, 1919. . . . 


Jan. 10, 1923 











MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


I.. 


Hon . P . J . C hauveau 


July 15 1867 


2 


Hon. G Ouimet 


Feb 26 1873 


3 ... 


Hon C E B De Boueherville 


Sept 22 1874 


4 


Hon. H. G. Joly 


Mar 8, 1876 


5 


Hon J A Chapleau 


Oct 30 1879 


6 


Hon. J. A. Mousseau. . . . 


July 31, 1882 


7 


Hon J J Ross 


Jan 23 1884 


8 


Hon. L O Taillon 


Jan 25 1887 


9 


Hon. H Mercier 


Jan 27 1887 


10 




Dec 21 1891 


11 


Hon. L. O. Taillon . . 


Dec 16, 1892 


12 


Hon. E. J. Flynn . . ... 


May 12, 1896 


13 


Hon. F. G. iy(archand . . 


May 26, 1897 


14 


Hon. S N Parent 


Oct 3 1900 


15 


Hon. Sir L. Gouin 


Mar 23, 1905 


16... 


Hon. Louis Alexandre Taschereau. . 


Julv 8. 1920 



134 



PARLIA MKXTAh Y REPRESENTATION 



10. Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 con. 

THE TASCHEBEAU (PRESENT) MINISTRY. 



Office. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Prime Minister and Attorney General 


Hon. L. A. Taschereau. . . 


July 0, 1920 


Minister of Agriculture 


Hon. J. E. Caron 


Nov. 18, 1909 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. N. Perodeau 


Mar 14, 1910 


Minister of Lands and Forests 


Hon. H. Mercier 


\ug 25, 1919 


Minister of Public Works and Labour 


Hon. A. Galipeault 


Aug 25, 1919 


Minister of Mines, Fisheries and Col- 
onization 


Hon. J. E. Perrault 


Aug. 25, 1919 


Provincial Secretary and Registrar 


Hon. A. David 


Au". 25, 191 


Minister of Roads 


Hon. J: L. Perron 


Sept. 27, 1921 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. E . Moreau 


Sept. 2U, 1921 


Provincial Treasurer and Minister of 
Municipal Affairs 


Hon. J. Nicol 


Nov. 23, 1921 









ONTARIO. 

LIEUTENANT-GOVBRNOES. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Major-Gen. H. W . Stisted 


July 1, 1867 


Sir Oliver Mo wat 


Nov. 18, 1897 


\V. P. Howland 


Julv 14, 1868 


Sir William Mortimer Clark 


April 20, 1903 


John W . Crawford 


Nov. 5, 1873 


Sir John M. Gibson 


Sept. 22, 1908 


D. A. Macdonald 


Mav 18, 1875 


Lt.-Col. Sir John S. Hendrie 


Sept. 26, 1914 


John Beverly Robinson 


June 30, 1880 


Lionel H. Clark 


Nov. 27, 1919 


Sir Alexander Campbell 


Feb. 8, 1887 


Henry Cockshutt 


Sept, 10, 1921 


Sir George A. Kirkpatrick 


Mav 30, 1892 















LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 




Number of 

Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st 


4 


Dec. 27, 1867 


Feb. 25, 1871 


2nd . . 


4 


Dec. 7, 1872 


Dec. 23, 1874 


3rd 


4 


Nov. 24, 1875 


April 25, 1879 


4th . 


4 


Jan. 7, 1880 


Feb. 1, 1883 


5th 


3 


Jan. 23, 1884 


Nov. 15, 1886 


6th 


4 


Feb. 10, 1887 


April 26, 1890 


7th 


4 


Feb. 11, 1891 


May 29, 1894 




4 


Feb. 21, 1895 


Jan. 28, 1898 



(jth 


5 


Aug. 3, 1898 


April 19, 1902 


10th 


2 


Mar. 10, 1903 


Dec. 13, 1004 


llth 


4 


Mar. 22, 1905 


May 2, 1908 


12th 


3 


Feb 16, 1909 


Nov. 13, mil 


13th 


3 


Feb. 7, 1912 


May 2, 1914 


14th 


5 


Feb. 16, 1915 


Sept. 29, 1919 


15th 


4 


Mar. 9, 1920 


May 4, 1923 











MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


1 . . 


Hon. J. S. Macdonald 


July 16, 1867 


2 


Hon. E . Blake 


Dec. 30, 1871 


3 . . 


Hon. O. Mowat 


Oct. 25, 1872 


4 


Hon. A. S. Hardy 


July 25, 1896 


5 


Hon. G. W. Ross 


Oct. 21, 1899 


(i . . 


Hon. Sir J. P. Whitney 


Feb. 8, 1905 


7 . . 


Hon. Sir William Howard Hearst 


Oct. 2, 1914 


$ 


Hon. Ernest Charles Drury 


Nov. 14, 1919 


g 


Hon. George Howard Ferguson 


July 16, 1923 









ONTARIO 



135 



10. Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 con. 

THE FERGUSON (PRESENT) MINISTRY. 



Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment. 


Premier and Minister of Education 


Hon. G. H. Ferguson 


July 16, 1923 


Attorney General 


Hon. \V. F. Nickle 


July 16 1923 


Minister of Public Works and Highways 


Hon. Geo. S. Henry 


July 16, 1923 


Provincial Treasurer 


Hon. \V. H. Price 


July 16 1923 


Minister of Mines 


Hon. Charles McCrae 


July 16 1923 


Minister of Public Health and Labour 


Hon. Dr. Forbes Godfrey 


July 16 1923 


Minister of Agriculture 


Hon. John S. Martin .. 


July 16 1923 


Provincial Secretary 


Hon. Lincoln Goldie 


July 16 1923 


Minister of Lands and Forests . . . 


Hon. James W . Lyons 


July 16 1923 


Minister without Portfolio. ... 


Hon. Sir Adam Beck 


July 16 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. Thos. Crawford 


July 16 1923 


Minister without Portfolio 


Hon. Dr. Leeming Carr. . . 


July 16 1923 


Minister without Portfolio. . 


Hon. J. R. Cooke 


July 16, 1923 









1 Second term. 



MANITOBA. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


A.G.Archibald..- 


May 20, 1870 


J.C. Patterson 


Sept. 2, 1895 


Francis Goodschall Johnson.. 


April 9, 1872 


Sir D. H. McMillan 


Oct. 16, 1900 


Alexander Morris 


Dec. 2, 1872 


Sir D. H. McMillan 


J May 11, 1906 


Joseph Ed. Cauchon 


Dec. 2, 1877 


D. C. Cameron 


Aug. 1, 1911 


James C. Atkins 


Sept. 22, 1882 


Sir James A. M. Aikins 


Aug. 3, 1916 


J.C. Shultz 


July 1, 1888 


Sir James A.M. Aikins 


: Aug. 7, 1921 











LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 

Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st 


4 


Mar. 15, 1871 


Dec. 16, 1874 


>nd 


4 


Mar. 31, 1875 


Nov. 11, 1878 


3rd 


1 


Feb. 1, 1879 


Nov. 26, 1879 


4th 


4 


Jan. 22, 1880 


Nov. 13, 1882 


5th 


4 


Mav 17, 1883 


Nov. 11, 1886 


6th . 


9 


April 14, 1887 


June 16, 1888 


7th 


5 


Aug. 28, 1888 


June 27, 1892 


8th 


3 


Feb. 2, 1893 


Dec. 11, 1895 


9th 


4 


Feb. 6, 1896 


Nov. 16, 1899 


10th 


4 


Mar. 23, 1900 


June 25, 1903 


llth . 


4 


Jan. 7, 1904 


Feb. 28, 1907 


12th 


3 


Jan. 2, 1908 


June 20, 1910 


13th 


4 


Feb. 9, 1911 


June 15, 1914 


14th 


2 


Sept. 18, 1914 


July 16, 1915 


loth 


5 


Jan. 6, 1916 


Mar. 27, 1920 


tilth 


2 


Feb. 10, 1921 


June 24, 1922 


17th.. 




Jan. 18, 1923 






MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


1 . . 


Hon. A. Boyd 


Sept. 16, 1870 


> 


Hon. N. A. Girard 


Dec. 14, 1871 


3 


Hon. H. J. H. Clarke 


Mar. 14, 1872 


4 .... 


Hon. N. A. Girard 


July 8, 1874 


5 ... 


Hon. R. A. Davis 


Dec. 3, 1874 


6 .... 


Hon. John Norquay 


Oct. 16, 1878 


7 ... 


Hon. D. H. Harrison 


Dec. 26, 1887 


a 


Hon T. Greenway 


Jan. 19, 1888 


9 


Hon H. J. Macdonald 


Jan. 8, 1900 


10 


Hon. Sir R. P. Roblin 


Oct. 29, 1900 


11 


Hon. T. C. Norris 


May 12, 1915 


12 


Hon. John Bracken 


Aug. 8, 1922 



136 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION 



10. Lieutenant- Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 oon. 

THE BRACKEN (PRESENT) MINISTRY. 



Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment. 


Prime Minister, Railway Commissioner 
and Provincial Lands Commissioner. 


Hon. John Bracken 


Aug. 8, 1922 


Provincial Treasurer, !V inister of Tele 
phones and Telegraphs 


Hon. F. M. Black 


Aug. 8 1922 


Attorney General 


Hon. R. W. Craig 


Aug. 8 1922 


Minister cf Education 


Hon. John Bracken 


Aug. 8 1922 


Minister of Agriculture and Immigration 


Hon. Neil Cameron 


Aug. 8 1922 


Minister of Public Works 


Hon. W. R. Clubb 


Aug. 8 1922 


Provincial Secretary 


Hon. D. L. McLeod 


Aug. 8 1922 









SASKATCHEWAN. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


A. E. Forget 


Sept. I, 1905 


Sir Richard Stuart Lake 


Oct. 6, 1915 


Geo. W. Brown 


Oct. 5, 1910 


H W . Newlands 


Feb. 17, 1921 











LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st... 


3 


Mar 29, 1906 


July 20, 1908 


2nd 


4 


Dec 10, 1908 


June 15, 1912 


3rd 


6 


Nov. 14, 1912 


June 2, 1917 


4th 


4 


Nov 13 1917 


, 1921 


5th . ... 




Dec. 8, 1921 













MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


I.. 


Hon Walter Scott 


Sept. 5, 1905 


2 


Hon W M Martin . 


Oct. 20, 1916 


3 


Hon C. A Dunning 


April 5, 1922 









THE DUNNING (PRESENT) MINISTRY. 



Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment 


Premier, President of Council, Provin 
cial Treasurer Minister of Railways 




Oct. 20, 1916 


Minister of Public Works and Minister 
of Telephones 


Hon A P McNab 


Dec. 10, 1908 


Minister of Education, and Minister in 
charge of Bureau of Publications and 
King s Printer s Office 


Hon S J Latta . 


Oct. 20, 1917 


Minister of Agriculture, and Minister of 
Municipal Affairs 




April 27, 1920 


Minister of Highways, and Minister in 
charge of Bureau of Labour and In 
dustries 


Hon. J. G. Gardiner 


April 5, 1922 


Attorney General, and Minister in 
charge of Bureau of Child Protection 




April 5, 1922 


Provincial Secretary, and Minister of 
Public Health . . 


Hon. J. M. Uhrich 


April 5, 1922 









SASKATCHEWAN AND ALBERTA 



137 



10. Lieutenant- Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 con. 

ALBERTA. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 





Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Opnrwp H V 




Sept. 1, 1905 


Robert George Brett 


Oct. 6, 1915 


George H V 




K)ct 5, 1910 


Robert George Brett 


iQct. 20, 1920 













JSecond term. 



LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st 


4 


Mar. 15, 1906 


, 1909 


2nd 


4 


Feb. 10, 1910 


Mar. 25, 1913 


3rd 


5 


Sept. 16, 1913 


May 14, 1917 


4th 


4 


Feb. 7, 1918 


June 23, 1921 


5th 




Feb. 2, 1922 














MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


1 


Hon. Alex. Rutherford 


Sept. 2, 1905 


2 


Hon A. L. Sifton 


May 26, 1910 


3 


Hon. Charles Stewart 


Oct. 30, 1917 


4 


Hon. Herbert Greenfield 


Aug. 13, 1921 









THE GREENFIELD (PRESENT) MINISTRY-. 



Office. 


Name. . 


Date of Appointment. 


Premier, Provincial Treasurer and 


Hon Herbert Greenfield 


Aug. 13, 1921 
Aug. 13, 1921 
Aug. 13, 1921 
Aug. 13, 1921 
Aug. 13, 1921 
Aug. 13, 1921 

Aug. 13, 1921 
Aug. 13, 1921 




Hon J E Brownlee 








Hon George Hoadley 




Hon P E Baker 


Minister of Railways and Telephones. . 
Minister of Municipal Affairs and 


Hon V W Smith 


Hon R G Reid 




Hon Mrs. Walter Parlby 







BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 



Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


J. W. Trutch .- 


June 5, 1871 


Sir Henri G. Joly de Lotbiniere. . 


June 21, 1900 




June 27 1876 




May 11, 1906 




June 2l 1881 


T, W. Patterson 


Dec. 3, 1909 




Feb 7 1887 


Sir Frank S. Barnard 


Dec. 5, 1914 




Nov 1 1892 


Col. Edward G. Prior 


Dec. 9, 1919 




Nov 18 1897 


Walter C. Nichol 


Dec. 24, 1920 











138 



PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION 



!. Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 1867-1923 con. 

LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st... 


4 


Feb. 16 1872 


Aug 30 1875 


2nd 


3 


Jan 10 1876 


April 12 1887 


3rd 


5 


Julv 29 1878 


June 13 1882 


4th.... 


4 


Jan 25 1883 


June 3 1886 


5th 


4 


Jan 24 1887 


May 10, 1890 


6th 


4 


Ja 15, 1891 


June 5, 1894 


7th.... 


4 


Nov. 12, 1894 


June 7, 1898 


8th 


2 


Jan 5 1899 


April 10 1900 


9th.... 


4 


July 19 1900 


June 16 190 9 


10th 


3 


Nov 26 1903 


Dec 24 1906 


llth... 


3 


Mar 7 1907 


Oct 20 1909 


12th.... 


3 


Jan 20 1920 


Feb 27 19 1 9 


13th.... 


4 


Jan 16 1913 


June 1 Hilii 


14th.... 


4 


Alar 1 1917 


Oct 23 1920 


15th 




Feb 28 1921 













MINISTRIES. 



Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


I.. 


Hon J F McCreight 


Dec 1871 


f> 




Dec 23 1872 


3... 


Hon G A Walkem 


Feb 11 1874 


4 


Hon \ C Elliot 


Feb 1 1876 


5 


Hon J Walkem 


June 26 1878 


6 


Hon R Beaven 


June 13 1882 


7 


Hon W Smythe 


Jan 28 1883 


8 


Hon A E B Davie 


April 1 1887 


9 


Hon J Rob^on 


Aug 3 1889 


10 


Hon T Davie 


July 2, 1892 


11 


Hon J H Turner 


Mar 4 1895 


12 




Aug 12 1898 


13 




Mar 1 1900 


14 




June 15 1900 


15 


Hon E G Prior 


Xov 21 1902 


16 


Hon R McBride 


June 1 1903 


17 


Hon \Vm J Bowser 


Dec 15 1915 


18 


Hon Harlan Gwey Brewster 


\ov 19 1916 


19 


Hon. John Oliver.. 


Mar. 6, 1918 



THE OLIVER (PRESENT) MINISTRV. 



Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment. 


Premier, and President of the Council 


Hon. John Oliver 


Mar. 6, 1918 


Provincial Secretary, Minister of 
Education and .Minister of Railways 


Hon. J. D. Maclean. 


Mar. 6, 1918 


Attorney General and Minister of Labor 


Hon. A . M . Manson 


Jan. 28, 1922 


Minister of Lands 


Hon. T D Pattullo 


Mar 6 1918 


Minister of Finance and Minister of 
Industries 


Hon. John Hart 


Mar 6, 1918 


Minister of Agriculture 


Hon. E. D Barrow 


Mar 6, 1918 


Minister of Mines and Commissioner of 
Fisheries 


Hon William Sloan 


Mar 6, 1918 


Minister of Public Works 


Hon. W. H.Sutherland.., 


Jan. 28, 1922 



THE TERRITORIES. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS, 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment 


A. G.Archibald 


May 10, 1870 
April 9, 1872 
Dec. 2, 1872 
Oct. 7, 1876 
Dec. 3, 1881 




July 1, 1888 
Oct. 31, 1893 
May 30, 1898 
Oct. 11, 1898 
Mar. 30, 1904 


Francis Goodschall Johnson 


C. H. Mackintosh 


Alexander Morris 




David Laird 


A E Forget 


Kdgar Dewdney 


A E Forget 







1 Second term. 



THE C AX ADI AN HIGH COMMISSIONER 



139 



10. Lieutenant- Governors, Legislatures and Ministries of Provinces, 

1867-1923 concluded. 
LEGISLATURES. 



Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st 


3 


Oct. 31, 1888 


By effluxion of time. 


2nd 


a 


Dec. 10, 1891 


Oct. 1, 1894 


3rd 


4 


Aug. 29, 1895 


Oct. 13, 1898 


4th 


4 


April 4, 1899 


April 26, 1902 


5th 


13 


April 16, 1903 


Aug. 31, 1905 



NOTE In 1888 the districts of Alberta, AssinUroia, Athabaska and Saskatchewan, called the North 
west Territories, with their capital at Regina, were given local responsible government, and the old . JN< 
west Council was replaced by the Northwest Legislature, which existed until Aug. 31 
area approximately comprised within their limits was formed into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatche 
wan in 1905, and these provinces were given systems of government similar to the other provinces of the 
Dominion. The remaining areas (the Yukon Territory and the provisional districts of Franklin. Iveewatm 
and Mackenzie) are now administered by the Northwest Territories Branch of the Department of the 
Interior. 

III. THE CANADIAN HIGH COMMISSIONER AND THE 
PROVINCIAL AGENTS-GENERAL. 

The policy of the early North American colonies, in maintaining in London 
accredited representatives for business and diplomatic purposes, was recognized 
in the eighteenth century as being a more satisfactory means of communication 
with the home government than that provided by occasional official visits or by 
correspondence. Edmund Burke, the noted British statesman, held the position 
of agent of the colony of New York for some years following 1771. Of the Canadian 
colonies, Nova Scotia was the first to adopt the plan, its legislature having appointed 
an agent in London in 1761. New Brunswick was similarly represented in 1786, 
Upper Canada as early as 1794, Lower Canada in 1812 and British Columbia in 
1857. For some years after 1845 several of the colonies were represented in London 
by Crown Agents, appointed by the Secretary of State and paid by the colonies 
themselves. This system, however, was of but short duration. 

With the federation of the provinces in 1867, a new political entity was brought 
into existence, which could not avail itself of the services of the provincial agents. 
To overcome the inadequacy of the methods of communication between the Can 
adian and Imperial governments (carried on at that time by correspondence between 
the Governor-General and the Secretary of State) the position of Canadian High 
Commissioner was created in 1879 (See R.S.C., 1906, c. 15). This official is the 
representative of the Canadian Government in London, appointed by the Canadian 
Government and clothed with specific powers as a medium through which constant 
and confidential communications pass between the Governments of Great Britain 
and of Canada. 

Sir Alexander Gait was the first Canadian High Commissioner, holding office 
from November, 1879, until May, 1883, when he was succeeded by Sir Charles 
Tupper. Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal was appointed in 1896, Sir George 
Perley in 1914, and the present incumbent, Hon. P. C. Larkin, in February, 1922. 

Agents-General. The older provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick 
Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia still adhere to the practice of former days 
and are represented in London by Agents-General. These officials are appointed 
by the legislatures of the provinces under general authority given in the British 
North America Act and act for their Governments in capacities very similar to that 
of the High Commissioner, with the exception, perhaps, that their duties have 
tended to become of a business rather than a diplomatic nature. 



VI. POPULATION. 



I. GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 
1. Census Statistics of General Population. 

Since the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, decennial censuses have 
been taken on the de jure plan as of the dates April 2, 1871, April 4, 1881, April 5, 
1891, April 1, 1901, June 1, 1911 and June 1, 1921. The population of Canada 
and its percentage distribution as on these dates, together with the absolute and 
percentage increases from decade to decade, is given in Tables 1 to 4 immediately 
following. 

1. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in the Census years 

1871 to 1921. i 



Province or Territory. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Prince Edward Island .... 


94 021 


108 891 


109 078 


inq 9*w 


no 790 




Nova Scotia 


387 800 


440 572 


450 396 


Az.n ^74. 


4.09 9.. ft 




New Brunswick 


285 594 


321 933 


321 263 


VI] 190 


0X1 Q QQ 




Quebec 


1,191 516 


1 359 027 


1 488 535 


1 fi48 8Q8 


9 nn^ 77ft 2 




Ontario 


1,620 851 


1 926 922 


2 114 321 


2 ]g9 947 


2 97 OQ9 -2. 




Manitoba 


25 228 


62 260 


152 506 


255 211 


4fi1 s.QJ.2 




Saskatchewan 








91 279 


AQ9 409 


717 1A 


Alberta 








73 022 


07J. 90(13 


CQQ A^A 


British Columbia 


36 247 


49 459 


98 173 


178 657 


qoo 4 S (k 


MA XQ<y 


Yukon Territory . . 








97 91Q 


8 cio 




Northwest Territories 4 
Pi0yal Canadian Navy 


48,000 


56,446 


98,967 


20, 129 


6.507 2 


7,988 
















Total 


3,689,357 


4,321,810 


4 833 239 


CL QJI Qis 


7 9flfi fiia 


8 -500 Iftl 

















Percentage Distribution of Canadian Population by Provinces and Territories, 

1871 to 1921. 



Province or Territory. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Prince Edward Island 


. p.c. 
2-55 


p.c. 
2-52 


p.c. 
2-25 


p.c. 
1-92 


p.c.^ 
1-30 


p.c. 
i .ni 


Nova Scotia 


10-51 


10- 19 


9-32 


8- M\ 


fi.83 


5 -OR 


New Brunswick 


7-74 


7-43 


6-65 


fi- it; 


4.. 88 


4. J.1 


Quebec 


32-30 


31-42 


30-80 


30 70 


97.83 


Oft .07 


Ontario 


43-94 


44-56 


43-74 


40-fil 


QK.n? 


00.00 


Manitoba 


0-68 


1-44 


3-16 


4.7S 


fi .-40 


6.Q4. 


Saskatchewan 








1-70 


6-84 


8.fi9 


Alberta 








1-36 


5-19 


tt.7(l 


British Columbia 


0-98 


1-14 


2-03 


3-33 


5-45 


5 -Q7 


Yukon Territory 








0-51 


n.19 


0,nz 


Northwest Territories 4 


1-30 


1-30 


2-05 


0-37 


0-09 


n-0 i 


Royal Canadian Navy 






























100 00 


100 00 


100 00 


100 00 


100 00 


Hi" mi 



page 



1 The population of the Prairie Provinces, according to the quinquennial census of 1916, is given on 
(177. 2 As corrected as a result of the Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. As corrected by transfer 

-X-1I In t * f.r* r*.f TTnmm4- O _-,. 1 4 L. fOCO \ * XT i. 1 ~ J. T^ i . f ml I 1 



of population of Fort Smith (368) to Northwest Territories. The decrease shown in the population of 
the Northwest Territories after 1891 is due to the separation therefrom of vast areas to form Alberta, 
Saskatchewan and the Yukon Territory, ana to extend the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. 



CENSUS STATISTICS OF POPULATION 



141 



3. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 1871 and 1921, and numerical 
increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921. 



Province or 
Territory. 


Popula 
tion 
in 
1871. 


Increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921. 


Popula 
tion 
in 
1921. 


Increase 
1871 
to 
1921. 


1871 
to 
1881. 


1881 
to 
1891. 


1891 
to 
1901. 


1901 
to 
1911. 


1911 
to 

1921. 


Prince Edward I. . 
Nova Scotia 


94,021 
387,800 
285,594 
1,191,516 
1,620,851 
25,228 

36,247 
48,000 


14,870 
52,772 
35,639 
167,511 
306,071 
37,032 

13,212 
8,446 


187 
9,824 
30 
129,508 
187,399 
90,246 

48, 714 
42,521 


-5,819 
9,178 
9,857 
160,363 
68,626 
102,705 
91,279 
73,022 
80,484 
27,219 

-78,838 


-9,531 
32,764 
20,769 
356,878 
344,345 
206,183 
401,153 
301,273 
213,823 
-18,707 

-13,622 


-5,113 
31,499 
35,987 
355,423 
406,370 
148,724 
265,078 
214,159 
132, 102 
-4,355 

1,481 
485 


88,615 
523,837 
387,876 
2,361,199 
2,933,662 
610,118 
757,510 
588,454 
524,582 
4,157 

7,988 
485 


-5,406 
136,037 
102,282 
1,169,683 
1,312,811 
584,890 
757,510 
588,454 
488,335 
4,157 

-40,012 
485 


New Brunswick. . . 
Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia.. 
Yukon Territory. . 
Northwest 
Territories l ... . 
Royal Canadian 
Navy 


Canada .... 


3,689,257 


635,553 


508", 439 


538,076 


1,835,338 


1,581,840 


8,788,483 


5,099,336 





4. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 1871, and increase per cent 

by decades from 1871 to 1921. 





Popula 


Per cen 


; increase 1 


ay decades 


from 1871 


to 1921. 


Per cent 


Province or 
Territory. 


tion 
in 
1871. 


1871 
to 
1881. 


1881 
to 
1891. 


1891 
to 
1901. 


1901 
to 
1911. 


1911 
to 
1921. 


increase 
in 50 
years. 


Prince Edward Island 


94,021 


15-82 


0-17 


5-33 


0.93 


T.lfi 


e 7c 


Nova Scotia 


387,800 


13-61 


2-23 


2-04 


7.1Q 


6.4.0 




New Brunswick 


285,594 


12-48 


0-01 


3-07 


f.97 


1ft. 9^ 




Quebec 


1,191,516 


14-06 


9-53 


10-77 


21-64 


17.79 


no 17 


Ontario 


1,620,851 


18-88 


9-73 


3-25 


15-77 


lfi.08 


an QQ 


Manitoba 


25,228 


146-79 


144-95 


67-34 


80-79 


^9.9. 


201Q At) 


Saskatchewan 










4QO.J.O 


KO . 00 




Alberta 










410. KO 


K7.99 




British Columbia 


36 247 


36-45 


98-49 


81-98 


119-68 


9 J.fl 


1 Q47 OA 


Yukon Territory 










fiS-71 


. 1 . 1ft 




Northwest Territories 1 


48,000 


17-60 


75-33 


79-66 


67-67 


99 . 7fi 


QOOft 


















Canada 


3,689,357 


17-23 


11-76 


11-13 


34-17 


21 . Q 


19C.OO 



















Early Censuses. The credit of taking the first census of modern times belongs 
to Canada. The year was 1665, the census that of the colony of New France. Still 
earlier records of settlement at Port Royal (1605) and Quebec (1608) are extant; 
but the census of 1665 was a systematic "nominal" enumeration of the people, 
taken on the de jure principle, on a fixed date, showing age, sex, occupation, and 
conjugal and family condition. A supplementary enquiry in 1667 included the 
areas under cultivation and the numbers of sheep and cattle. When it is recalled 
that in Europe the first census dates only from the eighteenth century (those of 
France and England from the first year of the nineteenth), and that in the United 
States as well the census begins only with 1790, the achievement of the primitive 
St. Lawrence colony in instituting what is today one of the principal instruments 
of government may call for more than passing appreciation. 

1 The decreases shown in the population of the Northwest Territories since 1891 are due to the separa 
tion therefrom of immense areas to form the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the Yukon 
Territory, as well as to extend the boundaries of the older provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. 



142 POPULATION 



The census of 1665 (the results of which occupy 154 pages in manuscript, still 
to be seen in the Archives at Paris, with a transcript at Ottawa) showed some 
3,215 souls. It was repeated at intervals more or less regularly for a hundred years. 
By 1685 the total had risen to 12,263, including 1,538 Indians collected in villages. 
By the end of the century it had passed 15,000, and this was doubled in the next 
twenty-five years. Not to present further details, it may be said that at the time 
of the cession (1763) the population of New France was about 70,000, whilst another 
10,000 French (thinned to these proportions by the expulsion of the Acadians) were 
scattered through what is now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward 
Island. The British population of Nova Scotia was at this time about 9,000. 

After the cession, our chief reliance for statistics must be laid for half a century 
and more upon the reports of colonial governors more or less sporadic though 
censuses of the different sections under British rule were taken at irregular intervals. 
British settlement on a substantial scale in the Gulf Provinces and in Ontario dates 
only from the Loyalist movement which followed the American Revolution, at the 
end of which, i.e., about the year of the Constitutional Act (1791), the population 
of Lower Canada was approximately 163,000, whilst the newly constituted Province 
of Upper Canada under Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe numbered perhaps 15,000, 
and the addition of the Maritime colonies brought the total well over 200,000. A 
decade later Canada began the nineteenth century with a population of probably 
not less than 250,000 or 260,000. Subsequent censuses gave the population of 
the different colonies as follows: Upper Canada (1824) 150,069, (1840) 432,159; 
Lower Canada (1822) 427,465, (1844) 697,084; New Brunswick (1824) 74,176, 
(1840) 156,162; Nova Scotia (1817) 81,351, (1838) 202,575; Prince Edward Island 
(1822) 24,600, (1841) 47,042. 

The policy of desultory census-taking was ended in 1847 by an Act of the 
Canadian Legislature creating a "Board of Registration and Statistics," with 
instructions "to collect statistics and adopt measures for disseminating or publish 
ing the same," and providing also for a decennial census. The first census there 
under was taken in 1851, and as similar censuses were taken by New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia in the same year, we have a regular measure of population growth in 
Canada over the past seventy years. The fifties saw a very rapid development, 
especially in Ontario, whilst the sixties showed only less substantial gains. In the 
years following Confederation, again, there was a spurt, the increase between 1871 
and 1881 (which included several lean years towards the end) being 635,553, or 17-23 
p.c. In neither of the two decades next following, however, was this record equalled, 
either absolutely or relatively, the gains in each being under 550,000, or 12 p.c. 
With the end of the century the population of Canada had reached approximately 
five and a quarter millions, or twenty times that of 1800. 

Twentieth Century Expansion. It is within the confines of the present 
century that the most spectacular expansion of the Canadian population has taken 
place. The outstanding feature was, of course, the opening to settlement of the "last 
best West." The unorganized territories of British North America had been ceded to 
the Dominion soon after Confederation, and the West had been tapped and traversed 
by the Canadian Pacific Railway in the eighties and nineties. But though western 
population doubled with each of these decades, it was only with the launching of a 
large-scale immigration movement after 1900 that western settlement and pro 
duction became a first-rate economic factor. Simultaneously an almost equally 
striking development occurred in the industrial centres of Eastern Canada, which 
formed the immediate basis for the move upon the West. At the back, of course, 



THE CENSUS OF 1921 143 



was the heavy inflow of British capital a total of two and a half billions of dollars 
within a dozen years which went to finance the large constructive undertakings 
(chiefly railway and municipal) which characterized the movement and which 
represented at bottom the traditional policy of England in search of cheap and 
abundant food for her workshop population. The years 1901 to 1911, in brief, 
form the decas mirabilis of Canadian expansion. The immigration movement just 
mentioned, which had previously run well under 50,000 per annum, rose rapidly to 
over five times that volume, eventually passing 400,000 in a single year. In the ten 
years 1901 to 1911 it totalled over 1,800,000, and though at least a third of these 
were lost (partly in the return to Europe of labour temporarily attracted by the 
railway and other developments in progress, and partly in the never-ceasing and 
natural "drag" of the United States upon a virile and less wealthy people), it formed 
the chief factor in the gain of 34 p.c. which the total population of Canada registered 
in that decade, and which was larger than the relative growth of any other country 
during the same period. The movement was continued and even intensified in the 
first three years of the second decade of the century, after which a recession set in 
to which the outbreak of the war gave a new and wholly unexpected turn. Never 
theless the decade which closed with the census of 1921 again showed over 1,800,000 
immigrant arrivals in Canada, and though the proportionate loss of these was very 
heavy (probably as much as two-thirds), Canada s relative gain for the decade 
was again among the largest in the world. 

The Census of 1921. According to the final results of the 1921 census, the 
total population of the Dominion on June 1, 1921, was 8,788,483, as compared with 
7,206,643 on June 1, 1911, an increase of 1,581,840 or 21-95 p.c. in the decade, as 
compared with 34-17 p.c. during the decade from 1901 to 1911. Reduced as is the 
rate of increase during the past ten years, it is higher than the rate of increase in any 
other of the principal countries of the British Empire except Australia, where the 
rate was only slightly greater, and considerably higher than that of the United 
States. 

The countries which comprise the British Empire, as also the United States, 
have on the whole suffered much less in actual loss of life from the war and its 
consequences than have the continental countries of Europe. None of them has 
actually declined in population during the period, as many continental European 
countries have done. Their percentage increases, however, have in almost all cases 
been lower than in the previous decade. Thus the population of England and 
Wales increased between 1911 and 1921 only from 36,070,492 to 37,885,242, or 
4-93 p.c., as compared with an increase of 10-89 p.c. in the previous decade; Scot 
land, again, increased only from 4,760,904 to 4,882,288, or 2-5 p.c., as compared 
with 6-5 p.c. between 1901 and 1911. 

Of the oversea Dominions, New Zealand increased from 1,008,468 to 1,218,270 
or 20-8 p.c., as compared with 30-5 p.c., while the white population of South Africa 
increased from 1,276,242 to 1,522,442 or 19-3 p.c. On the other hand, the Common 
wealth of Australia, the only Dominion to grow more rapidly in the second decade 
of the twentieth century than in the first, increased from 4,455,005 in 1911 to 
5,436,794 in 1921, or 22-04 p.c., as compared with 18-05 p.c. The population of 
the continental United States increased between 1910 and 1920 from 91,972,266 
to 105,710,620, an increase of 14-9 p.c. as compared with 21 p.c. in the preceding 
decade. 

Considering now the Dominion of Canada itself, it becomes evident from 
Tables 1 and 2 that in this country, as formerly in the United States, there is a 



144 



POPULATION 



distinct movement of population frdm East to West. In the decade from 1911 to 
1921, there occurred in the four western provinces an increase of population from 
1,720,601 to 2,480,664 or 44-2 p.c., while the five eastern provinces increased from 
5,471,023 to 6,295,189, an increase of 824,166 persons, which, though absolutely 
larger than the figure for the West, constitutes an increase of only 15 p.c. over the 
1911 population. The same conclusion may be deduced from Table 2, which shows 
that while in 1871 only 2-96 p.c. and in 1881 only 3-88 p.c. of the population of the 
country dwelt west of the lake of the Woods, the percentage in 1891 was 7-24, in 
1901, 12-02, in 1911, 24-09 and hi 1921, 28-37 p.c. On the other hand, the three 
easternmost Maritime provinces, which 1871 contained 20-80 p.c. of the popu 
lation of the Dominion, had in 1881, 20-14 p.c., in 1891, 18-22 p.c., in 1901, 16-64 
p.c., in 1911, 13-01 p.c., and in 1921 only 11-38 p.c. of the population. Ontario 
and Quebec the old pre-Confederation Province of Canada still remain the chief 
centre of population, their population being in 1921 60-25 p.c. of the total as com 
pared with 76-24 p.c. in 1871, 75-98 p.c. in 1881, 74-54 p.c. in 1891, 71-34 p.c. in 
1901, and 62-90 p.c. in 1911. In other words, the net result of the half century 
has been that in 1921 only three-fifths of the population of the Dominion lived in 
these provinces as compared with more than three-fourths in 1871. 

In 1881 the "centre" of population east and west was in the county of Prescott, 
Ontario, not far from Caledonia village. In 1891 it had moved west to the vicinity 
of Ottawa, where it remained in 1901. In 1911 the county of Victoria, Ontario, 
contained the centre, and it is probably in Simcoe county, Ontario, at the present time. 

The populations of the several provinces and electoral districts of Canada in 
1921 are given by sex in Table 5. 

5. Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 

and 1901. 



Provinces and Districts. 


Land 
area in 
sq. miles. 


population, 1921. 


1911. 


1901. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Per 
sq. 
mile. 


Canada 


3,00:5, 900.00 
2,184 36 

641-18 
778-23 
764-95 

21,068 00 1 
2,212-00 
1,355-10 

1,210-90 
1,451-00 
1,683-00 
1,983-65 
2,123-38 
1,229-00 
1,408-75 
804-00 
1,202-00 
1,124-00 
2,022-48 
1,198-99 


4,529,915 

44,887 

10,570 
16,026 
18,291 

266,472 

13,988 
16,031 

39,759 
12,647 
21,072 
14,633 
48,455 
10,165 
12,421 
12,045 
17,295 
20,537 
11,913 
15,511 


4,258,538 
43,728 

9,875 
15,494 
18,359 

257,365 

13,110 
15,294 

36,603 
12,549 
20, 119 
14,332 
48,773 
9,574 
11,387 
11,678 
16,447 
20,314 
11,522 
15,663 


8,788,483 
88,615 

20,445 
31,520 
36,650 

523,837 

27,098 
31,325 

76,362 
25,196 
41,191 
28,965 
97,228 
19,739 
23,808 
23,723 
33,742 
40,851 
23,435 
31,174 


2 44 

40 56 

31-88 
40-50 
47-91 

24-86 

12-25 
23-11 

63-06 
17-36 
24-47 
14-60 
45-78 
16-06 
16-90 
27-45 
28-07 
36-34 
11-58 
26-00 


7,206,643 
93,728 

22,636 
32,779 
38,313 

492,338 

29,010 
29,888 

66,625 
23,664 
40,543 
29,871 
80,257 
19,703 
25,571 
21,780 
33,260 
35,858 
24,211 
32,097 


5,371,315 
103,259 

24,725 
35,400 
43,134 

459,574 

31,937 
24,650 

48,602 
24,900 
36, 168 
30,579 
74,662 
20,056 
24,353 
21,937 
32,389 
33,459 
24,428 
31,454 


Prince Edward Island 

Kings 






Nova Scotia 


Antigonish and Guys- 
borough 


Cape Breton North and 
Victoria 


Cape Breton South and 
Richmond 


Colchester 


Cumberland 


Digby and Annapolis 
Halifax City and County 








Pic to u 


Shelburne and Queens 
Yarmouth and Clare 



NOTE The land areas here given for the provinces and electoral districts are as measured by a plani- 
meter on the map, and include the areas of small lakes and other waters which have not been measured. 
1 By map measurement. 



PROVINCES AND ELECTORAL DISTRICTS 



145 



5. Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 

and 1901 continued. 



Provinces and Districts. 


Land 
area in 
sq. miles. 


Population, 1921. 


1911. 


1901. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Per 
sq. 
mile. 


New Brunswick 


27,911-Ofli 

1,283-40 
1,869-81 
1,778-02 
4,740-60 

4,542-56 
2,855-53 

1,302-88 
3,402-64 
1,442-18 
4,693-74 

690,865-001 

783-36 
346-14 
1,891-04 
147-03 
652-64 
2,192-74 
3,463-61 
488-15 
337-00 
1,497-95 
4,303-09 
626-52 
492,140-74- 
1,439-04 
941-60 
1,197-82 
4,551-47 

1,023-18 
86-94 
3,013-50 
1,037-50 
2,948-80 
319-20 
4,448-40 

378-12 
271-83 
772-80 
726-40 
58-10 
2,940-00 
3,495-67 
780-16 
375-21 
630-13 
626-07 
126,437-193 
6,722-91 
2,799-59 
2-20 
3-59 
116-66 
193-10 
1,224-32 
2,089-44 

520-58 


197,351 

10,853 
19,697 
12,317 
17,354 

22,258 
16,698 

33,754 
17,706 
26,959 
19, 755 

1,180,028 
9,085 
9,003 
27,320 
9,805 
10,665 
9-927 
14,879 
7,024 
17,285 
24,760 
14,642 
13,582 
47,182 
16,945 
15,038 
22,816 
20,945 
26,746 
35,828 
22,020 
44, 178 
12,700 
11,137 
18,931 
10,352 
14,225 
34,201 
14,459 
16,523 
9,097 
10,992 
32,298 
8,609 
18,795 
17,161 
8,887 
11,341 
14,841 
25, 169 
17,350 
15,234 
17,836 
12,239 
18,349 
9,289 
21,693 
13,865 
25,884 
14,823 
38,276 
17,910 


190,525 

10,582 
18,987 
11,599 
16,631 

20,719 
15,380 

35,339 
16,194 
26,428 
18,666 

1,181,171 
8,080 
9,032 
26,521 
10,083 
10,525 
.9,890 
14,213 
6,447 
17,358 
23,249 
14, 232 
13, 149 
43,427 
15,340 
13,916 
22,007 
19,430 
28,054 
37,698 
21,521 
45,119 
13,213 
10,877 
16,996 
9,713 
14,093 
37,846 
13,855 
16,800 
8,762 
10,845 
32,635 
8,336 
17,508 
16,472 
8,822 
10,656 
14,854 
21,032 
17,102 
15,896 
20,494 
15,467 
19,644 
9,475 
20,555 
13,655 
26, 165 
17,571 
40,644 
18,844 


387,876 

21,435 
38,684 
23,916 
33,985 

42,977 
32,078 

69,093 
33,900 
53,387 
38,421 

3,361,199 

17,165 
18,035 
53,841 
19,888 
21,190 
19,817 
29,092 
13.471 
34,643 
48,009 
28,874 
26,731 
90,609 
32,285 
28,954 
44,823 
40,375 
54,800 
73,526 
43,541 
89,297 
25,913 
22,014 
35,927 
20,065 
28,318 
72,047 
28,314 
33,323 
17,859 
21,837 
64,933 
16,945 
36,303 
33,633 
17,709 
21,997 
29,695 
46,201 
34,452 
31,130 
38,330 
27,706 
37,993 
18,764 
42,248 
27,520 
52,049 
32,394 
78,920 
36,754 


13 90 

16-70 
20-68 
13-45 
7-16 

9-46 
11-23 

53-03 
9-96 
37-02 
8-18 

3-42 

21-91 
52-10 
28-47 
135-26 
32-47 
9-04 
8-40 
27-60 
102-80 
32-05 
6-71 
42-67 
0-18 
22-44 
30-75 
37-42 
8-87 

42-55 
1,027-11 
8-60 
21-22 
12-18 
62-86 
6-37 

74-88 
122-59 
23-11 
30-06 
1,117-61 
5-76 
10-39 
43-11 
47-20 
34-91 
47-43 
0-36 
5-12 
11-12 
17,422-73 
7,717-55 
325-67 
97-17 
34-51 
13-17 

70-60 


351,889 

21,147 

32,662 
24,376 
31,194 

32,365 
31,491 

63,263 
32,990 
44,621 
37,780 

2,005,776 

16,766 
18,206 
51,399 
20,802 
21,141 
19,872 
28,110 
13,216 
28,715 
39,824 
27,972 
26,562 
65,888 
29,630 
25,096 
41,590 
35,001 
51,937 
44,884 
37,917 
56,855 
23,911 
20,888 
30,115 
19,335 
28,506 
44,264 
25,275 
28,913 
16,435 
22,158 
33,796 
16,509 
27,539 
31,314 
17,466 
17,356 
30,055 
31,479 
30,260 
28,046 
30,922 
24,163 
30,506 
19,810 
39,491 
23,951 
41,541 
34,794 
45, 141 
35,473 


331,120 

22,415 
27,936 
23,958 
28,543 

22,897 
32,832 

62,684 
30,446 
42,060 
37,349 

1,648,898 
16,407 
18,181 
43,129 
21,732 
18,706 
19,980 
24,495 
13,397 
24,318 
32,015 
25,813 
27,562 
48,291 
26,460 
21,007 
38,999 
30,683 
53,673 
14, 193 
33,851 
21,966 
22,255 
19,099 
22,291 
19,633 
26,996 
13,237 
24,685 
26,210 
14,439 
20,039 
12,402 
15,813 
18,521 
23,878 
17,339 
14,757 
27,209 
28, 127 
24,176 
24,381 
28,645 
21,833 
24,897 
18,576 
34, 137 
21,636 
41,225 
47,653 
10,391 
34,950 


Charlotte 


Gloucester 


Kent 


Northumberland 


Restigouche and Mada- 
waska 


Royal 


St. John City, County 
and Albert 


Victoria and Carleton... 
Westmorland 


York and Sunbury 


Quebec 


Argenteuil 


Bagot 


Beauce 


Beauharnois 


Bellechasse 


Berthier 


Bona venture 


Brome 


Chambly and Vercheres.. 
Champlain ... ... 


C harl e voix-Montmorency 
Chateauguay -Huntingdon 
Chicoutiuii-Sao uenay. . . 


Compton 


Dorchester 


Drummond & Arthabaska 
Gasp6 


George-Etienne Cartier. . . 
Hochelaga 


Hull 


Jacques Cartier 


Joliette 


Kamouraska 


Labelle 


Laprairie and Napierville 
L Assomption-Montcalm . 
Laurier-Outremont 


Laval-Two Mountains 
Levis 


L Islet 


Lotbiniere 


Maisonneuve 


Maskinong6 


Matane 


Megantic 


Missisquoi 


Montmagny 


Nicolet 


Pontiac 


Portneuf 


Quebec County 


Quebec East 


Quebec South 


Quebec West 


Richelieu 


Richmond and Wolfe 
Rimouski 


Ste. Anne 


St. Antoine 


St. Denis 


St. Hyacinthe-Rouville. . . 



1 By map measurement, 
organized parts. 

6237310 



Includes part added by Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. Includes un- 



146 



POPULATION 



5. Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1*11 

and 1901 continued. 



Provinces and Districts. 


Land 
area in 
sq. miles. 


Population, 1921. 


1911. 


1901. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Per 

sq. 
mile. 


Quebec concluded. 
St James 


403-02 

567-20 
237-59 
432-47 
1,806-18 
781-82 

2,568-05 
336-75 

2,297-27 
393-12 

365, 800-00 

20,678-17 
22,153-98 
334-23 
86-86 
950-95 
699-46 
650-87 
556,64 
576-11 
628-98 
362-52 
357-58 
239-27 
467-53 

12,784-68 
1,595-91 
697-33 
462-83 
669-79 
1,038-03 
488-13 
362-69 
2-69 
3-54 
1,291-41 
1,031-57 
660-11 
635-31 
818-50 
3-54 
647-81 
575-57 
1,137-99 
899-68 
1,169-77 
332-41 


20,462 
11,943 
18,150 
30,842 
12,970 
15, 148 
11,714 
22,638 
16,972 

25,438 
10,969 
29,785 
11,424 
9,432 

1,481,890 

22,815 
18,332 
10,180 
16,364 
10,684 
11,904 
16,751 
7,996 
12,338 
12,457 
8,872 
13,860 
37,111 
16,129 

21,573 
10,972 

19,528 
8,266 
15,395 
14,610 
10,889 
12,748 
24,983 
18,893 
11,997 
17,130 
11,657 
11,692 
26,646 
11,666 
13,084 
16,976 
16,332 
17,338 
9,638 
24,874 
25,364 
14,581 
12,678 
10,153 
31,508 
13,305 
15,012 
7,875 
15,762 
43,232 
12,232 
11,133 


21,981 
11,575 
18,762 
33,133 
12,674 
15,638 
11,666 
21,672 
16,936 

25,407 
10,651 
33,124 
10,426 
9,408 

1,451,772 

17,803 
15,344 
9,905 
16,928 
10,188 
11,509 
15,922 
7,419 
12,050 
12,172 
8,434 
13,818 
34,039 
15,296 

i 8,088 
9,718 
19,045 
8,378 
15,272 
13,774 
10,398 
12,151 
24,837 
20,405 
11,075 
17,321 
11,883 
11,856 
25,493 
12,438 
12,717 
15,912 
16,661 
17,571 
9,356 
23,751 
28,474 
13,413 
12,355 
9,286 
27,057 
13,061 
15,500 
7,545 
15,312 
50,508 
12,295 
11,102 


42,443 
23,518 
36,912 
63,975 
25,644 
30,786 
23,380 
44,310 
33,908 

50,845 
21,620 
62,909 
21,850 
18,840 

2,933,662 

40,618 
33,676 
20,085 
33,292 
20,872 
23,413 
32,673 
15,415 
24,388 
24,629 
17,306 
27,678 
71,150 
31,425 

39,661 
20,390 
38,573 
16,644 
30,667 
28,384 
21,287 
24,899 
49,820 
39,298 
23,072 
34,451 
23,540 
23,548 
52, 139 
24,104 
25,801 
32,888 
32,993 
34,909 
18,994 
48,625 
53; 838 
27,994 
25,033 
19,439 
58,565 
26,366 
30,512 
15,420 
31,074 
93, 740 
24,527 
22,235 


58-35 

45-21 

129-58 
54-06 
24-53 
43-37 

19-80 
64-20 

9-51 
47-92 

8 02 

1-96 
1-52 
60-09 
383-28 
21-95 
33-47 
50-19 
27-69 
42-33 
39-16 
47-74 
77-40 
297-36 
67-21 

3-10 

12-77 
55-31 
35-96 
45-78 
27-34 
43-60 
68-65 
18,520-44 
11,101-11 
17-86 
33-39 
35-66 
37-06 
03-70 
6,809-03 
39-82 
57-13 
28-99 
38-80 
16-23 
146-28 
8,095-94 
58-18 
33-28 
12-26 
5-25 
41-56 
43-32 
30-54 
89-37 
19,734-74 
59-74 
62-81 


44,057 
21,882 
38,883 
62,521 
23,976 
23,211 
20,765 
36,430 
29,018 

36,153 
20,439 
56,088 
21,171 
20,387 

2,527,292 

37,699 
28,752 
19,259 
2fi,617 
23,783 
26,249 
24,417 
17,740 
25,973 
26,411 
17,597 
26,715 
38,006 
29,541 

32,158 
21,944 
38,226 
17,545 
33,957 
31,934 
21,562 
22,208 
39,793 
37,279 
24,978 
30,825 
26,886 
26,097 
49,391 
20,660 
28,827 
29,109 
34,375 
36,753 
20,386 
35,429 
46,300 
23,465 
27,300 
21,233 
43,679 
27,110 
32,892 
17,141 
23,865 
77,182 
25,077 
22,294 


42,618 
20,67 .i 
21,889 
40,631 
23,628 
18,426 
18,998 
29,185 
26,816 

29,311 
20,373 
40, 960 
19,589 
21.50H 

2,182,947 

25,211 
17,894 
18,273 
19,867 
27,424 
31,596 
22,880 
21,036 
28,350 
27,570 
17,901 
25,685 
28,78 t 
29,955 

18,461 
24,746 
40,580 
21,021 
33,003 
36,587 
21,23: , 
19,545 
24,000 
28,634 
27,943 
31,34s 
30,966 
30,854 
40. 67:; 

19,788 

34,440 
29,723 
37,232 

37,975 
23,346 
30,552 
37,976 
23,339 
31,387 
20,971 
24,931 
29,147 
33,550 
18,390 
22,01s 
59, 140 
25,644 
22,760 


St. Johns and Iberville. . . 
St. Lavrrence-St. George . 
Ste. Marie 
Shefford 


Sherbrooke 


Stanstead 


Temiscouata 


Terrebonne 


Three Rivers and St. 


Vaudreuil-Soulanges 


Westmount-St. Henri 
Wright . 




Ontario 


Algoma East 


Algoma West 


Brant 


Brantford 








Dufferin 




Durham 




Elgin West 


Essex North 


Essex South 


Fort William and Rainy 


Frontenac 


Glengarry and Stormont . 
Grenville 


Grey North 


Grey Southeast 


Haldimand 


Halton 




Hamilton West 


Hastings East 


Hastings West 


Huron \orth 


Huron South 


jvent 


Kingston 


Lambton Fast .... . . . 


Lambton West 


Lanark 


Leeds ... 


Lennox and Addington. .. . 
Lincoln 


London 


6-65 
481-00 
752-14 
1,585-38 
11,157-32 
634-26 
704-29 
504-82 
347-69 
4-75 
410-56 
353-99 


Middlesex East 


Middlesex West 


Muskoka 


X ipissing 


Norfolk 


Northumberland 


Ontario North 


Ontario South 


Ottawa 


Oxford North 


Oxford South 





By map measurement. 



PROVINCES AND ELECTORAL DISTRICTS 



147 



5. Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 

and 1901 continued. 



Provinces and Districts. 


Land 
area in 
sq. miles. 


Population, 1921. 


1911. 


1901. 


Mules. 


Females. 


Total. 


Per 

so. 
mile. 


Ontario concluded . 
Park dale 


4,336-00 
468-51 
429-77 
409-81 
891-38 
553-81 
207,570-90 
494-29 
390-40 
1,057-81 
1,644-95 
698-68 
529-39 
574-88 
558-61 
46,211-00 

2,834-23 
273-20 
242-63 
387-27 
.580-46 
438-88 
451-97 
64-52 
430-56 
202-28 
158-52 

231,926 OOi 

2,914-06 
5,468-75 
1,979-96 
2,390-90 
5,454-24 
3,491-53 
173,975-18 
1,710-22 
4,261-36 
10,689-84 
3,586-35 
15,944-15 

59-46 

243,381 00 

5,850-86 
6,651-96 
8,320-95 
11,264-30 
7,085-51 
5,856-34 
15,149-09 
5,591-12 
72,000-00 
76,499-00 
4,458-06 
2,063-25 
4.554-69 


38,820 
14,716 
12,371 
16,223 
9,315 
7,101 
14,382 
24,136 
13,429 
8,288 
12,339 
13,765 
22,084 
18,888 
11,227 
12,655 
30,219 
25,326 
31,096 
32,378 
19,335 
32,717 
17,621 
20,591 
16,440 
36,360 
10,182 
17,161 
32,574 
38-163 
11,840 
49,572 
35,361 

320,567 

21,315 
19,254 
15,652 
12,936 
22,433 
15,464 
10,705 
12,027 
15,819 
29,539 
14,341 
30,935 
39,126 
32,060 
28,862 

413,700 

18,831 
18,561 
30,300 
25,758 
27,731 
29,907 
31,318 
27,376 
26,121 
31,054 
18,819 
26,395 
23.261 


41,960 
12,306 
11,525 
16,238 
9,067 
6,615 
14,936 
19,164 
13,049 
8,518 
11,617 
13,296 
21,329 
18,234 
10,873 
12,155 
21,348 
26,442 
33,729 
40,100 
18,261 
35,680 
16,374 
21,107 
17,128 
30,308 
9,651 
17,166 
31,875 
39-787 
11,296 
50,484 
35,320 

289,551 

18,868 
16,228 
14,269 
10,888 
18,821 
12,892 
9,101 
10,227 
13,489 
25,756 
12,069 
27,935 
37,345 
30,897 
30,766 

343,810 

15,958 
15,080 
24,926 
19,014 
22,324 
25,722 
24,746 
23,027 
21,260 
25,775 
16,017 
23,582 
20.174 


80,780 
27,022 
23,896 
32,461 
18,382 
13,716 
29,318 
43,300 
26,478 
16,806 
23,956 
27,061 
43,413 
37,122 
22,100 
24,810 
51,568 
51,768 
64,825 
72,478 
37,596 
68,397 
33,995 
41,698 
33,568 
66,668 
19,833 
34,327 
64,449 
77,950 
23,136 
100,054 
70,681 

610,118 

40,183 
35,482 
29,921 
23,824 
41,254 
28,356 
19,806 
22,254 
29,308 
55,395 
26,410 
58,870 
76,470 
62,957 
59,628 

757,510 

34,789 
33,641 
55,225 
44,772 
50,055 
55,629 
56,064 
50,403 
47,381 
56,829 
34,83 
49,977 
43.795 


6-23 
51-01 
75-53 
44-85 
15-38 
52-93 
0-21 
53-56 
43-04 
22-64 
16-45 
62-13 
70-12 
38-44 
44-41 
Ml 

11-99 
152-62 
138-35 
172-14 
34-16 
78-21 
142-59 
1,208-15 
53-73 
494-63 
445-88 

2,63 

13-78 
6-49 
15-11 
9-96 
7-56 
8-12 
0-11 
13-01 
6-87 
5-18 
7-36 
3-69 
1 
| 3,347-71 

3 12 
5-96 

5-06 
6-63 
3-97 
7-06 
9-49 
3-70 
9-01 
0-66 
0-74 
7-81 
24-22 
9-62 


59,609 
26,547 
22,102 
30,235 
18,947 
15,499 
26,151 
39, 109 
26,968 
17,150 
23,617 
27,852 
39,434 
35,294 
24,699 
25,060 
37,380 
54,792 
53,712 
51,318 
43,956 
57,804 
36,499 
33,619 
28,988 
42,163 
22,292 
32,200 
34,634 
32,864 
22.415 
31,933 
35,831 

461,394 

39,734 
23,358 
25,978 
20,802 
32,384 
23.923 
1 1 , 737 
22,059 
24.276 
32,653 
27,133 
37,247 
58,903 
45,682 
35,525 

492,432 

31,975 
21,667 
36,617 
22,229 
33,093 
36,940 
19,730 
31,552 
24,330 
35,839 
30,470 
44,202 
32,313 


22,303 
24,930 
21,475 
29,256 
20,615 
16,291 
20,704 
10,526 
27,035 
17,864 
24,556 
27,676 
35,166 
29,845 
26,071 
26,399 
3,378 
45,888 
36,763 
20,766 
38,108 
41,069 
38,511 
27,124 
25,470 
31,588 
26,120 
29,526 
26,818 
8,478 
22,419 
18,964 
17,905 

255,211 

25,047 
12,617 
26,899 
17,324 
20,435 
19,140 
2,359 
14,969 
14,129 
16,443 
22,634 
20,290 
] 
.- 42,925 

91,279 

9,053 
1,355 
1,652 
31 
1,575 
11,984 
1,473 
3,725 
4,579 
16,644 
17,133 
6,581 
10,874 


Parry Sound 


Peel 


Perth North 


Perth South . 


Peterborough East 


Peterborough Wst 


Port Arthur and Kenora . 
Prescott 


Prince Edward 


Renfrew North 


Renfrew South 


Russell 


Sinicoe East 


Simcoe North 


Sirncoe South 


Timiskaming 


Toronto Centre 


Toronto East 


Toronto North 


Toronto South 


Toronto West 


Victoria 


Waterloo North 


Waterloo South 


Welland .. 


Wellington North 


Wellington South 


Wentworth 


York East 


York North 


York South 


York West 


Manitoba 


Brandon 


Dauphin 


Lis^ar 


Macdonald 


MarQuette 


Neepawa ... 


Nelson.. . 


Portage la Prairie . 


Provencher 


Selkirk 


Souris 


Springfield 


Winnipeg Centre 


Winnipeg North 


Winnipeg South 


Saskatchewan 


Assiniboia ... 


Battleford 


Humboldt . . 


Kindersley 


Last Mountain 


Mackenzie 


Maple Creek 


Moose Jaw 


North Battleford. . 


Prince Albert 


Qu Appelle 


Regina 


Saltcoats . . . 



By map measurement. 
62373101 



148 



POPULATION 



5. Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1931, 1911 

and 1901 concluded. 



Provinces and Districts. 


Land 
area in 
sq. miles. 


Population, 1921. 


1911. 


1901. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Per 
sq. 
mile. 


Saskatchewan concluded. 

Saskatoon 


3,453-38 

7,958-48 
6,051-89 

352,985 DO 

13,191-90 
11,259-86 
2,033-59 
4,630-00 
57,172-40 
112,497-43 
5,498-33 
9,017-00 
12,497-00 
13-431-84 
5,309-09 
6,386-45 

353,416-00 

620-79 
164.693-50 
18,227-46 
304-95 
13,367-11 
12,979-11 
2,717-00 
6,102-41 
123,896-14 
5-73 
32-24 
7-50 
10,462-06 

206,427-00 
1,207,926-00 


28,862 
29,220 
19,826 

324,208 

27,483 
32,460 
23,819 
22,733 
30,719 
41,947 
21,072 
18,976 
23, 982 
27,426 
22,682 
30,909 

293,409 

34,387 
23,934 
20,665 
17,054 
11,983 
16,880 
26,079 
25,059 
19.083 
34,867 
23,439 
20,107 
19,872 

2,819 
4,129 
485 


26,289 
24,055 
15,862 

264,246 

21,690 
22,896 
21,176 
21,608 
25,829 
32,320 
16,627 
15,032 
19,197 
22,203 
19,838 
25,830 

231,173 

35,535 
15,900 
11,344 
11,757 
7,154 
13,622 
21,931 
20,923 
9,851 
26,012 
22,698 
18,620 
15,826 

1,338 
3,859 


55,151 
53,275 
35,688 

588,454 

49,173 
55,356 
44,995 
44,341 
56,548 
74,267 
37,699 
35,008 
43,179 
49,629 
42,520 
56,739 

524,582 

69.922 
39,834 
32,009 
28,811 
19,137 
30,502 
48,010 
45,982 
28,934 
60,879 
46,137 
38,727 
35,698 

4,157 
7,988 
485 


15-97 
6-69 
5-89 

2 33 

3-73 
4-92 
22-13 
9-58 
0-99 
0-66 
6-86 
3-77 
3-46 
3-69 
8-01 
8-88 

1-48 
112-63 
0-24 
1-75 
94-48 
1-43 
2-35 
17-67 
7-54 
23 
10,624-60 
1,431-04 
5,163-60 
3-41 

0-02 
0-007 


31,633 
28,691 
31,081 

374,295 

26,352 
27,304 
35,163 
30,023 
30,926 
35,386 
29,487 
30,779 
24,697 
37,507 
28,355 
38,316 

392,480 

48,493 
26.541 
19,739 
22,645 
22,466 
28,373 
31,878 
29,384 
22,685 
60,104 
?0,446 
31.660 
28,066 

8,512 
6,507 


2,964 
484 
1,172 

73,922 

59T 
1,565 
5,526 
3,546 
7,685 
7,641 
5,995 
8,228 
3,185 
7,568 
12,635 
8,851 

178.657 

1,267 
29,155 
8,444 
8,219 
8,446 
23,516 
22,293 
14,855 
13,013 
27,010 
1,520 
20,919 
i 

27,21 
20, 12 


Swift Current 


Weyburn 


Alberta 


Battle River 


Bow River 


Calgary East 


Calgary West 


Edmonton East 


Edmonton West . . 


Lethbridge 


Maclood 


Medicine Hat. 


Red Deer 


Strathcona 


Victoria 


British Columbia 


Burrard. . 


Cariboo 


Comox-Alberni 


Fraser Valley 


Kootenay East 


Kootenay West 


Nanaimo 


New Westmnister 


Skeena. . . 


Vancouver Centre 


Vancouver South 


Victoria 


Yale 


Yukon 


Northwest Territories. 


Royal Canadian Navy 
Canada 


3,603,909 00 


4,529,945 


4,258,538 


8,788,483 


2 44 


7,206,643 


5, 371, SIS 





1 By map measurement for provinces and electoral districts. 

2 Includes Yale District. Included in Cariboo District. 

Density of Population. The density of population in 1921 (i.e., the number 
of persons per square mile of the land area), is shown by provinces and for the country 
as a whole in Table 6. Generally speaking, the density of population decreases as 
one travels westward, but the enormous area of the province of Quebec reduces 
the density of its population to the low figure of 3-42. As among the nine provinces, 
the density of population is greatest in Prince Edward Island and least in British 
Columbia. 

6. Density of Population in Canada according to the Census of 1921. 



Prince Edward Island 


40-56 


Saskatchewan 


3-12 


Nova Scotia 


24-86 


Alberta 


2-35 


New Brunswick 


13-90 


British Columbia 


1-48 


Quebec 


3-42 


Yukon Territory 


0-02 


Ontario 


8-02 


Northwest Territories 




Manitoba 


2-63 










Canada 


8-44 











SEX DISTRIBUTION 149 



Elements of Growth. The lack of comprehensive and comparable vital 
statistics for the whole of Canada, together with the lack of statistics of emigration, 
makes it difficult to determine how far the growth of population is due to natural 
increase and how far to immigration. The following estimate (Table 7) may, 
however, be of interest. During the last decade, in addition to some 60,000 Can 
adians who died overseas and nearly 20,000 who took their discharge in the United 
Kingdom, there were also great numbers of residents of Canada most of them 
recent immigrants who left Canada to join the forces of the Mother Country 
and of her allies in the Great War and did not return. The estimated figure given 
for emigration in the decade 1911-1921 may therefore be regarded as of a distinctly 
abnormal character. 

7. Movement of Population, including estimated Natural Increase, recorded Immi 
gration, and estimated Emigration, for the intercensal periods 1901-1911 and 
1911-1921. 



Decades and Items. 



No. 



Decade 1901-1911 

Population, Census of April 1, 1901 



Natural increase (1901-1911 inclusive), estimated. 
Immigration (April 1, 1901 to May 31, 1911) 



5,371,315 

853,566 

1,847,651 



Total. 



Population, Census of June 1, 1911 

Emigration (April 1, 1901 to May 31, 1911), estimated. 

Decade 1911-1921- 



Population, Census of June 1, 1911 

Natural increase (1911-1921), estimated 

Immigration (June 1, 1911 to May 31, 1921). 



8,072,532 

7,206,643 

865,889 



7,206,643 
1,150.659 
1,728,921 



Total. 



Population (Census of June 1, 1921) 

Emigration (June 1, 1911 to June 1, 1921), estimated. 



Net gain in population, 1901-1911. 
Net gain in population, 1911-1921. 



10.086,223 
8,788,483 
1,297,740! 

1,835,328 
1,581.840 



1 This figure includes also the 60,000 Canadian lives lost at the front and the soldiers (about 20,000) 
enlisting in Canadian forces and receiving their discharge in the United Kingdom. 

2. Sex Distribution. 

Throughout the older countries of the world there is usually found an excess 
of female over male population, more especially as in most of these countries the 
eensus is taken on a de facto instead of, as in Canada, on a de jure basis . The causes 
of this excess of female population are: (1) the normally higher rate of mortality 
among males; (2) the greater number of males who travel; (3) the effects of war; 
(4) the employment of males in the army, navy and merchant marine; and (5) the 
preponderance of males among emigrants. In the newer countries of the world,, 
however, the last of these causes results in a general excess of male over female 
population. Both of these phenomena are exemplified in Table 10. 

In Canada there has been such an excess of male population from the com 
mencement of its history, the first census of 1665 showing 2,034 males to only 1,181 
females. As the colony increased in numbers, the disproportion between the sexes 
became smaller, more especially since the French-Canadian population after about 
1680 was not reinforced by immigration from the old world. In 1784, when the 
English-speaking immigration to Canada for purposes of settlement was com- 



150 



POPULATION 



mencing, there were 54,064 males and 50,759 females in the country. At the middle 
of the nineteenth century, there were 449,967 males to 440,294 females in Lower 
Canada, and 499,067 males to 452,937 females in the more newly-settled Upper 
Canada, and since Confederation the same phenomenon of considerable excess of 
males has occurred throughout the growing Northwest. The great immigration 
of the first decade of the present century resulted in raising what is calle.d the 
"masculinity" of the Canadian population (i.e., the excess of males over females 
per 100 of population) to the highest point in recent history, viz., 6-07 p.c. in 1911. 
The great war, however, both checked immigration and took some 60,000 young 
Canadian male lives as its toll, with the result that at the census of 1921 the mas 
culinity of our population was only 3 p.c. 515 males to 485 females per 1,000 of 
population. Thus masculinity in the country as a whole and also in all the provinces 
except Prince Edward Island, has been since 1911 on the decline a phenomenon 
which must be regarded with satisfaction, since an approximation to equality in 
the numbers of the sexes is desirable both in the interests of morality and also as 
promotive of the birth rate (an important consideration in a country where the 
density of population is only 2-44 to the square mile). In Table 8 statistics are pre 
sented, showing the number of males and females in each of the provinces and 
territories at each census since 1871, while Table 9 shows the proportions of the 
sexes and excess of males per 1,000 of population. The statistics of Table 10 show 
the position of Canada among other countries of the world in regard to mascu 
linity. 

8. Sex Distribution of the People of Canada, by Provinces, 1871-1921. 



Provinces. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Prince Edward Island 


47,121 

193,792 
145,888 
596,041 
828,590 
12., 864 

20,694 
24,274 


46,900 
194,008 
139,706 
595,475 
792,261 
12,364 

15,553 
23,726 


54,729 
220,538 
164,119 
678,175 
978,554 
35, 123 

29,503 
28,113 


54,162 
220,034 
157,114 
680,852 
948,368 
27,137 

19,956 
28,333 


54,881 
227,093 
163,739 
744,141 
1,069,487 
84,342 

63,003 
53,785 


54,197 
223,303 
157,524 
744,394 
1,044,834 
68,164 

35,170 
45,182 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan . . ... 


Alberta 


British Columbia . 


Yukon Territory 


Northwest Territories. 


Canada 


1,869,264 


1,819,993 


2,188,854 


2,135,956 


2,460,471 


2,372,768 




Provinci - 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Prince Edward Island 


51,959 
233,642 
168,639 
824,454 
1,096,640 
138,504 
49,431 
41,019 
114,160 
23,084 
10,176 


51,300 
225,932 
162,481 
824,444 
1,086,307 
116,707 
41,848 
32,003 
64,497 
4,135 
9,953 


47,069 
251,019 
179,867 
1,012.815 
1,301,272 
252,954 
291,730 
223,792 
251,619 
6,508 
3,350 


46,659 
241,319 
172,022 
992,961 
1,226,020 
208,440 
200,702 
150,503 
110,861 
2,004 
3,157 


44,887 
266,472 
197,351 
1,180,028 
1,481,890 
320,567 
413,700 
324,208 
293,409 
2,819 
4,129 
485 


43,728 
257,365 
190,525 
1,181,171 
1,451,772 
289,551 
343,810 
264,246 
231,173 
1,338 
3,859 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario .... . . 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Yukon Territory 


Northwest Territories 


Royal Canadian Navy 


Canada 


3,751,708 


2,619,607 


3,821,995 


3,384,64$ 


4,529,945 


4,258,538 





SEX DISTRIBUTION 



151 



9. Proportion of Sexes per 1,000 of Population in Canada, by Provinces, 1871-1921. 



Provinces. 



Prince Edward Island. . . . 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Yukon Territory 

Northwest Territories. . .. 



Canada. 



1871. 



Males- 



501 
500 
511 
500 
511 
510 



571 
506 



507 



Fe 
males, 



499 
500 
489 
500 
489 
490 



429 
494 
493 



Excess 
of Males 

over 
Females. 



2 
22 

22 
20 

142 

12 



14 



1881. 



Males. 



503 
501 
511 
499 
508 
564 



597 
498 
506 



Fe 
males. 



497 
499 
489 
501 
492 
436 



403 
502 



494 



Excess 
of Males 

over 
Females. 



6 
2 

22 

-2 

16 

128 



194 
-4 



1891. 



Males. 



504 
504 
510 
500 
506 
553 



642 
543 



509 



Fe 
males. 



496 
496 
490 
500 
494 
447 



358 
457 



491 



Excess 
of Males 

over 
Females. 



8 

8 

20 

12 
106 



284 
86 



18 



Provinces. 



Prince Edward Island . . 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Yukon Territory 

Northwest Territories. 
Royal Canadian Navy. 



Canada. 



1901. 



Males. 



503 
508 
509 
500 
502 
543 
541 
562 
639 
848 
506 



512 



Fe 
males. 



497 
492 
491 
500 
498 
457 
459 
438 
361 
152 
494 



488 



Excess 
of Males 

over 
Females. 



6 
16 
18 

4 

86 

82 

124 

278 

696 

12 



1911. 



Males. 



502 
510 
511 
505 
515 
548 
592 
598 
641 
765 
515 



530 



Fe 
males. 



498 
490 
489 
495 
485 
452 
408 
402 
359 
235 
485 



470 



Excess 
of Males 

over 
Females. 



4 

20 

22 

10 

30 

96 

184 

196 

282 

530 

30 



60 



1921. 



Males. 



507 
509 
509 
500 
505 
525 
546 
551 
559 
678 
517 
1,000 



515 





Excess 


Fe 


of Males 


males. 


over 




Females. 


493 


14 


491 


18 


491 


18 


500 


- 


495 


10 


475 


50 


454 


92 


449 


102 


441 


118 


322 


356 


483 


34 


- 


1,000 


485 


.30 



10. Masculinity of the Population of Various Countries. 



Country. 


Year. 


Excess of 
males over 
females in 
each 100 
population. 


Country. 


Year. 


Excess of 
males over 
females in 
each 100 
population. 




1918 


7-27 


Spain 


1920 


-1-34 




1921 


3-00 


Switzerland 


1910 


-1-62 




1921 


2-92 


France 


1911 


-1-74 




1921 


2-88 


Sweden 


1920 


-1-76 




1921 


2-26 


Italv 


1911 


-1-81 




1920 


1-98 


Finland 


1919 


-2-12 




1921 


1-58 


Denmark 


1921 


-2-44 




1919 


1-08 


Norway 


1920 


-2-60 




1915 


0-75 


Scotland 


1921 


-3-79 




1920 


0-22 


Austria 


1920 


-4-24 




1920 


0-19 


Prussia 


1919 


-4-49 


Chile 


1920 


-0-57 


England and Wales 


1921 


-4-54 




1920 


0-66 


Poland 


1920 


-4-66 




1920 


0-67 


German Empire 


1919 


-4-78 




1920 


1-04 


Russia 


1920 


-4-78 








Portugal 


1911 


-5-08 















1 White population only. 

NOTE. The minus sign ( ) indicates a deficiency of males. 



152 



POPULATION 



3. Conjugal Condition. 

In Table 11 are given in summary form, together with percentages, the statistics 
of the conjugal condition of the population, as single, married, widowed, divorced, 
legally separated and not given, for the six censuses since 1871. Especially notable 
is the larger percentage of married in the more recent years. This is mainly attribut 
able to the larger percentage of adults to total population in our own time. Note 
worthy also is the larger percentage of divorced and legally separated in recent 
The reader should also consult in the index the heading "Divorces in Canada, 
1868-1922," for the number of divorces granted in each year since Confederation! 

The conjugal condition of the 1921 population is shown by provinces in Table 
12 and by age-groups in Table 13. 

11. Conjugal Condition of the Population by numbers and percentages, as shown 
by Censuses of 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921. 



Sex. 


Single. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Divorced 


Legally 
Separ 
ated. 


Not 
Given. 


Total. 


1871 
Male 


1 183 787 


S43 n37 


07 407 










Female 


1 099 216 


U9 33Q 






" 





1,764,311 


1881 
Male 


1 447 415 


Ran tut 


en one 








1,721,450 


Female 


1 336 981 


ROD <C4(I 


inn 40 e 




_ 


-~ 


2,188,854 


1891 
Male 


1 601 541 


796 153 


co 777 








2,135,956 


Female 


1,451 851 


701 on? 


ion nic 




_ 





2,460,471 


1901 
Male 


1 748 582 


Q9K 019 


79 o97 








2,372,768 


Female 


1 564 Oil 


oi)A nni 




661 


** 


~ 


2,751,708 


1911 
Male 


2 369 766 


1 331 853 


CQ 1 %t 


o^4 






2,619,607 


Female 


1 941 886 


1 251 4fi8 


mfiCft 


ooy 


1,286 


29,097 


3,821,995 


1921 
Male 


2 698 754 


1 fine one 




Dvl 


,584 


9,363 


3,384,648 


Female . 


2 378 844 


1 p/M 7fi1 




,b70 




9,418 


4,529,945 


1871 
Male 


p.c. 
67-10 


p.c. 
30- 7s 


p.c. 

9.9 


,7ol 

p.c. 


p.c. 


7,680 
p.c. 


4,258,538 
p.c. 


Female 


63-85 


31 -51 


4.fiA 




" 


~ 


100 


1881 
Male. . . . 


66-12 


31 < * 1 > 


9 QQ 








100 


Female. . 


62-59 


39. 98 


5. 1Q 




- 


~ 


100 


1891 
Male 


65-09 


32-3fi 


9. 15 








100 


Female 


61-18 


33-38 


K. A A 






~ 


100 


1901 
Male 


63-55 


33-7R 


2 .CO 








100 


Female 


59-70 


34."<!> 


5.77 


Ul 




" 


100 


1911 
Male 


62-01 


34-8.5 


9.31 


Ul 
.AO 






100 


Female 


57-37 


3fi .Q7 


5.31 




Uo 


76 


100 


1921 
Male 


59-57 


37.40 


2.0,4 




Uo 


28 


100 


Female 


55-86 


3ft. 39 


5.55 




~ 


21 


100 














18 


100 



1 Legally separated included with divorced. 



CONJUGAL CONDITION 



153 



12. Conjugal Condition of the People of Canada classified as Single, Married, 
Widowed, Divorced, Legally Separated, and not given, by Provinces, Census 1921. 



Provinces. 


Males. 


Single. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Divorced 1 


Not given 


Total. 




27,634 
162,835 
121,428 
736,144 
828,538 
196,072 
263,186 
199,741 
159,629 
1,808 
1,460 
279 


15,668 
94,808 
69,674 
406,540 
607,186 
117,480 
142,431 
117,081 
125,656 
735 
935 
201 


1,549 
8,440 
5,918 
32,912 
42,954 
6,472 
7,456 
6,667 
7,118 
152 
66 
4 


24 
217 
125 
603 
1,135 
246 
337 
413 
547 
22 
1 


12 
172 
206 
3,829 
2,077 
297 
290 
306 
459 
102 
1,667 
1 


44,887 
266,472 
197,351 
1,180,028 
1,481,890 
320,567 
413,700 
324,208 
293,409 
2,819 
4,129 
485 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Yukon Territory 


Northwest Territories 


Royal Canadian Navy 


Total 


2,698,754 


1,698,395 


119,708 


3,670 


9,418 


4,529,945 




Provinces. 


Females. 


Single. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Divorced 1 


Not given 


Total 


Prince Edward Island 


24,717 
144,859 
109,670 
720,362 
759,901 
162,928 
196,499 
143,958 
114,199 
582 
1,169 


15,616 
93,384 
68,860 
399,271 
589,518 
113,795 
136,270 
110,190 
103,433 
576 
848 


3,358 
18,752 
11,676 
57,809 
99,259 
-12,249 

10,567 
9,607 
12,846. 
75 
221 


18 
210 
106 
758 
1,369 
260 
233 
289 
483 
4 
1 


19 
160 
213 
2,971 
1,725 
219 
241 
202 
212 
98 
1,620 


43,728 
257,365 
190,525 
1,181,171 
1,451,772 
289,551 
343,810 
264,246 
231,173 
1,338 
3,859 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 7777777 


British Columbia 


Yukon Territory 


Northwest Territories 


Total 


2,378,844 


1,631,761 


236,522 


3,731 


7,680 


4,258,538 





Includes "legally separated." 



13. Conjugal Condition of the Population, 15 Years of Age and Over, 1921. 



Age Periods. 


Total 
popula 
tion. 


Single. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Divorced. 


Unknown. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Number. 


15-19- 
Males 


403,259 
398,559 

350,984 
360,227 

347,645 
338,874 

343,263 
309,623 

342,313 
290,080 

286,470 
240,666 

236,896 
198,133 

195,141 
166,817 


400,929 
371,969 

287,438 
205,386 

165,836 
97,394 

95,571 
53,090 

68,726 
37,907 

47,273 
28,634 

33,463 
22,054 

25,163 
18,810 


99-4 
93-3 

81-9 
57-0 

47-7 
28-7 

27-8 
17-2 

20-1 
13-1 

16-5 
11-9 

14-1 
11-1 

12-9 
11-3 


2,275 
26,364 

62,812 
152,605 

178,994 
235,513 

242,444 
247,409 

265,917 
240,088 

230,132 
197,768 

193,384 
159,028 

158,616 
126,183 


0-6 
6-6 

17-9 
42-4 

51-5 
69-5 

70-6 

79-9 

77-7 
82-8 

80-3 
82-2 

81-6 

8G-3 

81-3 
75-6 


28 
175 

600 
1,971 

2,519 
5,527 

4,789 
8,592 

7,103 
11,497 

8,438 
13,773 

9,542 
16,611 

10,863 
21,438 


0-2 
0-6 

0-7 
1-6 

1-4 
2-8 

2-1 
3-9 

2-9 
5-7 

4-0 
8-4 

5-6 
12-9 


6 
38 

87 
244 

234 

424 

387 
517 

470 
576 

556 
478 

455 
424 

457 
370 


21 
13 

47 
21 

62 
16 

72 
15 

97 
12 

71 
13 

52 
16 

42 
16 


Females 


20-24 
Males 


Females 


25-29 
Males 


Females 


30-34 
Males 


Females 


35-39 
Males .... 


Females 


40-44 
Males 


Females 


45-49 
Males 


Females 


50-54 
Males 


Females . . . 



154 



POPULATIOX 



13. Conjugal Condition of the Population, 15 Years of Age and Over, 1921 concluded. 



Age Periods. 


Total 
popula 
tion. 


Single. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Divorced. 


Unknown. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Number. 


55-59 
Males 


148,137 
132,167 

126,400 
112,885 

90,621 
81,383 

60,581 
56,850 

35,584 
35,767 

18,137 
19,465 

7,142 
8,237 

1.8CO 
2,380 

412 

565 

90 
93 

11,601 
9,676 

2,994,875 
2,752,771 

8,788,483 
4,529,945 
4,258,538 


16,876 
13,634 

13,916 
12,037 

8,514 
8,109 

5,302 
5,983 

2,800 
3,642 

1,335 
2,038 

485 
816 

129 
228 

17 
55 

4 
5 

1,508 
1,002 

1,173,777 
881,791 

5,077,598 

2,698,754 
2,378,844 


11-4 
10-3 

11-0 
10-7 

9-4 
9-9 

8-8 
10-5 

7-9 
10-2 

7-4 
10-5 

6-8 
9-9 

7-2 
9-6 

4-1 

9-7 

4.4 
5-4 

13-0 
10-4 

39-2 
32-3 

57-8 
59-6 
55-8 


119.693 
94,061 

98,588 
70,275 

68,125 
43,234 

41,786 
23,152 

21,645 
10,302 

9,171 
3,552 

2,913 
961 

589 
195 

123 
40 

34 

2 

1,154 

989 

1,69?, 241 
1,630,732 

3,330,156 

1,698,395 
1,631,761 


80-8 
71-2 

78-0 
62-3 

75-2 
53-1 

68-9 
40-7 

60-8 
28-8 

50-6 
18-3 

40-8 
11-7 

32-7 
8-2 

29-9 
7-1 

37-8 
2-2 

9-9 
10-2 

56-7 
59-2 

37 9 

37-5 
38-3 


11,191 
24,198 

13,573 
30-366 

13,770 
29,913 

13,352 
27,642 

11,082 
21,787 

7,604 
. 13,849 

3,728 
6,457 

1,079 
1,949 

271 
470 

51 
86 

125 
221 

119,583 
236,301 

356,230 

119,708 
236,522 


7-6 
18-3 

10-7 
26-9 

15-2 
36-8 

22-0 
48-6 

31-1 
60-9 

41-9 
71-2 

52-2 
78-4 

59-9 
81-9 

65-8 
83-2 

56-7 
92-5 

1-1 
2-3 

4-0 
8-6 

40 

2-6 
5-6 


349 
266 

300 
186 

183 
112 

107 
54 

44 
21 

19 
13 

8 

2 

2 
1 

6 
5 

3,664 
3,726 

7,401 

3,670 
3,731 


28 
8 

23 
21 

29 
15 

34 
19 

13 
15 

8 
13 

8 
1 

1 
7 

1 

1 

8,808 
7,459 

610 

221 

17,098 

9,418 
7.680 


Females 


60-64 
Males 


Females 


65-69 
Males 


Females 


70-74 
Males 


Females 


75-79 
Males 


Females 


80-84 
Males 


Females 


85-89 
Males 


Females 


90-94 
Males . . 


Females. 


95-99 
Males 


Females 


100 and over 
Males 


Females 
Age not given 
Males 


Females 


Total, 15 years and 
over x 
Males 


Females. ... 


Total all ages 


Males 


Females 





1 Exclusive of ages not given. 

NOTE. Ages of persons legally separated are included with divorced. 



4. Dwellings and Families. 

In 1921 the number of occupied dwellings in Canada, exclusive of the Yukon 
and Northwest Territories, for which the statistics are not available, was 1,768,129 
and the number of families 1,901,227 as compared with 1,408,689 dwellings and 
1,482,980 families in the same area in 1911, and 1,018,015 dwellings and 1,058,386 
families in 1901. 

The average number of persons per dwelling in 1921, as respects the 8,775,853 
persons in the nine provinces, was 4-96 as against 5 -11 in 19 11 and 5 -23 in 1901; 
this would imply that the Canadian people are not less adequately housed than in 
the past. The average number of persons per family was 4-62 in 1921 as against 
4-85 in 1911 and 5-03 in 1901, indicating a continued decline in the average number 
persons constituting a household. 



DWELLINGS AND FAMILIES 



155 



14. Number of Dwellings and Families in Canada by Provinces, as shown by the 

Census of 1921. 



Provinces. 


Dwell 
ings. 


Fam 
ilies. 


Provinces. 


Dwell 
ings. 


Fam 
ilies. 




No. 
18 628 


No. 
18 801 


Saskatchewan 


No. 

163,661 


No. 
168,555 




102 807 


108,723 


Alberta 


136,125 


141,190 




70 428 


76,949 


British Columbia 


123,003 


134,040 




398,384 


442,356 


Yukon Territory 


_ 


- 


Ontario 


637,552 


681,629 


Northwest Territories 


- 


- 


Manitoba 


117,541 


128,984 


Total 


1,768,129 


1,901,227 















5. Age Distribution. 

The same causes which have in the past rendered the sex distribution of popu 
lation in Canada somewhat unusual have also affected its age distribution. In the 
first stages of the settlement of a new colony, men in the prime of life constitute the 
bulk of the population, and women and children are conspicuous by their absence, 
so that there will be a disproportionately large male population between the ages 
of 20 and 50, together with a low birth rate. Later on in the settlement of a new 
country where there is land and food for all and where the early disproportion of 
the sexes has been overcome, there is a very high rate of natural increase, and an 
extraordinarily large proportion of children among the population. Thus in 1871 
(see Table 15), no fewer than 287 out of every 1,000 of the population of Canada 
were children under 10 years of age and over half the total population (526-76 out 
of every 1,000) were under 20 years of age. But with the growing urbanization of 
population, the average age at marriage increased and children came to be regarded 
as a liability rather than an asset. Thus in 1911, out of every 1,000 of the popula 
tion, only 231-83 were under 10 years of age and 423-42 under 20 years of age. 
In 1921, however, 239-68 per 1,000 of the population were under 10 years of age 
and 434-82 per 1,000 under 20 years, the increase since 1911 being probably 
attributable to the decline in the proportion of adult immigrants to the total popu 
lation. 

Again, the change in the age distribution of the population of Canada since 
1871 may be illustrated as follows: taking the Canadian who in 1921 was at the 
median age (i.e., had exactly as many of the population younger than he as were 
older than he), we find that as nearly as can be estimated, this Canadian was in 
1921, 23-943 years of age. Taking the males alone, their median age was in 1921, 
24 732 years, while the median age for females was 23 173 years. Now, taking the 
population of the four original provinces as taken at the census of 1871, and securing 
its median age, as nearly as can be estimated we find that that age was for the total 
population 18-799 years, for the male population 18-777 years and for the female 
population 18-821 years. Thus the Canadian of median age with exactly as many 
people younger as there are older, was in 1921 5-144 years older than in 1871 a 
fact mainly attributable to the smaller proportion of children in the population in 
the more recent year, but partly to the longer average period of life. 



156 



POPULATION 



15. Proportion per 1,000 of the Population by Age-Periods, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 

1911 uiid 



Age Periods. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Under 1 year 


30-567 


98 m Q 


94.Q99 








1 4 years... 


115-649 


ino.KnR 




Z4-497 


25-734 


23-859 


5 9 " 


140-691 


m.9M 


m.949 


ao-^ll 


97-413 


96-486 


1019 " 


239-854 


997.404. 


91Q. 719 


600 


108 685 


119-334 


2029 " 


171-436 


175-957 


1 7R.ORO 


^lU-aUo 


191-585 


195-138 


3039 " 


111-404 


113-099 


199.07Q 


OOU 


189 335 


159-041 


40-49 " 


79-995 


83-817 


3.441 




141-938 


146-246 


5059 " 


54-788 


58-086 


fto . oc A 




100-071 


109-480 


60 and over 


55-128 


63-269 


70 1 41 




69-121 


73-080 


Not given 


0-487 


1 1 . "IRQ 


10 .fiCQ 




71-027 


74-915 










Io7 


5-090 


2-421 



16. Proportion per 1,000 of the Population by Age-Periods by Provinces 1921 

with Totals for 1911. 



Provinces. 


0-9 
years. 


10-19 
years. 


20-44 
years. 


45-69 
years. 


70 years 
and over. 


Age not 
given. 


Prince Edward Island 


218-83 


204-31 


Q19 . oo 








Nova Scotia 


229-58 


208-32 


T*l . %o 




60 -24 


0-50 


New Brunswick 


247-07 


213-41 


.97. 1Q 




47-26 


0-81 


Quebec 


264-22 


9 1 Q . 9fi 






38-53 


1-22 


Ontario 


207-66 


180-66 


377.44 


loU-oz 


27-08 


3-83 


Manitoba 


258-99 


1 Q7 . 44 


o 70 . on 




o4-o7 


1-55 


Saskatchewan 


289 93 


190 67 


QC9.QQ 


145 -o^ 


16-87 


0-99 


Alberta 


262-36 


1 05 . QC 


4on . .Q 




o5 


1-04 


British Columbia 


198-31 


158 07 


494. 57 




11-70 


0-99 












lo "12 


1-74 


Canada, 1921 1 


239-68 


195*14 


3fi -27 


KiO. lW 
















AO-11 


2-42 


Canada, 19111 


231-83 


191-59 


^fiS.^C 


















28-12 


5-09 



N rthWeSt Territories are not *. in th * table, but are included 

17. Male and Female Population of Canada by Age-Periods, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911 

and 1921. 



Age Periods. 




1881. 







1891. 






Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


TotaJ. 


Under 1 year 


61 704 


59 473 


191 177 


fi! QOR 






1 year 


50 298 


48 988 


OR KCft 




09, J49 


120,457 


2 years 


65 187 


fi3 OfiO 


mOCfi 




10 3 


102,993 


3 years 


62 217 


60 455 


mR79 




63 , 898 


129,363 


4 years 


60 616 


59 144 


m7fiH 




o2,U47 


125,901 












Dl.OUO 


124,891 


Total under 5 years. . . . 


300,022 


290,429 


590,451 


306,115 


297,490 


603,605 


5 to 9 years... 


281 216 


273 446 


ZZA Aft 


9Q7 QR=i 






10 to 14 " 


259 154 


247 78 


KHA CQO 




,OU5 


H 585,990 


15 to 19 " 


237 317 


239 281 


47fi ^OR 




269,287 


549,176 


20 to 24 " 


211 634 


217 771 


49Q 40% 




z54,41i 


512,737 


25 to 29 " 


165 339 


166 236 


} }] rye 




ioO,ylo 


473,057 


30 to 34 " 


131 051 


129 538 


9fin *wo 




IVoi llo 


387,646 


35 to 39 " 


115 029 


113 515 


09R ZAA. 




loo, /z4 


319,590 


40 to 44 " 


97 807 


95 537 


m ^44 


110 ne.1 




270,450 


45 to 49 " 


86 784 


89 ^K4 


l(l( 1AO 






231,639 


50 to 54 " 


72 046 


68 7(J 


140 ROR 




( J4 , yyz 


195,819 


55 to 59 " 


57 379 


53 07 


tin 40K 




O&tOOO 


171,426 


60 to 64 " 


52 006 


45 354 


07 2n 




DOfUoy 


129,976 


65 to 69 " 


36 544 


32 052 


fiS ^Qfi 


44 717 




120,222 


70 to 74 " 


26 158 


23 453 


4<) ft11 


.9 Q41 




84,889 


75 to 79 


16 361 


UB4Q 


01 mn 






62,847 


80 to 84 


9 251 


8 ^07 


17 ^^R 




17,oo4 


37,911 


85 to 89 


3 344 


^ 1^1 


^.40^ 




1C, 151 


20,949 


90 to 94 


987 


1 094 


9 OS1 




t 6\)0 


8,550 


85 to 99 


330 


379 


700 




,4oo 


2,796 


100 and over 


99 


110 


90Q 


411 


437 


848 


Not given 


28 996 


29 773 


W 7AO 


















01,081 


63,116 


Total population 


2,183,854 


2 135 956 


4TM ^1(1 


2 (I ll 4-1 
















,O7,JDO 


,833,239 



AGE DISTRIBUTION 



157 



17. Male and Female Population of Canada by Age-Periods, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911 

and 1921 concluded. 







1901. 






1911. 






1921. 




Age Periods. 






















Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Under 1 year 


66,464 


65,116 


131,580 


93,513 


91,946 


185,459 


105,953 


103,731 


209,684 


1 year 


62,384 


61,203 


123,587 


87,399 


86,002 


173,401 


104,575 


103,213 


207 788 


2 years 


65,245 


64,182 


129,427 


90,697 


88 ,943 


179 , 640 


105^815 


104J 152 


u\J 1)1 OO 

209,967 


3 years 


64,748 


64, 158 


128,906 


89,688 


87,730 


177^418 


108^421 


106^214 


2 14, 635 


4 years 


65,455 


64,030 


129,485 


86,922 


84,643 


171,565 


108 685 


106 , 891 


2 15] 575 






















Total under 




















5 years 


334,296 


318,689 


642,985 


448,219 


439,264 


887,483 


533,449 


524,201 


1,057,650 


5 to " 9 years 


311,134 


304,765 


615,899 


395,045 


388,207 


783,252 


528,700 


520,061 


1,048,761 


10 to 14 


295,674 


284,665 


580,339 


354,911 


345,401 


700,312 


461,320 


151,829 


913,149 


15 to 19 


280,275 


272,228 


552,503 


351,244 


329,129 


680,373 


403,259 


398,559 


801,818 


20 to 24 


256,981 


251,823 


508,804 


385,855 


320,435 


706,290 


350,984 


360,227 


711,211 


25 to 29 


216,334 


207,051 


42:^,385 


370,494 


287,684 


658,178 


347,645 


338,874 


686,519 


30 to 34 


188,125 


174,942 


363,067 


310,339 


244,777 


555,116 


343,263 


309,623 


652,886 


35 to 39 


172,553 


158,673 


331,226 


257,875 


209,904 


467,779 


342,313 


290,080 


632,393 


40 to 44 


152,036 


137,822 


289,858 


213,018 


176,677 


389,695 


286,470 


240,666 


527,136 


45 to 49 


125,636 


113,550 


: .;,>, 186 


178,715 


152,768 


331,483 


236,896 


198,133 


435,029 


50 to 54 


106,107 


97,857 


203,964 


152,718 


132,366 


285,084 


195,141 


166,817 


361,958 


55 to 59 


82,136 


78,535 


160,671 


112,952 


100,096 


213,048 


148,137 


132,167 


280,304 


60 to 64 


72,807 


68,156 


140,963 


94,318 


83,786 


178,104 


126,400 


112,885 


239,285 


65 to 69 


54,497 


51,176 


105,673 


67,626 


63,523 


131,149 


90,621 


81,383 


172.004 


70 to 74 


39,086 


37,2^>4 


76,380 


47,807 


46,197 


94,004 


60,581 


56,850 


117,431 


75 to 79 


24,548 


23,248 


47,796 


30,266 


29,260 


59,526 


35,584 


35,767 


71,351 


80 to 84 


13,090 


12,740 


25,830 


15,550 


15,921 


31,471 


18,137 


19,465 


37,602 


85 to 89 


*,848 


4,990 


9,838 


6,184 


6,687 


12,871 


7,142 


8,237 


1-5,379 


90 to 94 


1,356 


1,554 


2,910 


1,693 


2,010 


3,703 


1,800 


2,380 


4,180 


95 to 99 
100 ani over. 


| 423 


538 


961 


417 
62 


502 
58 


919 
120 


412 
90 


565 
93 


977 
183 


Not given 


29,766 


19,311 


49,077 


26,687 


9,996 


36,683 


11,601 


9,676 


21 277 




















**!* i 


Total popu 




















lation 


3,751,708 


2,819,607 


5,371,315 


3,821,995 


3,381,648 


7,206,643 


4,529,945 


4,258,538 


8,788,483 



6. Racial Origin. 

In five out of the six censuses of Canada since Confederation the racial origin 
of each person has been secured, the exception being in 1891. The object of this 
question is to ascertain from what basic ethnic stocks the Canadian population, 
more particularly the recently immigrated population, is derived. The answer 
"Canadian" is not accepted under this heading as the purpose of the question is 
to obtain, in so far as possible, a definition of "Canadian" in terms of racial deriv 
ation. Of this procedure of the Census, criticism has been received on two main 
grounds: (a) That there are Canadians whose family is of several generations 
residence in the country who may not know their ultimate racial origin, or who 
may be of very mixed racial origin; and (6) that the practice tends to perpetuate 
racial distinctions which it is desirable to obliterate. As against these criticisms 
respectively, the following must be considered: (a) that Canadians whose family 
is of three or more generations residence are enumerated and differentiated through 
the question on the birth place of parents above described; (6) that notwithstand 
ing the desirability of racial assimilation, there are special features in connection 
with the process that require appraisement and study; for example, 295 children 
of Chinese fathers and 618 of Japanese fathers were born in Canada (not including 
the province of Quebec) in 1921. Again, the fact that the constitution of Canada 
is based on the presence of two dominant races points to the desirability of a measure 
ment of these factors; only recently it has been widely pointed out that the original 



158 POPULATION 



French colony, numbering 75,000 at the date of the Conquest, has expanded to over 
three millions today; measurements of this kind would be impossible if the answer 
"Canadian" instead of "French" were accepted under the heading of racial origin, 
yet undoubtedly if the descendants of the original French colonists are not "Can 
adians," no one is; (c) finally, racial origin is an important subject for study in a 
"new" country like Canada from a scientific standpoint, i.e., from the standpoint 
of the student of ethnology, criminology, and the social and "biometric" sciences 
in general. 

To accept the answer "Canadian" to the question on racial origin would con 
fuse the data and defeat the purpose for which the question is asked. 

Racial Distribution in 1901-1911 and 1921. The racial origins of the people 
of Canada as collected at the censuses of 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 and 1921 are shown 
in Table 19, while percentage figures are given in Table 20 for the populations of 
the various racial origins at the above censuses. 

During the past decade the total increase of population was 1,581,840. The 
increase in the population of English origin was 722,346 or 45-68 p.c. of the total; 
of Irish 57,433 or 3-63 p.c.; of Scottish 175,757 or 11-11 p.c.; of other British 
16,382 or 1-03 p.c.; of French 397,892 or 25-28 p.c. The British races were respon 
sible for 61-66 p.c. of the total increase in population during the decade, and. 
together with the French population, which is almost wholly a native-born popula 
tion, account for 1,369,997 or more than 86-5 p.c. of the total increase for the 
decade. 

When the change in the racial distribution of the population during the first 
two decades of the century is considered, one of the most notable features is the 
increase in the population of English race from 23-47 p.c. in 1901 to 25-30 p.c. in 
1911 and 28-96 p.c. in 1921. The Irish element in the population has declined 
fairly rapidly from 18-41 p.c. hi 1901 to 14-58 p.c. and 12-60 p.c. in 1921, and the 
Scottish from 14-90 in 1901 to 13-85 in 1911 and 13-36 in 1921. The total popula 
tion of the British races was 57-03 p.c. in 1001, 54-08 p.c. in 1911 and 55-40 p.c. 
in 1921. The other great racial element in the population is the French, which 
constituted 30-70 p.c. of the total population in 1901, 28-52 p.c. in 1911 and 27-91 
p.c. in 1921. Thus 87-73 p.c. of the population were in 1901 of the two great racial 
stocks, 82-60 p.c. in 1911 and 83-31 p.c. in 1921. Thus, taking the past 20 years as 
a unit of time, there has been a decline in the percentage of the British and French 
racial elements to the total population. 

This decline has in the main been due to the immigration of continental Europ 
eans to Canada during the past twenty years, which have seen the growth of the 
Scandinavian element in our population from -58 p.c. to 1-90 p.c., of the Hebrews 
from -30 p.c. to 1-44 p.c., and of the Italians from -20 to -76 p.c. The population 
of German race, if we may accept the statistics furnished, has declined from 5-78 
p.c. of the total in 1901 to 3 -35 p.c., but on the other hand, the Dutch have increased 
from -63 p.c. in 1901 to 1-33 p.c. in 1921. Altogether, the percentage of the to<al 
population of European racial origin, other than British and French, increased 
from 8-51 p.c. of the total in 1901 to 14-15 p.c. in 1921. 

Asiatic immigration to Canada in the past twenty years has been responsible 
for the increase of the Asiatic population from 0-44 p.c. to 0"-75 p.c. of the popula 
tion. In the same period the population of Negro origin have declined from 0-32 
p.c. to 0-21 p.c. of the total, and that of Indian origin from 2-38 p.c. to 1-26 p.c. 



RACIAL ORIGINS 



159 



19. Origins of the People According to the Censuses of 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 and 1921. 



Origin. 


1871. 


1881. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


British- 
English 


No. 
706,369 


No. 
881 301 


No. 
1 260 899 


No. 
1 823 150 


No. 
2 545 496 


Irish 


846,414 


957 403 


988 721 


1 050 384 


1 107 817 


Scotch 


549 946 


699 863 


800 154 


997 880 


1 17? RQ7 


Other 


7,773 


9,947 


13,421 


25,571 


41,953 


Total British 


3,110,503 


3,548,514 


3,063,195 


3,896,985 


4,868,903 


French 


1,082 940 


1 298 929 


1 649 371 


2 054 890 


2 45^ 751 


Austrian 






10 947 


42 535 


107 671 


Belgian 






2 994 


9 593 


234 


Bulgarian and Roumanian 






354 


5 875 


15 235 


Chinese 




4 383 


17 312 


07 774 


39 587 


Czech (Bohemian and Moravian) . . 










s sun 


Dutch 


>9 662 


30 412 


33 845 


54 986 


mR14 


Finnish 






2 502 


15 497 


21 494 


German 


202 991 


254 319 


310 501 


393 3 9 


294 636 


Greek 






291 


3 594 


5 740 


Hebrew.. . ., 


125 


667 


16 131 


75 681 


126 196 


Hungarian 






1 549 


11 605 


13 181 


Indian ......... ,,.,,, . , 


23,037 


108 547 


127 941 


105 492 


110 596 


Italian 


1,035 


1 849 


10 834 


45 411 


66 769 


Japanese 






4 738 


9 021 


15 868 


Negro 


21,496 


21,394 


17 437 


16 877 


18 291 


Polish... . 






6 285 


33 365 


53 403 


Russian .... . . 


607 


1 227 


19 825 


43 142 


100 064 


Scandinavian-. . ... . ... 


1 623 


5 223 


31 042 


107 535 


167 359 


Serbo-Croatian 










3 906 


Swiss 


2,962 


4 588 


3 865 


6 625 


1 837 


Turkish 






1 681 


3 880 


313 


Ukranian Buko vinian 






3 


9 960 


1 616 


Galician 


_ 




5 682 


35 158 


24 456 


Ruthenian 


_ 




4 


29 845 


16 861 


Ukranian 


_ 


_ 






63 788 


Various 


1,220 


3,952 


1,454 


20 652 


18 915 


Unspecified 


7,561 


40,806 


31,539 


147,345 


21,249 


Grand Total 


3,185,761 


4,324,810 


5,371,315 


7,206,643 


8,788,483 



20. Proportion per cent which the People of Each Origin Form of the Total 
Population, 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 and 1921. 



Origin. 


Number per cent of Population. 


1871. 


1881. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


British 
English 


p.c. 
20-26 

24-28 
15-78 
0-23 


p.c. 

20-38 
22-14 
16-18 
0-23 


p.c. 
23-47 
18-41 
14-90 
0-25 


p.c. 
25-30 
14-58 
13-85 
0-35 


p.c. 
28-96 
12-60 
13-36 
0-48 


Irish 


Scotch 


Other 


Total British 


60 55 


58-93 


57-03 


54-08 


55 40 


French 


31-07 

0-85 
5-82 

0-66 
0-03 

0-62 

0-02 
0-05 

0-08 

0-03 
0-22 


30-03 
0-10 

_2 

0-70 
5-88 
0-02 

2-51 
0-04 

0-50 

0-03 
0-12 

0-11 

0-09 

0-94 


30-70 
0-20 
0-06 
0-01 
0-32 

0-63 
0-05 
5-78 
0-01 
0-30 
0-03 
2-38 
0-20 
0-09 
0-32 
0-12 
0-37 
0-58 

0-07 
0-03 

0-11 

0-03 
0-58 


28-52 
0-59 
0-13 
0-08 
0-39 

0-76 
0-22 
5-46 
0-05 
1-05 
0-16 
1-46 
0-63 
0-13 
0-23 
0-46 
0-60 
1-49 

0-09 
0-05 
0-14 
0-49 
0-41 

0-29 
2-04 


27-91 
1-23 
0-23 
0-17 
0-45 
0-10 
1-34 
0-24 
3-35 
0-06 
1-44 
0-14 
1-26 
0-76 
0-18 
0-21 
0-61 
1-14 
1-90 
0-04 
0-15 
0-01 
0-02 
0-28 
0-19 
0-73 
0-22 
0-24 


Austrian 


Belgian 


Bulgarian and Roumanian 


Chinese 


Czech (Bohemian and Moravian) . . 


Dutch 


Finnish ... 


German 


Greek 


Hebrew 


Hungarian 


Indian 


Italian 


Japanese 


Negro 


Polish . . 


Russian 


Scandinavian 


Serbo-Croatian 


Swiss 


Turkish 


Ukranian Bukovinian, . . .... 


Galician 


Ruthenian 


Ukranian 


Various 


Unspecified 


Total 


100 00 


100 00 


100 00 


100-00 


100-00 



NOTE. Origins were not taken in 1891. Includes "half-breeds". Includes Danish, Icelandic, 
Norwegian and Swedish; in 1921 they were respectively 21,124, 15,876, 68,856 and 61,503. ^Included 



with Austrians. 



4 Included uith Galicians. 



160 



POPULATION 



21. Racial Origin of the Population, by Provinces and Territories, 1921. 



No 


Origins. 


P.E. 

Island. 


Nova 
Scotia. 


New 
Brunswick 


Quebec. 




Population Tota 


88 615 


523 817 


.187 87fi 


29*1 1QQ 


1 


British 


75 627 


407 618 


<J>r^ /V)fi> 


9Kj ino 


9 


English 


93 313 


202 106 


197 RRA 


IQfi QS9 


3 


Irish 


18 743 


55 712 


fis fi?n 


O4. Q47 


4 


Scotchi 


33 437 


148 000 


51 308 


A3 Q15 


5 


Otheri 


134 


1 800 


1 3fiO 


1 9fi4. 


6 


French 1 


11 971 


56 619 


mill 


i oon 977 


7 


Austrian 


2 


682 


80 


1 Qfll 


8 


Belgian 


2 


841 


919 


3984 


9 


Chinese 


14 


315 


log 


? 135 


10 


Czech (Bohemian and Moravian) 




229 


7 


82 


11 


Danish 1 


17 


352 


976 


KM 


12 


Dutch 


239 


11 506 


} AQfi 


1 411 


13 


Finnish 


1 


45 


35 


76 


14 


Glerman 


260 


27 046 


1 K lX 


4 fifift 


15 


Glreek 


3 


150 


54 


t 780 


16 


Hebrew 


21 


2 161 


1 9 41 


47 077 


17 


Hungarian 




180 


ft 


80 


18 


[celandic 


1 


g 




11 


19 


Indian 


235 


2 048 


1 -JQI 


11 566 


20 


Italian 


26 


1 620 


367 


Ifi 141 


21 


Japanese 




3 


3 


32 


22 


STegro 


43 


6 175 


1 190 


i 046 


23 


Norwegian. . 


10 


482 


588 


705 


24 


3 olish 




980 


KK 


3 264 


25 


Roumanian 




111 


11 


1 371 


26 


Russian 


1 


520 


185 


> 802 


27 


Serbo-Croatian 




107 


// 


67 


28 


Albanian 










29 


Croatian. . 










30 


Jugo-Slavic 




106 


7 


64 


31 


Montenegrin 






2 




32 


Serbian 




1 


2 


3 


33 


Slovenian 










34 


Swedish 


6 


490 


578 


908 


35 


Swiss 


7 


833 


31 


764 


36 


Syrian .. - 


83 


1 140 


594 


2 570 


37 


Ukranian 




389 


3 


t 176 


38 


Bukovinian 








7 


39 


Galician. ... 




88 


2 


386 


40 


Ruthenian 




44 


1 


47 


41 


Ukranian 




257 




736 


42 


Jnspecified 1 


44 


519 


534 


6 066 


43 


Carious 


# 


667 


138 


8 125 


44 


Arabian 




20 


7 


42 


45 


Armenian 


1 


4 




119 


46 


Brazilian 








1 


47 


Bulgarian 


_ 


27 


25 


78 


48 


Chilian 






4 




49 


Egyptian 








16 


50 


Eskimo 








27 


51 


Hawaiian 




v 






52 


Hindu 






1 


11 


53 


Jamaican 










54 


Laplander 






_ 


_ 


55 


Lettish 




2 


_ 


20 


56 


Lithuanian 


_ 


168 


_ 


1,209 


57 


Maltese 




12 


^ 


30 


58 


Mexican 




3 




8 


59 


Persian 








3 


60 


Portuguese 




167 


35 


51 


61 


Spanish 


1 


246 


49 


402 


62 


Turkish 




17 


17 


106 


63 


Other 




1 




2 















1 Totals for Canada include personnel of Royal Canadian Navy. 



RACIAL ORIGIXS 



161 



21. Racial Origin of the Population, by Provinces and Territories, 1921. 



Ontario. 


Manitoba. 


Saskat 
chewan. 


Alberta. 


British 
Columbia. 


Yukon. 


Northwest 
Territories. 


Canada. 


No. 


2,933,662 


610,118 


757,510 


588,454 


524,583 


4,157 


7,988 


8,788,483 




g,m,oi5 

1,211,660 


350,992 
170,286 


400,416 

206,472 


551,820 
180,478 


387,513 
221 , 145 


1,847 
769 


473 
234 


4,868,903 
2,545,496 


1 
2 


590,493 
465,400 
14,462 


71,414 
105,034 
4,258 


84,786 
104,678 
4,480 


68,246 
96,062 
7,034 


54,298 
104,965 
7,105 


369 
662 
47 


106 
130 
3 


1,107,817 
1,173,637 
41,9.53 


3 
4 
5 


248,275 


40,638 


42,152 


30,913 


11,246 


284 


258 


2,452,7ol 


g 


11,790 


31,035 


39,738 


19,430 


2,993 


20 




107,671 


7 


3,175 


5,320 


3,477 


2,590 


1,324 


7 


2 


20 , 234 


C 


5,625 


1,331 


2,667 


3,581 


23,533 


1 


_ 


39^587 


o 

9 


1,336 


1,028 


2,574 


2,537 


1,040 


7 


_ 


8,840 


10 


2,450 


3,429 


4,287 


6,772 


2,191 


37: 


17 


21,124 


11 


50,512 


20,728 


16,639 


9,490 


3,306 


34 


1 


117,506 


12 


12,835 


506 


1,937 


2,926 


3,112 


21 




21,494 


13 


130,545 


19,444 


68,202 


35,333 


7,273 


155 


12 


294 , 636 


14 


2,078 


257 


363 


350 


703 


2 




5,740 


15 


47,798 


16,669 


5,380 


3,242 


1,696 


8 


1 


126 \ 196 


i<-* 

16 


1,737 


828 


8,946 


1,045 


343 


7 




13,181 


17 


137 


11,043 


3,593 


507 


575 




_ 


15 876 


18 


26,654 
33,355 


13,869 
1,933 


12,914 
689 


14,557 
4,028 


22,377 

8,587 


1,390 
22 


3,873 
1 


110, S14 
66,769 


J.O 

19 
20 


161 


53 


109 


473 


15,006 


28 




15,868 


21 


7,220 


491 


396 


1,048 


676 


6 


_ 


18,291 


22 


3,416 


4,203 


31,438 


21,323 


6,570 


107 


14 


68,856 


23 


15,787 


16,594 


8,161 


7,172 


1,361 


19 




53,403 


24 


3,120 


919 


5,645 


2,017 


276 




_ 


13,470 


25 


8,605 


14,009 


45,343 


21,212 


7,373 


7 


7 


100,064 


26 


1,^49 


111 


827 


sot 


695 


11 


$6 


3, 90S 


27 


41 


1 


1 


- 


- 





_ 


43 


28 


19 
1,044 


102 


816 


792 


1 

656 


11 


26 


20 
3,624 


29 
30 


138 


8 


10 


6 


3 
25 


: 





5 

193 


31 

32 


7 


... ... 


.- . 


4 


10 


.. .. - 


.. __ 


21 


33 


6,713 


8,023 


19,064 


15,943 


9,666 


109 


3 


61,503 


34 


5,014 


897 


1,823 


2,468 


983 


12 


5 


12,837 


35 


2,709 


310 


466 


198 


211 


1 




8,282 


36 


8,307 


44,189 


28,097 


23,827 


793 




_ 


10S,7%1 


37 


179 


192 


1,209 


28 


1 


_ 


_ 


1,616 


38 


2,748 


10,288 


6,598 


3,930 


416 


_ 


_ 


24,456 


39 


806 


7,987 


3,327 


4,618 


31 


_ 


_ 


16,861 


40 


4,574 


25,662 


16,963 


15,251 


345 


_ 


_ 


63,788 


41 


7,636 


891 


1,787 


2,254 


1,454 


6 


53 


21,249 


42 


8,408 


438 


380 


596 


1,706 


9 


9,i4 


12,711 


43 


19 


4 


4 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


98 


44 


508 


4 


8 


8 


13 


- 


_ 


665 


45 


7 
1,378 


40 


87 


80 


1 
50 








9 
1,765 


46 

47 


1 











29 





_ 


34 


48 


11 





- 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


29 


49 


~ 











- 





3,242 


3,269 


50 


2 





- 





20 





_ 


22 


51 


28 


8 


6 


10 


951 


1 


- 


1,016 


52 


8 


* 

















8 


53 








6 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


8 


54 


35 


111 


34 


156 


23 




_ 


381 


55 


309 


45 


84 


94 


60 


1 


_ 


1,970 


56 


217 


17 





1 


2 





_ 


279 


57 


10 


5 


7 


15 


22 


_ 


_ 


70 


58 


29 





34 


_ 


14 


_ 


_ 


80 


59 


47 


13 


2 


44 


106 


2 


_ 


467 


60 


704 


186 


67 


156 


395 


2 


_ 


2,208 


61 


91 


5 


38 


28 


10 


1 


_ 


313 


62 


4 




3 


; 


9 


1 


~ 


20 


63 



6237311 



162 



POPULATION 



22. Racial Origins of the People for Nine Cities of 60,000 and over, as shown 

by the Census of 1921. 



Origins. 


Montreal. 


Toronto. 


Winnipeg. 


Vancou 
ver. 


Jamil ton. 


Ottawa. 


Quebec. 


Cal 
gary. 


Liondon. 


British 
English 


88.014 


260,860 


58,321 


49,931 


56,984 


25,907 


3,728 


27,425 


34,378 


Irish 


34,484 


97,361 


23,315 


14,126 


16,845 


27,551 


4,075 


9,082 


10,806 


Scotch 


25,672 


83,620 


37,069 


27,878 


20,263 


14,434 


822 


15,599 


9,789 


Other 


460 


3,389 


1,864 


1,674 


1,005 


323 


10 


843 


539 


Total British 


148,630 


445,230 


120,569 


93,609 


95,097 


68,215 


8,635 


52,919 


.-,,-,,.-,r; 


French 


390, 168 


8,350 


3,944 


2,252 


1,956 


30,442 


85,350 


1,408 


759 


\ustrian . . 


1,223 


1,165 


6,785 


271 


872 


222 


7 


435 


84 


Belgian 


1,941 


215 


284 


228 


15 


93 


71 


91 


19 


Chinese 


1,735 


2,134 


814 


6,484 


374 


282 


98 


688 


238 


Czech (Bohemian 
and Moravian) . . 
Dutch 


66 
432 


72 
3,961 


305 
1,236 


72 
738 


78 
1,615 


25 
402 


9 
10 


26 
628 


3 

624 


Finnish 


8 


735 


70 


301 


19 


8 


- 


22 


1 


German 


1,520 


4,689 


4,762 


1,117 


2,944 


2,005 


94 


876 


1,234 


Greek 


1,446 


812 


139 


328 


125 


97 


73 


68 


61 


Hebrew 


42,717 


34,619 


14,449 


1,270 


2,560 


2,799 


375 


1,247 


703 


Hungarian 


67 


59 


344 


25 


200 





3 


14 


2 


Indian 


156 


183 


44 


59 


219 


44 


12 


22 


58 


Italian 


13,922 


8,217 


1,311 


1,590 


3,268 


1,124 


156 


425 


582 


Japanese 


15 


42 


35 


4,246 


_ 


9 


- 


41 


4 


Negro 


862 


1,236 


424 


324 


375 


38 


14 


66 


209 


Polish 


1,427 


2,380 


5,696 


174 


1,478 


172 


7 


287 


173 


Rumanian 


1,026 


256 


389 


34 


435 


207 


1 


97 


9 


Russian 


2,067 


1,332 


3,791 


357 


950 


133 


5 


1,973 


115 


Scandinavian 


977 


1,109 


6,147 


2,660 


467 


371 


37 


1,098 


179 


Serbo-Croatian. . 
Swiss . . 


59 

428 


163 
583 


53 

278 


127 
154 


157 
122 


79 


1 

18 


12 

154 


3 
53 


Syrian 


1,499 


387 


156 


94 


9 


152 


64 


18 


76 


Ukranian- 
Bukovinian 
( ialioian .... 


327 


16 
365 


6 
2,013 


76 


120 


15 
69 


- 


57 


7 
6 


liuthenian 
Ukranian 


34 
690 


116 
652 


1,540 

2,813 


31 


145 
105 


26 
100 


~ 


4 

92 


7 




1,623 


1,333 


159 


350 


281 


37 


15 


24 


33 


Unspecified 


2.341 


1,472 


422 


246 


165 


675 


138 


208 


221 


Grand total 


til*. . .(Hi 


531,893 


179,087 


117,217 


114,151 


107,843 


95,193 


63,305 


60,959 



7. Religions. 

The religions of the people of Canada have been recorded at each of the censuses 
taken since 1871, the instruction book issued to the enumerators at the census of 
1921 stating that the religion of each person shall be recorded, specifying the 
denomination, sect or community to which the person belongs or adheres, or which 
he or she favours. The number of persons stating their preference for each of the 
principal religious bodies at each of the censuses is given in Table 23, while per 
centage figures are presented in Table 24. 

In recent years there will be noted certain changes in the religious distribution 
of the population, corresponding in a considerable degree to the changes in racial 
origin noted above. For example, contemporaneously with the increase in the 
percentage of persons of English race during the past 20 years, there has taken 
place an increase in the Anglicans from 12-69 p.c. of the population in 1901 to 
16-02 p.c. in 1921. The Presbyterians, to some extent as a result of Scottish immi 
gration, have also increased from 15-68 p.c. of the total population in 1901 to 16-03 
p.c. in 1921. Further, synchronizing with increasing immigration from continental 
Europe, the Lutherans have increased in the same period from 1-72 to 3-28 p.c., 
the Greek Church from 0-29 p.c. to 1-93 p.c. and the Jews from 0-31 to 1-42 p.c., 
while increasing Asiatic immigration is reflected in the growth of the adherents of 
Eastern religions from 0-29 p.c. to 0-46 p.c. 

Of the total population of 1921 (8,788,483) 8,572,516, or 97-6 p.c., are classi 
fied as belonging to some Christian denomination or sect; 173,143 or 1-9 p.c. as 



RELIGIONS 



163 



non-Christian, this figure including 125,190 Jews, 40,727 of Oriental religions and 
7,226 Pagans, leaving less than 0-5 p.c. otherwise reported. 

In Table 25 are given for Canada and for the provinces, the number of persons 
accredited to each of 64 specified religions, as well as (in a footnote) the totals for 
Canada for 57 others. In addition there were 119 sects enumerated, each with 
fewer than 10 adherents. Thus altogether 240 distinct sects or denominations are 
reported as compared with 203 in 1911 and 157 in 1901. 

23. Religions of the People at each Decennial Census, 1871-1921. 



Religions. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Adventists 


6,179 


7 211 


6 354 


8 058 


10 406 


19 911 


Agnostics 








3 613 


3 110 


KQA 


Anglicans 


494,049 


574 818 


646 059 


681*494 


1 043 017 


1 407 QIQ 


Baptists 1 


239,343 


296 525 


303 839 


318 005 


382 720 


491 7in 


Brethren 


2,305 


8 831 


11 637 


8 014 


9 278 


Ufi9fi 


Buddhists 








10 407 


10 012 


n9SS 


Christians 








7 484 


17 9 64 


1 9 11Q 


Christian Science 








2 619 


5 073 


n 89R 


Confucians , , , . , 


_ 






5 115 


14 562 


97 11Q 


Congregationalists 


21 , 829 


26 900 


28 157 


28 293 


34 054 


3(1 174 


Disciples of Christ 




20 193 


12 763 


14 900 


11 329 


Q ^71 


Doukhobors 


_ 






8 775 


10 493 


19 R18 


Evangelical Association 


4,701 






10 193 


10 595 


11 QflS 


Friends (Quaker) 


7,345 


6 553 


4 650 


4 100 


4 027 


^ 140 


Greek Church 


18 






15 630 


88 507 


169 82 


Jews 


1,115 


2,396 


6 414 


16 401 


74 564 


125 190 


Lutherans. . . . 


37 935 


46 350 


63 982 


92 524 


99Q OA4 


907 AOA 


Mennonites (inc. Hutterites) 
Methodists 


567,091 


21,234 
742 981 


847 765 


31,797 
916 886 


44,625 
1 079 993 


58, 797 
1 158 744 


Mormons 


534 






6 891 


15 971 


19 656 


No Religion 


5,146 


2 634 




4 810 


26 027 


91 73a 


Pagans 


1 886 


4 478 




15 107 


n84f) 


7 99fi 


Plymouth Brethren. . 


2 229 






3 040 


3 438 


fi 4S > 


Presbyterians 


544,998 


676 165 


755 326 


842 531 


1 116 071 


1 4fl8 819 


Protestants 


10,146 


6 519 


12 253 


11 612 


30 265 


Ifi 110 


Roman Catholics 


1,492 029 


1 791 982 


1 992 017 


2 229 600 


2 833 041 


Q IS"? fifi3 


Salvation Army 






13 949 


10 3og 


18 834 


94 7fi1 


Union Church 








29 


633 


8 798 


Unitarians. 


2,275 


2 126 


1 777 


1 934 


3 224 


4 925 


Other pects 


27,553 


20 145 


36 942 


17 923 


31 316 


57 q7 


Not given 


17,055 


86,769 


89,355 


43,222 


32,490 


19,351 


Total... 


3.485.761 


4.324.810 


4.833.239 


5.371.315 


7.206.843 


8.788. 483 



Including Tunkers. 

24. Ratio per cent of Specified Denominations to Total Population in Census Years. 



Denominations. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Adventists 


p.c. 
0-18 


p.c. 
0-17 


p.c. 
0-13 


p.c. 
0-15 


p.c. 
0-14 


p.c. 
0-16 


Anglicans 


14-17 


13-35 


13-37 


12-69 


14-47 


16-02 


Baptists 


6-87 


6-86 


6-29 


5-92 


5-31 


4-80 


Christians 








0-13 


0-23 


0-14 


Congregationalists 


0-63 


0-62 


0-58 


0-53 


0-47 


0-35 


Disciples 




0-47 


0-26 


0-28 


0-16 


0-11 


Eastern religions 








0-29 


0-39 


0-46 


Evangelicals 


0-13 






0-19 


0-15 


0-16 


Greek Church 








0-29 


1-23 


1-93 


Jews 


0-03 


0-60 


0-13 


0-31 


1-03 


1-42 


Lutherans 


1-09 


1-06 


1-32 


1-72 


3-19 


3-28 


Mennonites 2 








0-59 


0-62 


0-67 


Methodists 


16-27 


17-11 


17-54 


17-07 


14-98 


13-18 


Mormons 


0-02 






0-13 


0-22 


0-22 


No Religion 


0-15 






0-09 


0-36 


0-25 


Pagans 


0-05 


0-10 


0-56 


0-28 


0-16 


0-08 


Presbyterians 


15-63 


15-64 


15-63 


15-68 


15-48 


16-03 


Protestants 


0-29 


0-15 


0-25 


0-22 


0-42 


0-41 


Roman Catholics 


42-80 


41-43 


41-21 


41-51 


39-31 


38-50 


Salvation Army 






0-29 


0-19 


0-26 


0-28 


All others 


1-20 


0-37 


0-59 


0-94 


0-95 


1-32 


Unspecified 


0-49 


2-07 


1-85 


0-80 


0-47 


0-23 


Total.. 


10) -09 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100 00 


1(!-00 



1 Eastern Religions include Confucians, Buddhists, Mohammedans, Shintos, Sikhs, Hindus. 
* Included with Baptists in 1891. 



2373 11 J 



164 



POPULATION 



25. Religions of the People by 



No. 


Religions. 


Prince 
Edward 
Island. 


Nova 
Scotia. 


New 
Brunswick. 


Quebec. 




Population Total 


88,615 


523,837 


387,876 


2,361,198 


i 




14 


1,240 


956 


1,656 


2 




1 


20 


1 


27 


3 




5,057 


85,604 


47,020 


121,932 


A 


\postolic Brethren 


_ 


5 


4 


~> 10 


5 


\theists 


1 


7 


23 


UO 


R 




5,316 


86,833 


86,254 


9,256 


7 






_ 












4 


192 


270 


651 








7 





87 


10 




_ 


- 





13 






_ 


S 


25 


21 


19 




_ 


_ 


- 


- 


1Q 


Christian Church 


123 


83 


51 


21 


14 


Christian Reform 


_ 


- 


- 





15 




475 


1.C03 


596 


182 


ifi 




3 


224 


152 


427 






24 


117 


206 


24 


1 a 


Church of God (New Dunker) 


12 


87 


- 


12 


19 




9 


78 


57 


1,314 


90 




8 


2,372 


559 


4,715 


91 


Deist 




1 


1 


8 


99 




426 


74fi 


911 


7 


95 




_ 


_ 





1 


94 




., 




- 


4 


91 




_ 


33 


56 


96 


Oft 




1 


28 


4 


111 


27 




_ 


27 


7 


17 


28 




29 


3 


16 





90 




5 


950 


116 


5,961 


^fi 




_ 


74 


28 


236 


01 




16 


460 


98 


53 


QO 








- 


- 


33 




18 


1,974 


1,213 


47,759 


34 


Labor Church 


_ 





- 





35 




_ 


8,077 


378 


i2,209 


3fi 




3 


2 


4 


6 


?? 




11,408 


59,065 


34,872 


41.884 


<?8 




_ 


40 





10 


3Q 




_ 


40 


10 


31 


40 




_ 








- 


41 




8 


46 


7 


59 


49 




_ 


- 


- 





49 




6 


1 





29 


AA 




13 


18 


8 


35 


45 




75 


555 


228 


979 


4fi 




1 


7 


68 


286 


" 




25 


76 


218 


374 


40 




5 





- 


- 


4Q 




_ 


121 


110 


337 


in 




25,945 


109,860 


41,211 


73,445 


11 




35 


165 


423 


18,620 


CO 




- 


- 


7 


9 


KQ 




39,312 


160,802 


170,319 


2,019,518 


14 




108 


2,071 


736 


658 


11 




_ 


- 





11 


Ifi 




_ 


- 








17 




2 


7 


2 


99 


Ifi 







18 


2 


6 


CQ 




_ 


- 


- 


14 


An 




_ 





14 


1 


(1 




_ 


5 





38 


60 




17 


89 


46 


676 


CO 




_ 


19 


1 


6 


AA 




1 


114 


94 


378 


fil 




24 


42 


41 


150 


66 


Not Given 


85 


418 


453 


6,690 



Totals for Canada include personnel of Royal Canadian Navy. 71 

Various sects comprise 25 Armenian, 25 Assembly, 12 Bahais 17 Big Church, 1, ist 71 

Brotherhood 10 Brother of Man, 95 Carmelite, 19 Children of God, 27 Church Community, 95 Church of 

Fkst Born? 16 Christ s Church of China. 76 Communist 45 Daniel s Band 34 1 Dissenters ,12 Esoteric ; Law. 

11 First Christ Church, 138 Followers of Christ,. 33 Followers of Jesus, 37 Golden Rule 17 Holy Cross. 

58 Holy Roller, 39 Holy Worker, 23 Interdenominational, 74 Jesus Way, 18 Liberal, 72 Lith. H 



RELIGIONS 



165 



Provinces, Census 1921. 



Om.irio. 


Manitoba. 


Saskat 
chewan. 


Alberta. 


British 
Columbia. 


Yukon. 


Northwest 
Territories . 


Canada. 


No. 


2,933,662 


610,118 


757,510 


588,454 


524,582 


4,157 


7,988 


8,788,483 




1,998 


578 


2,893 


3,533 


1,347 


_ 


_ 


14,215 


1 


65 


52 


44 


111 


273 





- 


594 


2 


648, 883 


121,309 


116,224 


98,395 


160,978 


1,582 


648 


1,407,959 


3 


137 


295 


135 


24 


238 


- 


- 


848 


4 


132 


113 


68 


269 


388 


- 


- 


1,041 


5 


148,634 


13,652 


23,696 


27,829 


20,158 


85 


10 


421,730 


6 


178 


11 


86 


21 


17 


- 


- 


313 


7 


6,442 


625 


1,159 


1,103 


1,180 


- 


- 


11,626 


8 


114 


19 


97 


393 


10,559 


12 


- 


11,288 


9 


150 


16 


26 


5 


61 


- 





271 


10 


1,151 


105 


71 


88 


342 


- 


- 


1,810 


11 


279 


_ 


4 


- 








- 


283 


12 


1,266 


371 


641 


1,438 


226 


- 


- 


4,223 


13 


1 


45 


65 


242 


- 





- 


353 


14 


4,754 


281 


2,030 


2,298 


940 


- 


- 


12,559 


15 


5,032 


1,361 


925 


1,932 


3,711 


59 


- 


13,826 


16 


1,036 


625 


745 


777 


186 


- 


- 


3,740 


17 


613 


65 


327 


595 


70 





- 


1,781 


18 


2,113 


691 


1,128 


2,266 


19,663 


- 


- 


27,319 


19 


12,218 


2,395 


2,555 


3,228 


2,513 


3 


6 


30.574 


20 


448 


2 


_ 


10 


7 








477 


21 


6,460 


302 


223 


197 


99 


- 


- 


9,371 


22 


17 


84 


7,176 


306 


5,074 








12,658 


23 


15 


110 


127 


680 


39 





- 


979 


24 


10,311 


220 


1,489 


1,626 


76 


- 


- 


13,908 


25 


180 


79 


126 


197 


388 


12 


- 


1,126 


26 


1,987 


109 


411 


309 


281 


1 


- 


3.149 


27 


2,140 


54 


90 


65 


52 








2,449 


28 


20,509 


56,670 


47,171 


35,815 


2,612 


13 


- 


169 , 822 


29 


2,233 


162 


380 


160 


60 


- 


- 


3,333 


30 


2,655 


756 


800 


627 


1,213 


- 


- 


3,678 


31 


171 


79 


55 


18 


19 


- 


- 


342 


32 


47,458 


16,593 


5,328 


3,186 


1,654 


6 


1 


125,190 


33 


6 
66,863 


764 
39,472 


21 
91,988 


38 
60,573 


1 
17,659 


254 


11 


830 
287,484 


34 
35 


13,645 


21,295 


20,544 


3,125 


172 





1 


58,797 


36 


685,406 


71,200 


100, 851 


89,070 


64,810 


117 


18 


1,158,744 


37 


490 


120 


533 


451 


116 





- 


1 , 763 


38 


77 


31 


144 


63 


82 


- 


- 


478 


39 


29 




42 


648 


22 








741 


40 


5,789 


331 


1,440 


11,373 


600 


3 


- 


19,656 


41 


15 




7 


4 


232 


- 


- 


258 


42 


125 


109 


47 


82 


217 


- 


- 


616 


43 


194 


79 


149 


182 


229 








907 


44 


3,231 


1,491 


2,610 


5,089 


7,149 


295 


36 


21,738 


45 


2,635 


599 


1,556 


479 


610 


- 


985 


7,226 


46 


2,713 


1,228 


1,075 


1,048 


246 


- 


- 


7,003 


47 


5 


87 




9 


2 





- 


108 


48 


3 370 


613 


438 


426 


1,067 


_ 


- 


6,482 


49 


613,429 


138,201 


162,165 


120,868 


123,022 


579 


45 


1,408,812 


50 


4,312 


2,697 


3,250 


3,252 


3,389 


207 


- 


36,350 


51 


33 


111 


374 


781 


27 


- 


1 


1,343 


52 


575,266 


105,394 


147,292 


97,178 


63,980 


699 


3,849 


3,383,663 


53 


13,746 


2,027 


1,552 


1,773 


2,086 


- 


- 


24,763 


54 


3 


3 


3 


10 


819 


- 


- 


849 


55 


3 




1 


6 


417 


_ 


- 


427 


56 


763 


128 


26 


210 


319 


- 


- 


1,558 


57 


727 


75 


236 


43 


36 


- 





1 , 143 


58 


168 


16 


5 


28 


135 


- 


- 


366 


59 


209 


172 


80 


47 


54 


- 


- 


577 


fiO 


1,817 


3,348 


2,891 


579 


50 


- 


- 


8,728 


61 


1,082 


1,541 


337 


570 


544 


3 


20 


4,925 


62 


1,872 


43 


301 


1,012 


74 





- 


3,328 


63 


317 


21 


63 


76 


30 





- 


1,094 


64 


844 


363 


315 


460 


299 


2 


- 


2.540 


65 


4,698 


730 


876 


1,155 


1,663 


225 


2,357 


19,351 


66 



Church, 13 Lot of Jesus, 34 Materialist, 64 Messiah. 16 Metropolitan, 27 Nationalist, 29 Philosophist, 30 
Polish Church, 24 Provestory, 56 Rationalist, 15 Rosecrucian, 30 Round Church 2 Sabbath Keeper, 
134 Saints, 12 Saved by Grace, 13 Schismatic, 37 Sectarist, 61 Serbian Church, 76 Shiloite, 50 Socialists, 
25 Solomon Reformists, 34 Swiss Ch., 27 Taoist, 16 Temple of God, 15 Temple Society, 1. Testimony of 
Jesus, 33 Truth, 32 Ukranian Catholic, 11 Workers, 21 Zion Chapel, 92 Zionist together with 364 of 
119 other sects each of which numbers fewer than 10 adherents. 



166 



POPULATION 



8. Birthplaces. 

The nativity of the population of Canada, as at each of the six censuses, is 
shown by Canadian-born, British-born, United States-born and other foreign-borm 
in Table 26. The table shows that in 1871, 97-22 p.c. of the population were born 
under the British flag, while half a century later the percentage had declined to 
89-87 p.c. Among these, the Canadian-born population was at its maximum per 
centage in 1901, with 86-98 p.c. of the total, while in 1921 that percentage is at its 
minimum, 77-75 p.c. As a consequence of the large immigration from the United 
Kingdom in the first two decades of the century, the British-born population has 
increased from 7-83 p.c. in 1901 to 12-12 p.c. in 1921. 

The foreign-born population has been divided into United States-born and 
other foreign-born. Worthy of note is the fairly steady increase of the United 
States-born population from 1-85 p.c. in 1871 to 4-26 p.c. in 1921. Other foreign- 
born increased from 0-93 p.c. in 1871 to 6-25 p.c. in 1911, but have declined slightly 
to 5-87 p.c. of the total population in 1921. 

The nativity of the 1921 population is indicated by sex in Table 27, for the 
various provinces and territories. In the Maritime Provinces, the population is 
shown by the census to be about 93 p.c. native-born, and in Quebec about 92 p.c. 
In Ontario, however, the proportion sinks to about 78 p.c., in Manitoba to about 
63 p.c., in Saskatchewan to about 64 p.c., in Alberta to about 53 p.c., and in 
British Columbia to barely over 50 p.c. 

About 40 p.c. of the total British-born population is in Ontario, while the 
British-born element bears the greatest proportion to the total in British Columbia, 
viz., 30-6 p.c. The foreign-born element reaches its maximum percentage in the 
rapidly growing provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta where it constitutes 
26-3 p.c. and 29-5 p.c. of the total population respectively. 

26. Birthplaces of the Population of Canada according to the Censuses of 1871-1*21. 



Year. 


Canadian 
Born. 


British 
Born. 


Foreign Born. 


Total 
Popula 
tion. 


Proportion to Total Population. 


Canadian 
Born. 


British 
Born. 


Foreign Born. 


Born 
in 
United 

States. 


Born 
in other 
Foreign 
Countries. 


United 
States 
Born. 


Other 
Foreign 
Born. 




No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


p.c. 


p.c. 


p.c. 


p.c. 


1871.... 


2,892,358 


496,477 


64,447 


32,479 


3,485,761 


82-98 


14-24 


1-85 


0-93 


1881.... 


3,715,492 


478,235 


77,753 


53,330 


4,324,810 


85-91 


11-06 


1-80 


1-23 


1891... 


4,185,877 


490,232 


80,915 


76,215 


4,833,239 


86-61 


10-14 


1-67 


1-58 


1901.... 


4,671,815 


420,712 


127,899 


150, 889 


5,371,315 


86-98 


7-83 


2-38 


2-81 


1911.... 


5,619,682 


833,422 


303,680 


449,859 


7,206,643 


77-98 


11-56 


4-21 


6-25 


1921.... 


6,832,747 


1,065,454 


374,010 


516,272 


8,788,483 


77-75 


12-12 


4-26 


5-87 



BIRTHPLACES 



167 



27. Population Classified by Sex and Nativity, by Provinces and Territories, 

according to the Census of 1921. 





Total. 


Canadian Born. 


British Born. 


Foreign Born. 


Provinces and 
Territories. 










Male. 


Female. 


Both 
Sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Fe 
male. 


Male. 


Fe 
male. 


P. E. Island. . . . 


44,887 


43,728 


88,615 


43,702 


42,548 


509 


565 


676 


615 


Nova Scotia 


266,472 


257,365 


523,837 


243,181 


237,151 


15.445 


14,074 


7,846 


6,140 


New Brunswick 
Quebec 


197,351 
1,180,028 
1,481,890 
320,567 
413,700 
324,208 

293,409 
2,819 


190,525 
1,181,171 
1,451,772 
289,551 
343,810 
264,246 

231,173 
1,338 


387,876 
2,361,199 
2,933,662 
610,118 
757,510 
588,454 

524,582 
4,157 


186,417 
1,082,483 
1,139,262 
198,284 
241,557 
166,176 

136,758 
1.583 


180,001 
1,090,140 
1,152,717 
189,462 
216,276 
148,914 

127,288 
1,017 


5,495 
44,830 
237,220 
61,651 
57,430 
55,724 

87,769 
486 


5.214 
45,034 
222,357 
51,463 
42.925 
43,668 

72,983 
86 


5,439 
52,715 
105.408 
60,632 
114.713 
102,308 

68.882 
750 


5,310 
45,997 
76,698 
48,626 
84.609 
71,664 

30,902 
235 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan . . 
Alberta 


British Colum 
bia 


Yukon Terrify- 


N. W. Territor 
ies 


4,129 
485 


3,859 


7,988 
485 


3,951 

49 


3,830 


80 
433 


13 


98 
3 


16 


Royal Canadian 
Navv 


Canada-l21 


1,529,945 


1,258,538 


8,788,483 


3,443,403 


3,389,344 


567,072 


498,382 


519,470 


370,812 


1911. 


3,821,995 


3,384,648 


7,206,643 


2,849,442 


2,770,240 


501,138 


332,284 


471,415 


282,124 



9. Rural and Urban Population. 

In Table 28 are given statistics showing the growth of rural and urban popula 
tion respectively since 1891. For the purposes of the census, the population residing 
in cities, towns and incorporated villages has been defined as urban, and that out 
side of such localities as rural. Thus the distinction here made between "rural" 
and "urban" population is a distinction of provincial legal status rather than of 
size of aggregations of population within limited areas. Since the laws of the various 
provinces differ in regard to the population necessary before a municipality may be 
incorporated as urban (the laws of Saskatchewan, for example, making provision 
that 50 people actually resident on an area not greater than 640 acres may claim 
incorporation as a village, while the Ontario law now requires that villages asking 
for incorporation shall have a population of 750 on an area not exceeding 500 acres), 
the line of demarcation between rural and urban population is not uniformly drawn 
throughout the Dominion, as far as comparable aggregations of population are 
concerned. To a limited extent, however, Table 30 will permit the student of popu 
lation statistics to make, at least for Canada as a whole, his own line of demarcation 
between rural and urban population. 1 

i In the United States, urban population is classified by the Census Bureau as that residing in cities and 
other incorporated places having 2,500 inhabitants or more, and in "towns" having 2,500 inhabitants or 
in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island. While such "towns", under the forms of 

* j _ A i _j.l_. . 1 !_ ^V. .-._.-. si + .._ *Virt TTw-f*ii-l G+nt^o f^tiTiaiia "Riit*oo it 



more 



local government existing in these states are partly rural in character, the United States Census Bureau 
considers that the total urban population of these states is not greatly exaggerated thereby. 



168 POPULATION 



While a summary comparison between urbanization in Canada in 1921 and in 
the United States in 1920 would lead us to the conclusion that our country, though 
far less densely peopled than the United States, had an almost equally large per 
centage of its population in urban communities, viz., 49-52 per cent in Canada as 
compared with 51-4 per cent in the United States, the fact that in the United States 
inhabitants of places having under 2,500 population are included with rural popu 
lation, while in Canada the inhabitants of many places with less than 100 popula 
tion are classed as urban, must be taken into account. A fairer basis of comparison 
is secured if the .same population limits are taken for both countries, as may be done 
by using Table 30. Thus, at the census of 1920, the United States had 25-9 p.c. 
of its population resident in cities of 100,000 and over, while Canada in 1921 had 
only 18 87 p.c. of its population in such places. The United States had an additional 
16-4 p.c. of its population residing in cities of between 10,000 and 100,000 popula 
tion, and 4-7 p.c. in cities and towns of 5,000 to 10,000, while Canada had in cities 
of these categories only 13-32 p.c., and 4-36 p.c. respectively of its population. 
Thus, taking all places of 5,000 and over the lowest population for which com 
parative figures are readily available 47 p.c. of the population of the United States 
resided in such places as compared with 36-55 p.c. of the population of Canada, 
showing the much higher degree of urbanization which has been reached in the 
United States a natural thing in an older settled and more densely peopled country. 

On the basis of the census classification, it is apparent from Table 28 that in 
the last decade, as in the previous one, urben communities absorbed somewhat 
over two-thirds of the totr.1 increase in population, with the result that the urban 
population of Canada was in 1921 nearly equal to the rural. Out of every 1,000 
persons in the country, 505 were resident, on June 1, 1921, in rural and 495 in urban 
communities, as compared with 545 in rural and 455 in urban communities on 
June 1, 1911, 625 in rural and 375 in urban communities in 1901, and 682 in rural 
and 318 in urban communities in 1891. 

From Table 30, showing the distribution of urban population in Canada by 
size of cities and towns, it becomes evident that for the first time in its census history 
Canada possesses cities of more than half a million population. These are Montreal 
and Toronto, with 618,506 and 521,893 inhabitants respectively, the former having 
in its neighbourhood several "satellite" cities, Verdun, Westmount, Lachine, Outre- 
mont, which, with other smaller towns in its vicinity, bring the population of 
"Greater Montreal" to the 700,000 mark. No other city has attained the 200,000 
mark, but during the past decade Hamilton and Ottawa have been added to Winni 
peg and Vancouver as cities of over 100,000 population, while Quebec, which in 
1911 was, together with Hamilton and Ottawa, in the 50,000 to 100,000 class, has 
been joined in that class, though at a considerable interval, by Calgary, London, 
Edmonton and Halifax. Details of the population of these and other smaller cities 
and towns of 5,000 and over, are given by censuses from 1871 to 1921 in Table 32, 
while the populations of urban communities having a population of from 1,000 to 
5,000 in li 21 are given for 1901, 1911 and 1921 in Table 33. 



RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION 



169 



28. Rural and Urban Population by Provinces and Territories, 1891, 1901, 1911 

and 1921. 



Provinces. 


1891. 


1901. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Prince Edward Island 


94,823 
373,403 
272,362 
988,820 
1,295,323 
111,498 
_i 
_i 

60,045 
_i 

_i 


14,255 
76,993 
43,901 
499,715 
818,998 
41,008 

37,228 
1,537,098 


88,304 
330,191 
253,835 
994,8338 
1,246,969 
184,775 
77,013* 
54,489 2 
88,478 
18,077 
20,129 


14,955 
129,383 
77,285 
654,0658 
935,978 
70,4363 
14,266 s 
18,5332 
90,179 
9,142 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Yukon Territory . 


Northwest Territories 


Royal Canadian Navy 


Canada .. . 


3,296,141 


3,357,093 


2,014,222 




Provinces. 


1911. 


1921. 


Numerical increase 
in decade 1911-21. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Prince Edward Island . . . 


78,758 
306,210 
252,342 
1,038,9348 
1,198,803 
261,029* 
361,037 
236,6332 
188,796 
4,647 
6.507 10 


14,970 
186, 128 
99,547 
966,8428 
1,328,489 
200,365 
131,395 
137,662 2 
203,684 
3,865 


69,522 
296,7996 
263,432 
1,038,630 
1,226,379 
348,502 
. 538,552 
365,550 
277,020 
3,182 
7,988 
485 


19,093 
227,038* 
124,4446 
1,322,569 
1,707,283 
261,616 
218,958 
222,904 
247,562 
975 


-9,236 
-9,411 
11,090 
- 304 
27,576 
87,473 
177,515 
128,917 
88,224 
-1,465 
1,481 
485 


4,123 
40,910 
24,897 
355,727 
378,794 
61,251 
87,563 
85,242 
43,878 
-2,890 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario . . . 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia . 


Yukon Territory 


Northwest Territories. . 


Royal Canadian Navy 
Canada - - 


3,933,696 


3,272,947 


4,436,011 


4,352,442 


502,345 


1,079,495 



1 The population (98,167) in territory now comprised in the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and in 
the Yukon and Northwbst Territories was classified as rural in the Census of 1891. 2 Volume 1, Census 
1911, places the urban population of Alberta for that year at 141,937. Included in this figure was the 
population (5,250) of tw fclve places which, according to the Report of the Municipal Commissioner for 
Alberta, were not then incorporated. The places so included were Aetna, Bankhead, Bellevue. Bickerdike, 
Canmore, Cardiff, Exshaw, Hillorest, Passburg, Queonston and Elmpark. The correction resulting from 
this and from other small adjustments consequent upon more definite knowledge as to incorporated areas, 
places the urban population for 1911 at 137,602. Similar corrections have been made in the urban and rural 
figures for the Census of 1901. 3 As corrected in Census Report, Prairie Provinces, 1916. 4 As changed by 
Extension of B mndaries Act, 1912. Corrected by information received since Bulletin 1 was printed, 
which transfeirel population of Shediac and Hampton to urban column and population of Salisbury to rural. 
Corrected by information received since Bulletin 2 wa.s printed, giving Clark s Harbour as an incorpor 
ated town. 7 As changed by Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. 8 The urban population of 970,791 shown 
in Volume 1, Census 1911, is reduced to 966,842 by the transfer of the population of Maniwaki, Aiartinville, 
Moisie, St. Bruno, St. Martin and St. Vincent de Paul from urban to ruial; by adjustments in area of the 
villages of Ste. Anne and Ste. Genevi^ve; and Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. 9 Urban and rural 
population for 1911 and 1901 are as corrected in Census Report, Prairie Provinces, 1916. 10 As reduced by 
Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. 



170 



POPULATION 



29. Percentage Distribution of Rural and Urban Population by Provinces and 

Territories, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921. 





18? 


H. 


19( 


)1. 


Provinces. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


Urban. 




86-93 


13-07 


85-52 


14-48 


Nova Scotia . 


82-91 


17-09 


71-85 


28-15 




84-78 


15-22 


76-66 


23-34 




66-43 


33-57 


60-33 


39-67 




61-26 


38-74 


57-12 


42 -8 4 




73-11 


26-89 


72-40 


27-60 




__} 




84-37 


15-63 




_i 




74-62 


25-38 




62-08 


37-92 


49-52 


50-48 




_i 




66-41 


33-59 




_i 




100-00 
























Cans da 


68 20 


31-89 


62 50 


37-30 















19 


11. 


19: 


11. 


Provinces 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Prince Edward Island 


84-03 


15-97 


78-45 


21-55 


Nova Scotia 


62-20 


37-80 


56-66 


43-34 




71-71 


28-29 


67-92 


32-08 


Quebec 


51-80 


48-20 


43-99 


56-01 




47-43 


52-57 


41-80 


58-20 




56-57 


43-43 


57-12 


42-88 


Saskatchewan 


73-32 


26-68 


71-10 


28-90 


Alberta . . 


63-22 


36-78 


62-12 


37-88 


British Columbia 


48-10 


51-90 


52-81 


47-19 


f 
Yukon Territory 


54-59 


45-41 


76-55 


23-45 


N.W. Territories 


100-00 




100-00 




Royal Canadian Navy 






100-00 














Canada 


54 58 


45 42 


50-48 


4* 52 













NOTE. In using this table, reference should be made to the notes appended to the preceding table 
showing rural and urban population by numbers. 

1 The population in the territory now comprised in the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and 
the Yukon and Northwest Territories was classified as rural in the census of 1891. 



RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION 



171 



30. Urban Population of Canada, divided by Size of Municipality Groups, 1901, 

1911 and 1921. 







1901. 






1911. 






1921. 




In Cities and Towns 


Num 




Per cent 


Num 




Per cent 


Num 




Per cent 


of 


ber 


Popula 


of 


ber 


Popula 


of 


ber 


Popula 


of 




of 


tion. 


Total 


of 


tion. 


Total 


of 


tion. 


Total 




Places. 




Pop. 


Places. 




Pop. 


Places. 




Pop. 


Over 500,000 














2 


1,140,399 


12-97 


Between 




















1 400,000 and 500,000 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


470,480 


6-53 


_ 


- 


_ 


300,000 and 400, 000 











1 


376,538 


5-22 


_ 


- 


_ 


200,000 and 300,000 


2 


475,770 


8-86 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


^ 


_ 


100,000 and 200,000 


- 








2 


236,436 


3-28 


4 


518,298 


5-90 


50,000 and 100,000 


3 


181,402 


3-38 


3 


247,741 


3-44 


5 


336,650 


3-83 


25,000 and 50,000 


5 


188,869 


3-52 


6 


241,007 


3-34 


7 


239,096 


2-72 


15,000 and 25,000 


3 


55,499 


1-03 


13 


237,551 


3-30 


19 


370,990 


4-22 


10,000 and 15,000 


8 


95,266 


1-77 


18 


221,322 


3-07 


18 


224,033 


2-55 


5,000 and 10,000 


37 


275,919 


5-14 


46 


323,056 


4-48 


54 


382,762 


4-36 


3,000 and 5,000 


50 


190,789 


3-55 


60 


226,212 


3-14 


73 


276,026 


3-14 


1,000 and 3,000 


187 


320,433 


5-97 


251 


429,553 


5-97 


292 


489,461 


5-57 


500 and 1,000 
Under 500 


179 


130,238 
107,614 


2-42 
2-00 


247 


180,784 
90,284 


2-51 
1-25 


~ 


} 374,727 


4-26 


Total 


_ 


3,021,799 


37-64 




3,280,964 


45-53 




4,352,402 


49-52 























31. Ratio of Females to Males in Rural and Urban Populations, 1921. 



Provinces. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Provinces. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Prince Edward Island 


P.O. 
93-55 


p.c. 
112-90 


Alberta . . . 


p.c. 
74-63 


p.c. 
94-04 


Nova Scotia 


92-45 


102-26 


British Columbia 


71-91 


87-16 


New Brunswick 


91-48 


108-19 


Yukon ... 


45-76 


51-33 


Quebec 


93-09 


106-02 


N. W Territories . 


93-46 




Ontario 


88-66 


105-24 








Manitoba 


84-36 


98-90 


Canada, 1921 


86-20 


102-68 


Saskatchewan 


79-29 


93-23 


Canada, 1911 


83-52 


94-95 















32. Population of Cities and Towns having over 5,< 

compared with 1871-81-91-1901-11. 



inhabitants in 1921. 



NOTE. The cities and towns in which a Board of Trade exists are indicated by an asterisk(*). 
cases the population is for the city or town municipality as it existed in 1921. 



In nil 



Cities and Towns. 


Provinces. 


Population. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Montreal 


Quebec 


115,000 
59,000 
241 

26, 880 
24,141 
59,699 

18,000 

29,582 
41,325 
3,270 
4,253 

8,107 
3,800 


155,238 
96,196 
7,985 

36,661 
31,307 
62,446 

26,266 

36,100 
41,353 
5,925 
6,561 

9,616 
6,890 


219,216 
181,215 
25,639 
13,709 
48,959 
44,154 
63,090 
3,876 
31.977 

38,437 
39,179 
16,841 
10,322 

12,753 

296 
11,264 


328,172 
209,8922 
42,340 
27,010 
52,634 
59,928 
68,840 
4,392 
37,976 
4,176 
40,832 
40,711 
20,919 
12,153 
2,249 
16,619 
113 
1,898 
13,993 


490,504 
381,833* 
136,035 
100,401 
81,969 
87,062 
78,710 
43,704 
46,300 
31,0643 
46,619 
42,511 
31,660 
17,829 
30,213 
23,132 
12,004 
11,629 
18,222 


618,506 
521,893 
179,087 
117,217 
114,151 
107,843 
95,193 
63,305 
60, 959 
58,821 
58,372 
47,166 
38,727 
38,591 
34,432 
29,440 
25,739 
25,001 
24,117 


Toronto 


Ontario 


Winnipeg 


Manitoba 


Vancouver 


British Columbia. . . 
Ontario 


Hamilton 


Ottawa 


H 


Quebec 


Quebec. ... 


Calgary 


Alberta 


London 


Ontario 


Edmonton. . 


Alberta 


Halifax 


Nova Scotia 
New Brunswick .... 
British Columbia. . . 
Ontario 


St. John 


Victoria 


Windsor 


Regina 


Saskatchewan 


Brantford 


Ontario 


Saskatoon 


Saskatchewan 


Verdun... 


Quebec 


Hull.. 


u 



172 



POPULATION 



32. Population of Cities and Towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 
compared with 1871-81-91-19dl-ll. continued. 



Cities and Towns. 


Provinces. 


Population. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Sherbrooke 


Quebec 


4,432 

7,570 
2,743 
12,407 
879 
4,611 

7,864 

6,878 
200 
600 

4,313 

2,197 
1,696 

2,929 

5,873 
3,827 

8,807 
7,305 
3,369 
3,185 

3,746 

6,091 
5,102 

3^)82 

1,800 
3,047 

1,393 
1,322 
1,110 

5,636 
6,006 

1,508 
3,022 
1,541 

4,049 

2,033 

2,500 

3,398 
1,150 
876 

1,226 

1,796 
1,594 


7,227 
1,480 
8,670 
4,054 
14,091 
780 
6,812 

9,631 

9,890 
884 
5,032 

8,239 
8,367 
2,406 

3,874 
2,347 
1,500 
7,873 
387 
5,187 
1,283 
11,485 
9,516 
4,426 
3,992 

5,321 

7,597 
7,609 
2,274 
5,373 

3,906 
3,268 
1,6-15 
2,595 
1,935 
2,911 
1,870 

2,340 
5,791 
6,218 
3,786 

2,820 
4,314 
2,291 

5,080 
3,461 

4,468 

3,4!>5 

1,095 
4,854 
2,087 
1,040 

1,437 
1,520 

3,042 
2,066 


10,110 
2,427 
8,334 
7,425 
19,263 
2,414 
9,717 

9,170 

10,537 
3,076 
8,762 
2,459 
9,500 
10,366 
3,761 
3,778 

6,692 
3,349 
6,678 
9,052 
795 
7,535 
1,553 
11,373 
9,916 
7,497 
4,060 

7,016 

7,301 
8,791 
3,781 
8,612 

5,515 
3,347 

4,595 
3,770 
2,277 
4,752 
2,035 

2,442 
6,669 

6,502 
6,252 

4,401 
4,722 
4,175 

6,081 

5,102 

6,805 
933 

5,550 
3,864 
1,710 
3,363 
1,289 
2,513 

4,363 
2,941 


11,765 
9,909 
9,981 
9,747 
17,961 
7,169 
12,886 
3,633 
9,946 
1,558 
11,496 
8,856 
9,026 
6,945 
9,959 
11,485 
6,365 
5,620 
3,214 
8,176 
5,702 
6,499 

1,148 
7,866 
2,019 
12,080 
9,117 
8,776 
4,894 
2,072 
9,210 
2,530 
2,768 
9,242 
8,940 
4,964 
8,833 
1,570 
11,055 
4,220 
6,130 
4,447 
3,826 
4,907 
1,863 
2,027 
3,191 
7,057 
7,117 
4,806 
3,256 
5,156 
4,030 
4,569 

2,511 

7,003 
5,993 
1,785 
6,704 
6,430 

3,174 
5,949 
5, 155 
3,77: , 
3,901 
1,464 
4,646 

4,217 
3,537 


16,405 
17,723 
13,691 
15,196 
18,874 
14,920 
18,360 
16,499 
12,484 
13,823 
15,175 
14,579 
11,345 
16,562 
12,946 
14,054 
11.688 5 
13,839 
11,220 
9,947 
9,248 
13,199 
10,770 
4,820 
10,299 
7,483 
11,203 
9,876 
12,558 
7,436 
9,0:55 
9,797 
7,737 
4,265 
8,703 
9,374 
8,973 
9,320 
5,608 
9,449 
6,346 
8,306 
6,383 
5,880 
6,828 
5,318 
4,150 
7,470 
8,420 
7,208 
5,058 
7,261 

5, .103 
6,774 
S,196 ; 
4,783 
6,964 
6,107 
6,254 
6,598 
6,600 
3,302 
4,663 
6,420 
6,370 
4,750 
5,892 

L ,101 

5,418 
4,184 
3,988 
4,359 


23,515 
22,545 
22,367 
21,763 
21,753 
21,092 
20,994 
20,541 
19,881 
19,285 
18,128 
17,593 
17,488 
17,007 
16,094 
16,026 
15,404 
15,397 
14,886 
14,877 
14,764 
14,495 
13,256 
13,249 
13,216 
12,821 
12,347 
12,206 
12,190 
11,940 
11,097 
10,859 
10,692 
10,625 
10,470 
10,043 
9,998 
9,935 
9,634 
9,215 
9,113 
9,088 
8,974 
8,937 
8,774 
8,654 
8,621 
8,327 
8,174 
8,114 
7,899 
7,886 
7,875 
7,734 
7,703 
7,652 
7,631 
7,620 
7,5u2 
7,558 
7,419 
7,073 
7,059 
7,016 
6,936 
6,790 
6,785 
6,766 
6,738 
6,585 
6,393 
5,902 
5,883 


Sydney 


Nova Scotia 


Three Rivers 


Quebec 


Kitchener 


Ontario 


* Kings ton 




*Sault Ste Marie 




Peterborough 




Fort William 




*St. Catharines 




*Moose Jaw 


Saskatchewan 


*Guelph 


Ontario 


Weetmount 


Quebec 


*M one ton 


Mew Brunswick 
Vova Scotia 


*Glace Bay 


Stratford 


Ontario 


*St. Thomas 


H 


*Lachine 


Quebec 


Brandon 


Manitoba 


Port Arthur 


Ontario 


Sarnia 


a 


Niagara Kails 


it 


New Westminster 


British Columbia. . . 
Ontario 


Chatham 


Outremont 


Quebec ... . 


Gait 


Ontario 


St. Boniface . 


Manitoba 


Charlottetown and Royalty . . . 
Belleville 


P. E. Island 
Ontario 


Owen Sound .... 


u 


Oshawa ... . 


u 


*Lethbridge 


Alberta 


St. Hvacinthe 


Quebec 


North Bay. 


Ontario 


Shawinigan Falls 


Quebec 


*L-evis 


u 


Brockville 


Ontario . 


*Anih<Tst 


N ova Scotia . 


Woodstock 


Ontario 


Medicine Hat 


Alberta 


Valleyfield 


Quebec 


Joliette 


u 


Nanaimo and suburbs 


British Columbia. . . 
Nova Scotia 
Quebec 


New Glasgow ... 


Chicoutimi 


Orillia 


Ontario 


Welland 


u 


Sudbury 


u 


Sydney Alines 


Nova Scotia 


Sorel 


Quebec 


Fredericton . 


New Brunswick 


Dartmouth 


Nova Scotia 


Thetford Mines 


Quebec 


Pembroke . . 


Ont ario 


St. Johns 


Quebec 


Riviere du Loup 


it 


North Vancouver 


British Columbia.. 
Quebec 


Grand Mere 


Lindsay 


( ntario 


Truro 


Nova Scotia 


Prince Albert 


Saskatchewan 


Cornwall 


Ontario 


* Yarmouth 


Nova Scotia 


Walker ville 


Ontario 


Midland 


u 


Barrio 


u 


Smith Falls 


II 


Granby 


Quebec 


Portage la Prairio 


Manitoba 


( up \iagdeleine .. 


Quebec 


North Sydney 


Nova Scotia 


Prince Rupert 


British Columbia.. 
Ontario 


Trenton..!. 


Waterloo... 





POPULATION OF CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES 



173 



32. Population of Cities and Towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1921, 
compared with 1871-81-91-1901-11. concluded. 



Cities and Towns. 


Provinces. 


Population. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 




Ontario 


2,829 

1,671 
1,159 
1,408 

4,442 

1,174 
4,022 


4,445 

900 

1,920 
2,032 
1,419 

4,957 

1,248 
4,318 


4,939 
4,813 

2,042 
2,868 
1,843 
1,806 
4,829 

2,410 
2,100 
4,191 


5,755 
4,559 

2,652 
4,150 
3,619 
2,308 
5,202 
4,239 
776 
2,335 
5,2738 
3,516 
700 
4,573 


7,090 
5,713 

2,934 
3,817 
4,400 
3,473 
3,883 
6,158 
5,074 
3,169 
3,910 
4,476 
3,978 
2,309 
4,763 


5,882 
5,870 
5,681 
5,615 
5,603 
5,570 
5,544 
5,491 
5,423 
5,407 
5,327 
5,324 
5,312 
5,230 
5,159 
5,151 
5,150 


Ford City 


a 




Nova Scotia 


New Wkterford 


n 


La Tuque .... 


Quebec 


*CamDbcllton 


New Brunswick 


*Hawkesbury 


Ontario 


*St Jer&me 


Quebec 


* Preston 


Ontario 




M 


*Cobourg 


H 




u 


Stellarton . . 


Nova Scotia 


*Nelson. ... 


British Columbia. . . 
Quebec 




* York ton 


Saskatchewan 


"Ineersoll.. 


Ontario. . . 



1 Includes Maisonneuve, Cartierville, Bordeau and Sault-au-Reeollet. 2 Includes North Toronto, less 
67 in 1911 transferred to Township of York. 3 Includes town of Strathcona. * Includes town of Steelton. 
6 Includes parish of Lachine and Summerlea town. 6 Includes Notre-Dame des Victoires. * Includes 
North Vancouver District. > Includes suburbs in 1901. 

33. Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 

1921, as compared with 1901 and 1911. 



Towns and Villages. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Towns and Villages. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Prince Edward Island. 


2 875 


2,678 


3,228 


New Brunswick concluded. 
Grand Falls 


644 


1,280 


1,327 




1,140 


1,089 


1,094 


Sunny Brae 






1,171 










Richibucto 


100 


871 


1,158 


Nova Scotia. 








St. George 


733 


988 


1,110 


Westville 


3,471 


4,417 


4,550 


St . Andrews 


1,064 


987 


1,065 


Windsor 


3,398 


3,452 


3,591 










Bridgewater 


2,203 


2,775 


3,147 


Quebec. 








Pictou 


3,235 
306 


3,179 
2,719 


2,988 
2,963 


Lauzon : 
Jonquiere 


3,416 


3,978 
2,354 


4,966 
4,851 




1 274 


1 749 


2,844 


Longueuil (city) 


2,835 


3,972 


4,682 




2 916 


2,681 


2,792 


Montmagny 


1,916 


2,617 


4,145 




3 391 


2,856 


2,748 


St. Lambert 


1,362 


3,344 


3,890 




1,731 


2,304 


2,717 


Buckingham ; 


2,936 


3,854 


3,835 




1,546 


2,589 


2,390 


East Angus 






3,802 




1,937 


2,109 


2,294 


Victoria ville 


1,693 


3,028 


3,759 




1,838 


1,787 


1,746 


Rimouski 


1,804 


3,097 


3,612 


Wolf vi lie 


1 412 


1 458 


1 743 


Coaticook 


2,880 


3,165 


3,554 




1 088 


648 


1,732 


St. Pierre 


505 


2,201 


3,535 




1 479 


617 


1,626 


Farnham 


3,114 


3,560 


3,343 




1 026 


392 


1,424 


Beauport 






3,240 


Oxford 


1 285 


,392 


1,402 


St. Laurent 


1,390 


1,860 


3,232 




1 445 


435 


1,360 


M6gantic 


2,171 


2,816 


3,140 




1 150 


1,247 


1,230 


St. Jerome do Matane 


1,176 


2,056 


3,050 




866 


951 


1,177 


Ste. Therese 


1,541 


2,120 


3,043 




1 046 


1 006 


1,152 


Aylmer . 


2,291 


3,109 


2,970 




858 


996 


1,086 


Drummondville 


1,450 


1,725 


2,852 










Ste Agathe des Monts 


1,073 


2,020 


2,812 












822 


2,141 


2,799 


New Brunswick. 








Black Lake 




2,645 


2,656 


Chatham . 


4,868 


4,666 


4,506 


Pointe Claire St. Joachim 


555 


793 


2,617 






1 821 


4 035 


Brompton ville 




1,239 


2,603 




2 507 


2 945 


3,507 




2,022 


2,407 


2,592 


St Stephen 


2 840 


2 836 


3,452 


Kenogami 






2,557 




3 644 


3,856 


3,380 


Iberville 


1,512 


1,905 


2,454 


Bathurst 


1 044 


960 


3,327 


Richmond 


2,057 


2,175 


2,450 




1,398 


1,906 


2,198 


Nicolet 


2,225 


2,593 


2,342 




1 444 


2 039 


2 173 


Windsor 


2,149 


2,233 


2,330 




2 044 


1 804 


1,976 


BaieSt. Paul 


1,408 


1,857 


2,291 




1 075 


1,442 


1,973 


Beauharnois 


1,976 


2,015 


2,250 




862 


1,650 


1,958 


Ste. Anne de Bellevue 


1,343 


1,416 


2,212 








1,924 


Mont-Laurier 


_ 


752 


2,211 


Marvsville... 


1,892 


1,837 


1,614 


Bagotville 


507 


1,011 


2,204 



174 



POPULATION 



33. Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,009 and 5,000 inhabitants in 
1921, as compared with 1901 and 1911. continued. 



Towns and Villages. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Towns and Villages. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Q uefoec concluded . 


1 364 


1 335 


2 193 


Ontario. 

Dundas 


3,173 


4,299 


4,978 




783 


2,224 


2,189 


Renfrew 


3,153 


3,846 


4,906 




1 451 


2 388 


2,158 


Thorold 


1,979 


2,273 


4,825 




1 248 


1 737 


2,068 


Brampton 


2,748 


3,412 


4,527 




1 555 


1 588 


2,066 


Port Hope 


4,188 


5,092 


4,456 




1 797 


1 886 


2,063 


Cobalt 




5,638 


4,449 




1 822 


1 990 


2,056 


Sandwich 


1,450 


2,302 


4,415 




1 586 


1 559 


2,032 


Paris 


3,229 


4,098 


4,368 








1,989 


Sturgeon Falls 


1,418 


2,199 


4,125 




1,583 


1,751 


1,919 


Goderich 


4,158 


4,522 


4,107 






1,717 


1,904 


Arnprior 


4,152 


4,405 


4,077 




826 


1,449 


1,883 


Penetanguishene 


2,422 


3,568 


4,037 




352 


703 


1,882 


Wallaceburg 


2,763 


3,438 


4,006 


Ste Rose 


1,154 


1,480 


1,811 


Simcoe 


2,627 


3,227 


3,953 








1,793 


St. Marys 


3,384 


3,388 


3,847 


St Tite 


991 


1,438 


1,783 


Timmins 






3,843 








1,776 


Carleton Place 


4,059 


3,621 


3,841 




1 565 


1,675 


1,77 


Perth 


3,588 


3,588 


3,790 






1,167 


1,764 


Mimico 


437 


1,373 


3,751 




_ 




1,756 


Haileybury 




3,874 


3,743 




1,306 


1,587 


1,748 


Leamington 


2,451 


2,652 


3,675 






1,355 


1,735 


Newmarket 


2,125 


2,996 


3,626 


Sacr Coeur de J6sus 


206 


996 


1,709 


Gananoque 


3,526 


3,804 


3,604 




1,272 


1,653 


1,693 


Parry Sound 


2,884 


3,429 


3,546 


Bedford 


1,364 


Ii432 


1,669 


Rockland 


1,998 


3,397 


3,496 




1 199 


1,602 


1,667 


Port Colborne 


1,253 


1,624 


3,415 


St Joseph (Richelieu) 


647 


1,416 


1 , 658 


Picton 


3,698 


3,564 


3,356 


Ste Anne de Beaupr6 


847 


2,066 


1,648 


Cochrane 




1,715 


3,306 




1,018 


1,606 


1,646 


Oakville 


1,643 


2,372 


3,298 




1 120 


1 211 


1,554 


Bowmanville 


2,731 


2,814 


3,233 




1 175 


1 402 


1,549 


Dunnville 


2,105 


2,861 


3,224 




296 


1 224 


1,492 


Weston 


1,083 


1,875 


3,166 








1,488 


Petrolia 


4,135 


3,518 


3,148 




481 


1,005 


1,466 


Fort Frances 


697 


1,611 


3,109 




851 


1,004 


1,462 


Napanee 


3,143 


2,807 


3,038 








1,457 


Tilsonburg 


2,241 


2,758 


2,974 


Trois-Pistoles 




_ 


1,454 


Campbellf ord 


2,485 


3,051 


2,890 




_ 


1,677 


1,448 


Whitby 


2,110 


2,248 


2,800 




1,117 


1,440 


1,445 


Hanover 


1,392 


2,342 


2,781 




615 


861 


1,442 


Hrfspeler 


2,457 


2,368 


2,777 








1,419 


Amherstburg 


2,222 


2,560 


2,769 


Belceil - 


702 


1,501 


1,418 


Bui lington 


1,119 


1,831 


2,709 


St Benoit Joseph Labre . . 




1 070 


1,416 


Strathroy 


2,933 


2,823 


2,691 




1 122 


1 265 


1,401 


New Toronto 


209 


686 


2,669 




1 108 


1 363 


1,394 


Meaford 


1,916 


2,811 


2,650 








1,360 


Prescott 


3,019 


2,801 


2,636 






1 171 


1,354 


Copper Cliff 


2,500 


3,082 


2,597 




_ 




1,332 


Merritton 


1,710 


1,670 


2,544 




1 605 


1,747 


1,320 


Listo wel 


2,693 


2,289 


2,477 








1,311 


Bracebridije 


2,479 


2,776 


2,451 


St F61icien 


_ 


581 


1 306 


Almonte 


3,023 


2,452 


2,426 




_ 




1,293 


Bridgeburg 


1,356 


1,770 


2,401 




1,017 


1,331 


1,290 


Portsmouth 


1,827 


1,786 


2,351 








1,267 




2,97! 


2,601 


2,344 


Gi ffard 






1,254 


Aurora 


1,590 


1,901 


2,307 




995 


1,458 


1,234 


New Liskeard 




2,108 


2,268 








1,225 


Hunts ville 


2,152 


2,358 


2,246 






1 024 


1 213 




1,91 


2,323 


2,195 


Port d Alfred 






1 213 


Aylmer 


2,204 


2,102 


2,194 








1,17 




2,511 


2,340 


2,187 




934 


1,12 


1,15 


Wingham 


2,392 


2,238 


2,092 




62 


89 


1,14 


Kincardine 


2,077 


1,956 


2,077 




1 21 


1 16 


1,14 




1,313 


1,583 


2,061 


St R6mi 


1 080 


1 02 


1,13 


Clinton 


2,547 


2,254 


2,018 


Greenfield Park 






1,11 




1,060 


1,782 


2,016 








1,104 


Grimsby 


1,00 


1,669 


2,004 


St Eustache 


1,07 


99 


1,09 


Milton 


1,37 


1,654 


1,873 




69 


88 


1,09 


1 Ridgetown 


2,40 


1,954 


1,855 




81 


89 


1,07 


Deseronto 


3,52 


2,013 


,847 


Chambly Basin 


84 


90C 


1,06 


Blind River 


2,65 


2,55 


,843 


St George East 


544 


1 41 


1,05 




2,245 


1,983 


,829 








1,04 


Mitchell 


1,945 


1,76 


,800 






79 


1,03 




1,39 


1,534 


,796 


Abord-a-Plouffe... 


_ 




1,01 


Kingsville 


1,53 


1,42 


1,783 



POPULATION OF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 



175 



S3. Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 
1921, as compared with 1901 and 1911. concluded. 



Towns and Villages. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Towns and Villages. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


Ontario concluded. 
Wiarton 


2,443 


2,266 


1,726 


Manitoba concluded. 
Souris 


839 


1 854 


1 710 


Acton 


1,484 


1,720 


1,722 


Carman 


1 439 


1 071 


1 5Q1 


Mount Forest 


2,019 


1,839 


1,718 


Minnedosa 


1 052 


1 483 


1 505 


Chealey 


1,734 


1,734 


1,708 


Virden ... 


901 


l 550 


1 361 


Tilbury 


1,012 


1,368 


1,673 


Morden .... 


1 522 


1 130 


1 268 


Thessalon 


1,205 


1,945 


1,651 


Stonewall 


589 


1 005 


1 112 


Essex . . 


1,391 


1,353 


1,588 


Tuxedo 






1 (]R9 


Blenheim 


1 653 


1 387 


1 565 










Fort Erie 


890 


1 146 


1 546 


Saskatchewan. 








Southampton 


1,636 


1,685 


1,537 


North Battleford (city) 




2 105 


4 108 


Humberstone 






1,524 


Swift Current (city) 


121 


i 059 


3 518 


Palmerston 


1,850 


1,665 


1,523 


Weyburn (city) 


113 


2 210 


3 193 


Vankleek Hill 


1,674 


1,577 


1,499 


Melville 




1 816 


2 808 


Durham 


1,422 


1,581 


1,494 


Estevan 


141 


1 081 


2 290 


Port Dalhousie 


1,125 


1,152 


1,492 


Kamsack 




473 


2 002 


Gravenhurst 


2,146 


1,624 


1,478 


Humboldt 




859 


822 


Victoria Harbour 


989 


1,616 


,463 


Melfort 




599 


746 


Port Dover 


1,177 


1,138 


,462 


Biggar 




315 


535 


Mattawa 


1,400 


1,524 


,462 


Indian Head 


768 


i 985 


439 


Morrisburg 


1,693 


1,696 


,444 


Canora 




435 


230 


Rainy River 




1,578 


,444 


Battleford 


609 


1 335 


1 229 


Exeter 


1,792 


1,555 


1,442 


Shaunavon 






1 146 


Forest 


1,553 


1,445 


1,422 


Gravel bourg 






1 106 


Brighton 


1,378 


1,320 


1,411 


Watrous 




781 


1 101 


Alliston 


1,256 


1,279 


1,376 


Moosomin 


868 


1 143 


1 099 


Niagara 


1,258 


1,318 


1,357 


Rosthern 


413 


1 172 


1 074 


New Hamburg 


1,208 


1,484 


1,351 


Assiniboia 






1 006 


Dresden 


1,613 


1,551 


1,339 


Kindersley 




456 


1 003 


Tweed 


1,168 


1,368 


1.339 


Maple Creek 


382 


936 


1 002 


Keewatin 


1,156 


1 24 


1,327 










L Orignal 


1,026 


1 347 


1,298 


Alberta. 








Port Elgin 


1,313 


1 235 


1,291 


Drumheller 






2 499 


Capreol 






1,287 


Red Deer (city) 


323 


2 118 


2 328 


Havelock 


984 


1,436 


,268 


Wetaskiwin (city) 


550 


2 411 


2 061 


Harriston 


1,637 


1,491 


,263 


Camrose . . . 




1 586 


1 892 


Point Edward 


780 


874 


,258 


Macleod . 


796 


1 844 


1 723 


Beamsville 


832 


1,096 


,256 


Taber 




1 400 


1 705 


Cardinal 


1,378 


1,111 


,241 


Cardston 


639 


1 207 


1 612 


Caledonia 


801 


95 


,223 


Ponoka 


151 


642 


1 594 


Kemptville 


1,523 


1,192 


,204 


Coleman 




1 557 


1 590 


Lakefield 


1,244 


1,397 


,189 


Blairmore 


231 


1 137 


1 552 


Iroquois Falls 






,178 


Vegreville 




1 029 


1,479 


Norwich 


1,269 


1,11 


1,176 


Stettler 




1 444 


1 416 


Hagersville 


1,020 


1,106 


1,169 


Raymond 




1 465 


1 394 


Riverside 






1,155 


Hanna 






1 364 


Parkhill 


1,430 


1,289 


1,152 


Vermilion 




625 


1 272 


Port Perry 


1,465 


1,148 


1,143 


High River 


153 


1 182 


1 198 


Chippawa 


460 


707 


1,137 


Eds- on . 




497 


1,138 


Elora 


1,187 


1,197 


1,136 


Redcliff 




220 


1,137 


Sioux Lookout 




550 


1,127 


Lacombe . . , . 


490 


1 029 


1,133 


Winchester 


1,101 


1,143 


1,126 


Magrath . . . 


424 


995 


1,069 


Port Credit 






1,123 








1 061 


Waterford 


1,122 


1,083 


1,123 


Big Valley 






1 057 


Arthur 


1,285 


1,102 


1,104 


Beverly 






1 039 


Bobcavgeon . . 


914 


1 000 


1 095 










PortMcNicoll 






1.074 


British Columbia. 








Shelburne 


1,188 


1,113 


1,072 


Kamloops ... . 




3 77? 


4.501 


Watford 


1,279 


1,092 


1,059 


Fernie . ... 




3 14f 


4 . 343 


Madoc 


1,157 


1,058 


1,058 


Vernon 


80? 


2 671 


3.6R5 


Richmond Hill 


629 


652 


1,055 


Cum berland 


73? 


1 237 


3,176 


Stouffville 


1,223 


1,034 


1 053 


Trail 


1 360 


1 460 


3 020 


Chelmsford . 


493 


550 


1,045 


Revelstoke 


1 600 


3 017 


2 782 


Fenelon Falls 


1,132 


1,053 


1,031 


Cranbrook 


1 1<M> 


3 0<10 


2 725 


Dryden 


140 


715 


1,019 


Kelowna 


261 


1 663 


2 520 


Eganville 


1,107 


1,189 


1,015 


Port CoQuitlam . , 






2.148 


Markham 


967 


909 


1,012 


Rossland . . . 


6,156 


2 826 


2.097 


Tavistock 


403 


981 


1,011 


Prince George 






2.053 










Ladysmith 


74C 


3.295 


1,967 


Manitoba. 








Chilliwack 


277 


1,657 


1.767 


Transcona 


_ 


_ 


4,185 


Merritt . . 




703 


1.721 


Dauphin 


1,135 


2,815 


3,885 


Grand Forks . . 


1,012 


1,577 


1.4R9 


Selkirk 


2,188 


2,977 


3 726 








1 178 


Neepawa 


1,418 


1,864 


1,887 


Port Alberni 






1 056 


Pas 






1,858 


Port Moody . 






1,030 



















176 



POPULATION 



10. Quinquennial Population of the Prairie Provinces. 

The Census and Statistics Act, 1905, provided for taking a census of population 
and agriculture in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 1906 and in every tenth 
year thereafter, thus instituting, in addition to the general decennial census for all 
Canada, a quinquennial census of population and agriculture for the three prairie 
provinces. The quinquennial census of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta was 
therefore taken as for June 1, 1916, and the complete results were published in a 
report dated January 12, 1918. A summary of the principal data was published in 
the Year Book for 1918, pages 105-112. 

Total Population of Prairie Provinces. The male and female population 
of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta (a) by provinces, (6) by the electoral dis 
tricts constituted by the Representation Act, 1914 (4-5 Geo. V, c. 51), and (c) by 
cities, towns and villages, as compared with the population by sex for 1911 and by 
totals for 1901 and 1906, was published in the Year Book of 1916-17 (pp. 95-105). 
The total population of the three prairie provinces in 1916 was returned as 1,698,220, 
as compared with 1,328,121 in 1911, 808,863 in 1906 and 419,512 in 1901. As the 
population of the prairie provinces in 1921 was 1,956,082, the increase during the 
five year period since 1916 was 257,862 or 15-18 p.c. This comparatively low 
rate of increase, as compared with the increase of 28 p.c. during the five years 
ended 1916, was undoubtedly due to the effect of the war in restricting immigration. 
Table 34 shows the population of the prairie provinces for 1901, 1906, 1911, 1916 
and 1921, the population being distinguished by sex for 1911 and 1916. In Table 35 
are furnished statistics of the population of Manitoba from 1870, and of Saskatche 
wan and Albert^, from 1901, with the percentage of increase in each quinquennium. 

34. Population of the Prairie Provinces, 1901, 1906, 1911, 1916 and 1921 



Provinces. 


1901. 


1906. 




1911. 






1916. 




1921. 




Total. 


Total. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Total. 


Males, 


Fe 
males. 


Total. 


Total. 


Manitoba 


255 211 


365 688 


252 954 


208 440 


4fi1 104 


904 fiOQ 


OKO OC1 






Saskatchewan 


91,279 


257 763 


291 730 


200 70 9 


409 439 


Ofi 3 7Q7 


OCA (\AO 




DlU, llo 


Alberta 


73 022 


185 41 9 


223 792 


isri Rno 


074. one 


977 9c.fi 






















*lv t 4W 


490,520 


5oo,454 


Total 


419,512 


808,863 


768 476 


ssq cit 


1 t2X 171 


OQZ ft-*> 
























u3o, ;U 


,9j6,08J 



35. Population of the Prairie Provinces by Sex at each Census Period from 1870 
for Manitoba and from 1901 for Saskatchewan and Alberta. 



Province and Years. 


Population. 


Increase over Preceding Census. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total., 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Manitoba 
1870 


No. 

6,317 
35,123 
59,594 
84,342 
i 

138,504 
205,183 
252,954 
294,609 
320.567 


No. 

5,911 
27,137 
49,046 
68, 164 
i 

116,707 
160,505 
208,440 
259, 251 
289.551 


Xo. 

12,228 
62,260 
10R.640 
152,506 
193,425 
255,211 
365,688 
461,394 
553,860 
610.118 


No. 

28,806 
24,471 
24,748 

54,162 
66, 679 
47,771 
41,655 
1& 9.18 


p.c. 

456-01 
69-67 
41-53 

64-22 
48-14 
23-28 
16-51 

8. SI 


No. 

21,226 
21,909 
19,118 

48,543 
43,798 
47,935 
50,811 
sn snn 


p.c. 

359-10 
80-73 
38-98 

71-22 
37-53 
29-87 
24-37 

11. RQ 


No. 

50,032 
46,380 
43,866 
40,919 
102,705 
110,477 
95,706 
92,466 

5 95fi 


p.c. 

409-16 
74-49 
40-37 
26-83 
67.34 
43-29 
26-17 

20-04 
in. 1C. 


1881.. 


1886.., 


1891 


1896 


19012 


J906 


1911.. 


1916.., 


1921.. 



1 In 1896 the Census consisted of a count of population only. 
5 Ten-year increase shown. 



POPULATION OF BRITISH EMPIRE 



177 



35. Population of Prairie Provinces by Sex at each Census Period from 1870 for 
Manitoba and from 1901 for Saskatchewan and Alberta concluded. 



Province and Years. 


Population. 


Increase over Preceding Census. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Mai 


es. 


Ferns 


les. 


Tot 


al. 


Saskatchewan 
1901 


No. 

49,431 
152,791 
291,730 
363,787 
413,700 

41,019 

108,283 
223,792 
277,256 
324,208 

228,954 
466,257 
768,476 
935,652 
1,058,475 


No. 

41,848 
104,972 
200,702 
284, 04S 
343,810 

32,003 
77, 129 
150,503 
219,269 
264,L 4!i 

190,558 
342,606 
559,645 
762,568 
897,607 


No. 

91,279 
257,763 

492,432 
647,835 
757,510 

73.022 
185,412 
374,295 
496,520 
588,454 

419,512 
808,863 
1,328,121 
1,968,220 
1,956,082 


No. 

103,360 
138,939 
72.057 
49,913 

67,264 
115,509 
53,464 
46,952 

237,303 
302,219 
167,176 
122,823 


p.c. 

209-10 
90-93 
24-70 
13-72 

162-98 
106-67 
23-89 
16-93 

103-64 
64-82 
21-75 
13-13 


No. 

63,124 

95,730 
83 , 346 
59,762 

45, 126 
73,374 
68,766 
44,977 

152,048 
217,033 
202,923 
135,039 


p.c. 

150-84 
91-20 
41-52 

21-04 

141-00 
95-13 
45-69 
20-51 

79-79 
63-35 
36-26 
17-71 


No. 

166,484 
234,669 
155,403 
109,675 

112,390 
188,883 
122,230 
91,929 

389,351 
519,25.8 
369,495 
257,862 


p.c. 

182-39 
91-05 
31-50 
16-93 

153-91 
101-87 
32-66 
18-51 

92-81 
64-20 
28-87 
15-18 


1906 


1911 


1916 


1921 


Alberta 
1901 


1906 


1911 


1916 


1921 


Prairie Provinces 
1901 


1906 


1911 


1916 


1921 





11. Population of the British Empire. 

During the decade 1911-1921 the boundaries of the British Empire were con 
tracted by the voluntary giving up of Egypt and expanded by the addition of various 
territories as a result of the war. The increases of territory were mainly in Africa, 
where the Tanganyika Territory, Southwest Africa, and portions of the Cameroons 
and Togoland were added to the Empire, with an aggregate area of 731,000 square 
miles and an estimated population of slightly over 5,000,000. In Asia the territories 
acquired by mandate from the League of Nations include Palestine and Meso 
potamia, with 3,619,282 inhabitants on an area of 152,250 square miles. In the 
Pacific the territories added to the Empire include Western Samoa, the Territory of 
New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and part of the Solomon islands, all of 
which were formerly German possessions. According to the most reliable estimates 
the total area of these regions is 90,802 square miles with a population of 637,051. 

Statistics of the area and population of the territories included in the British 
Empire in 1921 are given in Table 36, together with comparative figures of popula 
tion for 1911. 

36. Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 1911 and 1921. 

(From the British Statistical Abstract, Statesman s Year Book, and other sources.) 



Countries. 


Area in 
square 
miles, 1921. 


Population. 


Census of 
1911. 


Census of 
1921. 


Europe. 


58,340 
30,405 
\ 32,586 

227 
75 
li 
117 


36,070,492 
4,760,904 
1,250,531 
(3,139,688) 
52,016 
96,899 
19, 120 
211,564 


37,885,242 
4,882,288 
1.284.000 2 
3,139,688 3 
60,238 
89,614 
21,000 
213,000 


Scotland 


Northern Ireland 


Irish Free State 








Malta 6 


Total. Eurooe... 


121,7511 


45,601,911 


47,575,070 



6237312 



178 



POPULATION 



36. Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 
1911 and 1921 continued. 



Countries. 


Area in 
square 
miles, 1921. 


Population. 


Census of 
1911. 


Census of 
1921. 


Asia. 


80 
1,382 

31,106 
4,000 
42,000 


46,165 
12,000* 

208, 183 
21,718< 
500,000 


54,923 
12,000* 

208,1833 
25,454 
600,000 




Borneo^ 




Sarawak 


Total Borneo 


77, 106 


729,901 


833,637 




275 
25,331 

3,584 
391 

1,093,074 
709,555 


4,106,350 

274,108 
366,145 
90,594 

44,221,377 
70,88S,854 


110,000* 
4,504,549 
70,000* 
SIO.SOS- 10 
625,166 

247,003,293 
71,939,187 


Ceylon 6 


Maldive Is 




Hong Kong 








Total India 


1,802,629 


15,110,231 


318,942,480 


Straits Settlements 


1,572 
28 
62 


715,529 
6,546 
1,463 
749 


881,939 

1,100 
800 






Cocos or Keeling Is 


Total Straits Settlements and dependencies 


1,662 


724,287 


883,839 


Asiatic Mandates 
Palestine 


9,000 
143,250 


_ 


757, 182 
2,849,2821 






152,250 


- 


3,606,464 


Federated Malay States 


7,875 
3,138 
2,573 
14,037 


494,057 
294,035 
130,199 
118,708 


599,055 
401,009 
178,762 
146,064 






Pahang 


Total Federated Malay States 


27, 623 


1,036,999 


1,324,890 


Unfederated Malay States 


7,500 
3,800 
316 
5,870 
6,000 


180,412 
245,986 
32,746 
286,751 
154,073 


282,244 
338.554 
40,091 
309,293 
153,092 


Kedah . . 


Perlis . . . 




Trengganu 


Total Unfederated Malay States 


23,486 


899,968 


1,123,274 


Wei-Hai-Wei 


285 


147, 133 


1 


Total. Asia . 


2,116,084 


323,543,881 


332,302,030 


Africa. 

British East Africa 


245,060 
365,000 
110, 300 10 
640 
380 
720 
89 
39,573 
47 
34 


2,402,863 

2,843,325 
114,000 
83,000 
368,791 
6,690 
970,430 
3,477 
400 


2,376,000 
4,122,000 
3,066,327 ! 
1 197,000* 

| 385,074 

1,201,983 
3,747 
250 
130 


Tanganyika Terr (late German East Africa) 






Pemba 












Tristan da Cunha . . 



POPULATION OF BRITISH EMPIRE 



179 



Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 
1911 and 1921 continued. 



Countries. 


Area in 
square 
miles, 1921. 


Population. 


Census of 
1911. 


Census of 

1921. 


Africa concluded. 
Seychelles 


156 

68,000 

11,716 
275,000 
149,000 
291,000 
6,678 

276,966 
35,284 
50,389 
110,450 
322,400 


22,691 
344,323 

404,507 
125,350 
771,077 
822,482 
99,959 

2,564,965 
1,194,043 
528, 174 
1,686,212 


24,811 
300, 000 

437,712 
152,983 
803,620 
931,500 
133,563 

2.782,719 
1,429,398 
628,827 
2,087,636 
227,432 




South Africa 




Rhodesia Southern 


Rhodesia Northern 




Union of South Africa 


>Jatal 




Transvaal 


South West Africa 


Total Union of South Africa . . . 


795,489 


5,973,394 


7,156,012 


West Africa 


336,700 

31,000 
4,132 
79,506 
31,100 
12,600 
30,000 


J9,269,000 21 
\7, 857, 983 

146, 101 
1,503,386 
360,000* 

1,403,132" 


118,500,000 

400,000* 
240,000* 
2,078,043 
527,914 
188,265 
1,541,311 


British Cameroon . .... 


Gambia . . . 




Northern Terr Prot . 


Togoland . . . 


Sierra Leone 20 


Total, West Africa 


525,038 


20,539,602 


23,475,533 


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 


1,014,000 


3,400,000 13 


5,850,000 


Total, Africa 


3,897,930 


39,396,361 


50,678,345 


America. 

Bermuda* ... . 


19 
3,729,665 
7,500 
89,480 
8,592 
42,734 
120,000 

4,404 
166 
4,207 
89 
166 

56 
68 
50 
34 
170 
33 
305 
1,862 
114 

233 
150 
133 


18,994 
7,206,643 
3,275 
296,041 
40,458 
238, 670 
3,949 

55,944 
171,983 
831,383 
5,486 
5,615 

5,557 
26,283 
12,945 
4,075 
32,265 
12,200 
33,863 
312,803 
20,749 

48,637 
41,877 
73,636 


20,127 
8,788,483 
3,271 
307,391 
45,317 
263,683 
3,621 

53,031 
156,312 
858, 188 
5,253 
5,612 

j- 122,242 
\ 365,913 

} 

52,250 
44,925 
73,406 


Dominion of Canada 


Falkland Is. . 


British Guiana 14 . . 


British Honduras 


Newfoundland 


Labrador 


West India Islands 
Bahamas 


Barbados 


Jamaica 


Cayman Is 


Turk s and Caicos Is 


Leeward Islands 
Virgin Is 


St. Christopher 












Trinidad 


Tobago 


Windward Islands 
St Lucia 


St Vincent 


Grenada and the Grenadines 


Total, West Indies 


12,239 


1,695,321 


1,737,132 


Total, America 


4,010,329 


9,503,351 


11,169,025 


8237312* 










180 



POPULATION 



36. Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 
1911 and 1921 concluded. 



Countries. 


Area in 
square 
miles, 1921. 


Population. 


Census of 
1911. 


Census of 
1921. 


Australasia. 

Australia, Commonwealth of 
New Sout h Wales \ 


309,432 
940 
87,884 
380,070 
523,620 
975,920 
20,215 
670,500 


1,646,734 
1,714 
1,315,551 
408,558 
3,310 
282,114 
191,211 
605,813 


2,090.7i;:; 
2,57. 
1,531.529 
495,336 
3,870 
332,213 
213,877 
757,634 


Federal Capital Terr / 


Victoria 


South Australia . \ 


Northern Terr / 


\V, stern Australia 


Tasmania . . . 


Queensland 


Total, Commonwealth 15 . . 


2,974,581 


4,455,005 


5,436,794 


Territory of Papua 


90,540 
103,861 
1,260 
10 

7,083 

385 

70,000 
15,752 
3,800 
11,000 
208 
16 
2 

J 


380,000" 
1,008,468 

139,541 
23,737 

150,000 
31,121 
59 
140" 

30 
168 


276,888 
1,218,913 
37,157 
2,129 

157,266 

23,572 

350,000 
188,000* 
17,0005 
150,650* 
36,122 
59 
140 

30 

168 


Dom. of New Zealand 18 


Terr, of Western Samoa . ... 


Nauru 


Fiji 


Pacific Islands 
Tongan Is Prot. (Friendly Is.) 


Teir. of New Guinea (late German New Guinea) !,.:*. 
Xew Guinea (Kaiser Wilhelm s Land) 


Bismarck Archipelago 


Solomon Is. Prot 


Brit. Solomon Islands Prot 


Gilbert and Ellice Is. Colony 


Phoenix Group 


Pitcairn . . . . . ... 


Starbuck Is 


Jarvis Is 


Maiden * 


Total, Pacific Islands 


101,200* 


205,255 


765,741 


Total, Australasia 


3,278,535* 


6,188,2*9 


7,894,888 


Grand total 


i:t. I M,. -.!!). 


124,133,076 


149,719,258 


. 

SUMMARY BY CONTINENTS 
Europe 


121,7511 
2,116,084 
3,897,920 
4,010,229 
3,278,535- . 


45,601,214 
323,543,881 
39,296,361 
9,503,351 
6,188,269 


47,575,070 
332,302,030 
50,678,245 
11,169,025 
7,894,888 


Asia 


Airica 


America 


Australasia 





1 Territory heretofore known as the United Kingdom: area, 121,633 square miles; population, 1921, 
47,341,070. - Estimated population Northern Ireland, 1922. 3 Census 1911. No census in 1921. * Estim 
ated population. 6 Estimated population, 1919. 6 Excluding the military and persons on ships in narbour?. 
7 Administered by England under a convention dated 4th June, 1878; annexed on the 5th November, 1914. 
* By the Shantung settlement at Washington, January, 1922, Wei-Hai-Wei is restored to China. Adminis 
tered provinces only. 10 Including 16,169 square miles of water within the territorial limits of the Uganda 
Protectorate. "Estimated population, December, 1921. u Including 567,5(>1 children -sex not stated. 
13 Estimated population, 1917. 14 Exclusive of certain Aborigines estimated to number 13,000 at the census 
of 1911. 16 The population stated for Australia is exclusive of full-blooded Aborigines, estimated at 100,000 
in 1911. 16 Number of Papuans estimated. 17 Population in 1920. The area (280 square miles) and 
population (12,598 in 1911) of the Cook and other islands of the Pacific arc excluded. The Maori population 
(49,844 in I Jin is also excluded. 19 Population in 1914. Preliminary return. - l Northern Protectorate 
and Southern Nigeria and Colony in 1911. 



POPULATION OF THE WORLD 



181 



12. Population of the World. 

Statistics giving the number and density of the population of the various 
continents and countries of the world at the latest enumerations are presented in 
Table 37, which has in the main been based upon the similar table in the official 
year book of the Commonwealth of Australia. In many cases, more especially in 
Africa, the populations are rough approximations. 

37. Number and Density of the Population of the Various Countries of the World. 



Country. 


Population. 


Country. 


Population. 


Number. 


Density. 1 


Number. 


Density. 1 


Continents 


474,970,182 
1,017,676,054 
144,368,361 

145,531,487 
64,267,810 

8,569,840 


126-60 
59-86 
12-55 

18-19 
9-45 

2-46 


Asia concluded. 
Russia in Asia 


21,046,008 
10,350,730 
9,500,000 
9,121,000 
8,456,900 
6,470,250 
6,380,500 
5,731,189 
5,600,000 
5,500,000 
4,504,549 
3,452,248 
3,000,000 
3,000,000 
2,849,282 
2,500,000 

2,470,900 
2,372,403 
2,096,973 
2,000,000 
1,811,725 
1,427,000 
1,324,890 
1,214,391 
1,123,274 
883,839 

833,637 
800,000 
770,000 
025, 166 
548,472 
519,000 
500,000 
377,815 
310,808 
265,200 
250,000 
168,000 
147, 177 
110,000 
74,866 
70,000 
54,923 
12,000 


3-56 

90-48 
15-13 
45-86 
30-95 
159-64 
26-04 
144-15 
103-70 
5-50 
177-82 
156-92 
26-19 
37-97 
19-89 
96-90 

34-32 
92-10 
61-73 
34-54 
2-78 
528-52 
47-96 
79-68 
47-83 
531-79 

10-81 
8-29 
85-56 
1,598-89 
334-84 
21-62 
6-10 
51-54 
86-72 
1,353-06 
12-50 
884-21 
516-41 
440-00 
18,716-50 
608-70 
6-10 
8-68 




Philippine Islands 




Persia.? 


North and Central 
America and the 


Siam . ... 


Turkey in Asia 


Tonking 




Afghanistan 


Australasia and Poly- 


Annam . 


Nepal 


TYitfll 


Arabia (Independent) . . 
Ceylon 


1,855,383,734 


33-43 


Europe 




122,288,160 
59,857,283 
47,341,070 
40,070,161 
39,209,766 
26,886,399 

20,783,844 
17,393,149 
13,595,816 
11,337,686 
7,840,832 
7,684,272 
6,841,155 
6,131,445 
5,957,985 
5,903,762 
5,447,077 
4,861,439 
4,800,000 
3,880,320 
3,335,237 
3,289,195 
2,646,306 
1,891,000 
1,750,000 
1,503,193 
1,400,000 
351,380 
263,824 
213.000 
94,690 
49,806 
22,956 
21,000 
12,027 
10,716 
5,231 


73-78 
326-25 
388-85 
362-19 
184-38 
180-39 

106-70 
142-24 
250-55 
118-56 
219-91 
654-31 
543-73 
199-29 
167-88 
34-12 
129-90 
119-57 
31-07 
242-88 
22-30 
191-85 
21-17 
173-77 
75-56 
60-13 
121-74 
495-62 
264-08 
1,820-51 
2-38 
6,225-75 
2,869-50 
11,200-00 
316-50 
164-86 
27-39 


Syria . 


Bokhara 




Mesopotamia 




Smy rna 


Italy 


Kurdistan and Armenia 
(Turkish) 




Poland 


Georgia 


Spain (incl. Canary and 
Balearic Islands.) 
Rumania 


Azerbaijan 


Cambodia 


Far Eastern Republic. . 
Kiau Chau 




Jugoslavia 


Federated Malay States 
\rmenia 




Belgium 


Malay Protectorate. . . . 
Straits Settlements 




Austria 


British North Borneo, 
Brunei and Sarawak. 
Laos 


Portugal 






Palestine 


Bulgaria 


Hong Kong and Depend 
Goa, etc 






Khiva 




Oman 




Timor, etc 




Cyprus 




French India 




Bhutan 




Kwang Chau Wkng 
Wei-hai-wei 






Bahrein Islands 




Macao, etc 


Malta 


Maldive Islands 


Iceland 


Aden and Dependencies 
Sokotra 






Total 


Gibraltar 


1,017,676,054 


59-85 


San Marino 

Liechtenstein 


Africa- 
Belgian Congo 


16,750,000 

18,500,000 
13,387,000 
9,000,000 
8,000,000 
4,122,000 
7,156,012 
5,800,974 
4,119,000 

3,545,575 


18-41 

54-94 
38-25 
9-16 
22-86 
11-29 
8-99 
26-11 
8-50 

15-55 




Total 


Nigeria and Protector 
ate 


474,970,182 


126-60 


Asia- 
China and Dependen 
cies 




436,094,053 
247,003,293 

77,606,154 
71,939,187 
49. Nil 047 


111-43 

225-97 

297-03 
101-38 

87-38 


French Equat. Africa. 
Abyssinia : . . . . 


Tanganyika Territory. 
Union of S. Africa 
Algeria 


British India 


Japan and Dependencie 


Angola 


Feudatory Indian State 

T~liit/h "P.osat TnrliAQ 


Madagascar and adja 
cent islands. .. 



1 Number of persons per square mile. 



182 



POPULATION 



37. Number and Density of the Population of the Various Countries 

of the World concluded. 



Country. 


Population. 


Country. 


Population. 


Number. 


Density. 1 


Number. 


Density. 1 


Africa concluded. 
Morocco 


6,000,000 
5,850,000 
3,120,000 
3,066,327 
3,000,100 
2,376,000 
2,400,000 
2,093,939 

2,078,043 
2,000,000 
1,851,200 
1,735,120 
1,545,680 
1,500,000 

1,541,311 
1,225,323 
1,201,983 
400,000 

1,000,000 
860, 590 
800,000 
800,000 
700,225 
650,000 
600,000 
497,712 
188,265 
500,000 
405,681 
385,074 
300,000 
289,000 
260,000 
240,000 
227,432 
200,000 
197,000 
173, 190 
152,983 
149, 793 
133,563 
95,617 
65,000 

58,907 
24,811 
23,844 
20,000 
3,747 
250 


26-90 
5-76 
7-29 
27-79 
19-43 
9-69 
6-54 
41-88 

26-13 
50-00 
19-44 
3-94 
12-67 
9-01 

51-04 
16-54 
30-37 
31-73 

2-46 
10-26 
0-52 
7-33 
2-02 
4-66 
77-92 
42-48 
14-94 
22-84 
8-86 
475-98 
4-41 
20-73 
0-75 
58-08 
0-70 
21-12 
193-13 
178-55 
0-56 
101-21 
20-00 
66-40 
11-23 

163-63 
159-04 
29-29 
20-73 
79-72 
7-35 


North and Central 
America and West 

Indies concluded. 
Newfoundland and 
Labrador . 


267,304 
244,439 
229,822 
156,312 
170,581 
122,242 
55,036 
53,702 
53,031 
45,317 
26,051 
20, 127 
13,449 
5,612 
5,253 
3,918 


1-64 
634-91 
318-31 
941-64 
330-58 
170-73 
0-09 
133-26 
12-04 
5-27 
197-36 
1,059-32 
0-29 
25-05 
59-02 
42-13 


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.. 
Portuguese East Africa. 
Uganda Protectorate.. . 
Upper Volta 


Martinique 


Kenya Protectorate 
Senegambia and Niger. 
Tunis 


Guadeloupe and Depen. 
Barbados 


Windward Islands 


Gold Coast and Pro 
tectorate 


Leeward Islands 


Alaska 


Liberia 


Curacao 


French Guinea 


Bahamas 




British Honduras. 


Ivory Coast 


Virgin Islands of U.S.A.2 
Bermudas 


French Cameroon 


Sierra Leone and Pro 
tectorate . . 


Greenland (Danish) 
Turks and Caicos Is. ... 
Cayman Islands. 


Senegal 


Nyasaland Protect. . . 


St. Pierre and Miquelon 
Total 




Tripolitania and Gyre- 


145,531,487 


18-19 


South America- 
Brazil (incl. Acre) 


Dahomey 


30,645,296 
8,698,516 

5,855,077 
4,620,201 
3,754,723 
2,889,970 
2,411,952 
2,000,000 
1,494,953 
1,000,000 
401,428 
307,391 
113,181 
49,009 
22,858 
2,255 
1,000 


9-35 

7-54 

13-28 
6-40 
12-95 
5-62 
6-05 
17-24 
20-72 
5-69 
12-40 
3-44 
2-40 
1-53 
43-37 
0-35 
1-00 


French Sahara 


Rio de Oro and Adrar. 
Territory of \iger 


Argentine Republic 


Columbia (excl. Pana 
ma) 


Italian Somaliland 


Spanish \torocco 


Peru 




Chile . 


Xogoland (British) .. 


Bolivia 


Togoland (French) . . . 


Venezuela 


Eritrea 


Ecuador 


Mauritius and Depend., 
British Somalilcind 


Uruguay 


Paraguay 




Panama Republic 


\l!auretania .... .... 


British Guiana 


Gambia and Protect.. . 
South West Africa 


Dutch Guiana 


French Guiana , 




nama Canal Zone 
Falkland Islands 


Zanzibar and Pemba. . . 
Reunion 


South Georgia 


Bechuanaland Protect.. 
Cape Verde Islands. . . . 


Total 


64,267,810 


9-45 




Australasia and Poly 
nesia 

Commonwealth of Aus 
tralia 


Comoro and Mayotte. . 
French Somali Coast.. . 
St. Thomas and Prince 
I slands 


5,436,794 
1,218,913 
255,912 

276,888 

555,000 
200,000 
157,266 

150,650 
60,000 

55,700 

49,690 
37,157 

31,477 
36, 122 
23,572 
14,246 
8,324 
2,129 


1-83 
11-73 
39-68 
3-06 

6-19 
1-65 
22-20 

13-69 
10-91 

7-70 

51-76 
29-48 

20-71 
175-58 
61-22 
63-32 
81-61 
212-90 




Fernando Po, etc 


New Zealand 


Ilni 


Hawaii 


St ITelenn 


Papua 


Ascension 


Territory of New Gui- 


Total 


144,368,361 


12-55 


Dutch New Guinea 

Fiii 


North and Central 
America and West 
Indies- 
United States 


105,710,620 
15,501,684 
8,788,483 
2,889,004 
2,500,000 
2,003,579 
1,501,000 
1,299,809 
897,405 
858, 188 
638,119 
637,114 
468,373 
365.913 


35-55 
20-21 
2-31 
65-34 
245-00 
41-49 
113-86 
378-40 
46-42 
203-99 
12-97 
14-39 
20-36 
185-17 


Solomon Islands (Brit 
ish) 


New Hebrides 


New Caledonia and De 
pendencies 




Canada 


Marshall Islands, etc. 
(Japanese mandate) . . 
Western Samoa 


Cuba 


Haiti 




French Establishments 


Salvador 


Porto Rico 


Gilbert and Ellice Is. . . 
Tonga 


San Domingo 




Guam 


Nicaragua 


Samoa (American) 
Nauru Island 


Honduras 




Total.. 


Trinidad and Tobaeo. . . 


8,569.840 


2-46 



1 Number of persons per square mile. 2 Late Danish West Indies. 



VITAL STATISTICS 183 



II. VITAL STATISTICS. 

The collection of vital statistics commenced in Canada, as in England, with 
the registration of baptisms, marriages and burials by the ecclesiastical authorities. 
These registers, maintained by the priests from the first settlement of the country, 
have made it possible for the vital statistics of the French colony to be compiled 
from the year 1610. 1 In the beginning, only one copy of such records was made, 
but in 1678 the Sovereign Council of Quebec ordered that in future such records 
should be made in duplicate, and that one copy, duly authenticated, should be 
delivered to the civil authorities. This arrangement was continued after the cession 
of the country to England, and was extended to the newly-established Protestant 
churches by an Act of 1793, but the registration among these latter remained seriously 
defective, both in Lower Canada and in the newly-established province of Upper 

Canada. 

In English-speaking Canada, vital statistics were from the commencement 
seriously defective, the pioneer settlers often going out into the wilds far from the 
authority of government and the ministrations of religion. While a law existed in 
Upper Canada requiring ministers of religion to deposit duplicates of their registers 
of baptisms, marriages and deaths with the clerks of the peace for transmission to 
the provincial secretary, this law remained practically a dead letter. Again, the 
efforts made to secure records of births and deaths at the censuses of 1851 and 1861 
produced most unsatisfactory and even ridiculous results, as was pointed out by 
Dr. J. C. Tache, secretary of the board of registration and statistics, in a memorial 
published in the report of the Canadian Minister of Agriculture for the year 1865. 
Nevertheless, in spite of the inherent unsoundness of securing at a point of time in a 
decennial census a record of births and deaths occurring over a considerable period 
of time, this method was persisted in down to 1911, when the obviously untrust 
worthy character of the results obtained led to the discarding of the data obtained 
at the inquiry. In Montreal and Toronto, for example, the local records showed 
11,038 and 5,593 deaths respectively in the calendar year 1910, while the census 
records showed only 7,359 and 3,148 deaths respectively in the year from June 1, 
1910, to May 31, 1911. Similar discrepancies were shown for other areas, proving 
the census data to be very incomplete. 

The Dominion Government instituted in the early 80 s a plan for compiling 
the annual mortuary statistics of cities of 25,000- population and over, by subsidizing 
local boards of health to supply the information under special regulations. A 
beginning was made with the five cities of Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, Halifax 
and St. John. By 1891 the list had grown to 25, at a time when in most of the 
provinces the only birth and death statistics were those of the municipalities. Upon 
the organization of provincial bureaus of vital statistics, however, this work was 
abandoned, though a conference of Dominion and provincial officials, held in 1893, 
passed a resolution calling upon the provincial and Dominion authorities to co 
operate in the work of collecting, compiling and publishing the vital statistics of the 
Dominion. This resolution had, however, no immediate practical results in securing 
accurate or comparable vital statistics. 

Each province (except New Brunswick, which had no vital statistics) enacted 
its own legislation on vital statistics and administered such legislation according 
to its own individual methods. While the vital statistics of Ontario were published 

i For a summary of the vital statistics of the Roman Catholic population from 1610 to 1883, see the 
Statistical Year Book of Quebec, 1921, English or French edition, p. 51. For details by years of this move 
ment of population, see Vol. V of the Census ol 1871 , pp. 160-265 and Vol.IV of the Census ot 1 81, pp. 134- 



184 POPULATION 



in considerable detail annually from 1871, the arrangements for the collection of 
data were unsatisfactory. Only in 1906 was the publication of vital statistics begun 
in Prince Edward Island (no report for 1912 has ever been issued), and in Nova 
Scotia the publication of vital statistics dates only from 1909. Because of the 
lacunae, and even more because of the incomparability of facts collected, of methods 
of collection and of standard of enforcement, Canadian vital statistics remained 
extremely unsatisfactory and impossible to be compiled on a national basis, as was 
pointed out by the 1912 commission on official statistics, which recommended that 
"for the Dominion, now engaged in building up its national unity, it is important 
that uniform data should render possible to statisticians the institution of true 
interprovincial and international comparisons. By effective co-operation of the 
provinces with the Dominion this object should be capable of attainment without 
sacrificing the liberty of each province to satisfy its own special statistical require 
ments." 

The scheme of co-operation, thus outlined, has now been brought into effect as 
a consequence of the establishment of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics under the 
Statistics Act of 1918, which specifically provided that the Bureau should publish 
an annual report on vital statistics, and of the Dominion-Provincial conferences on 
vital statistics. The scheme was in the first instance drawn up in the Bureau and 
submitted to the various provinces; later a Dominion-Provincial conference on 
vital statistics was held in June, 1918, when a comprehensive and final discussion 
took place. 

At the conferences of 1918, it was agreed: (1) that the model Vital Statistics 
Act prepared by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, when accepted by the legisla 
tures, should f<;rm the basis of the vital statistics legislation of the several provinces, 
thus seeming uniformity and comparability; (2) that the provinces should under 
take to obtain the returns of births, marriages and deaths on the prescribed forms 
as approved ;u:d Adopted at the conference, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics to 
supply the forms free of charge; (3) that the provinces should forward to the Dom 
inion Bureau of Statistics, at such times as might be agreed upon, either the original 
return of births, marriages and deaths, or certified transcriptions of the same; the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics to undertake the mechanical compilation and tabu 
lation of the same. 

Under the scheme outlined above, the vital statistics of all the provinces, except 
Quebec, have been secured and compiled on a uniform basis for the year 1920, and 
with the commencement of 1921, it became possible to issue complete monthly 
statements for the eight provinces. The first annual report has been issued, covering 
the year 1921, and may be obtained on application to the Dominion Statistician. 

Statistics showing births, marriages, deaths and natural increase in the nine 
provinces of Canada in recent years are given under the various headings in the 
following tables. The statistics for the eight provinces constituting the registra 
tion area of Canada are compiled for the provinces in the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics, while the figures for Quebec are taken from the provincial returns. The 
totals for the nine provinces are approximately equivalent to what they would be 
for the Dominion as a whole, since the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Terri 
tories, which are not as yet covered by the new scheme of vital statistics, contain 
between them less than l-700th of the population of the Dominion. 

Two important considerations should be borne in mind by the students who 
use either these tables or provincial reports for comparative purposes. 



NATURAL INCREASE 185 

First, in spite of the improvements recently effected, registration generally, 
and the registration of births in particular, is not universally carried out. The great 
extent of the country, and the isolation of many of its inhabitants, partly account 
for this unsatisfactory situation. 

Secondly, the great differences in the age and sex distribution of the population 
in different provinces, as shown by the Census of 1921, make comparisons (of crude 
birth rates, for instance), as among the provinces unfair and misleading. Thus, 
for instance, in British Columbia in 1921, there were only 773 females of ages 15 to 

44 to every 1,000 males of these ages, while in Quebec there were 1,017 and in Prince 
Edward Island 986. Evidently in view of the great disproportion between the sexes 
in British Columbia, the crude birth rate per 1,000 of population in that province 
cannot properly be compared with the crude birth rate in Quebec or Prince Edward 
Island. Again, in consequence of different age distributions of population in the 
different provinces the Prairie Provinces, for instance, have a very young popula 
tion because of the healthy young immigrants whom they attract a comparison of 
crude death-rates of the provinces is misleading. In the Prairie Provinces, taken as 
a unit, only 126 per thousand of the 1911 population and 149 per thousand of the 
1921 population had passed 45 years of age, while in Quebec 178, in Ontario 233 
and in Prince Edward Island 264 per thousand of the population were in 1921 over 

45 years of age. These latter provinces, having a much larger proportion of persons 
of advanced ages, will inevitably have a higher crude death rate per thousand of 
population than the Prairie Provinces. 

The natural increase of the population of Canada is first dealt with, followed by 
detailed tables of births, marriages and deaths in the order named. 

1. Natural Increase. 

Summary statistics of the births, marriages, deaths and natural increase per 
1,000 of population are given for the years 1920, 1921 and 1922 by provinces in 
Table 38. The figures for 1922 are provisional and are not available for the province 
of Quebec, which is not included in the registration area. 

The province of Quebec has perhaps the highest rate of natural increase per 
1,000 of population of any civilized country, 20-0 in 1920 and 23-4 in 1921. This 
brings the average for Canada (exclusive of the territories) up to 15-6 in 1920 and 
17-8 in 1921, while the remaining eight provinces, constituting the registration 
area, show as their rate of natural increase 13-7 for 1920 and 15-7 in 1921. In 
Australia the average rate of natural increase for the quinquennium 1917 to 1921 
was 14-26 and in New Zealand 13-29, in England and Wales 7-20 and in Scotland 
8 54 per thousand of population, so that the registration area of Canada compares 
quite favourably with other British countries. It must be remembered, however, 
that 1917 and 1918 were war years. 

The rates of natural increase per annum per 1000 of mean population for 
other countries during recent years are as follows, the peiiod on which observation 
is based being given in each case in parentheses: Denmark (1911-15), 12-87; Japan 
(1914-17), 12-26; Netherlands (1916-20), 12-25; Norway (1911-15), 11-82; 
Finland (1913-17), 9-14; Italy (1913-17), 8- 11; Switzerland (1912-16), 7-89; 
Sweden (1916-20), 6-60; Spain (1915-19), 4-60; Ireland (1916-20), 3-89; France 
(1910-14), 0-43. 



186 



POPULATION 



The present natural increase of the population of Canada is in the neighbour 
hood of 150,000 per annum, about one-third of which is due to Quebec. 

The births, marriages, deaths and natural increase per thousand of population 
in Canadian cities having a population of 10,000 and over are given for the calendar 
year 1921 in Table 39. 



38. Summary of Births, Marriages, Deaths and Natural Increase, by Provinces 
for the calendar years 1920, 1921 and 1922. 



Province. 


Births. 


Birth 
rate per 
1,000 
living. 


Marri 
ages. 


Marri 
age 
rate per 
1,000 
living. 


Deaths. 


Death 
rate per 
1,000 
living. 


Excess 
of 
births 
over 
deaths. 


Rate of 
natural 
increase 
1,000 
per 
living. 


1920. 
Prince Edward Island 


2,301 


25-9 


607 


6-8 


1,279 


14-4 


1,022 


11-5 


^Jova Scotia 


13,181 


25-3 


4,411 


8-5 


7,563 


14-5 


5,621 


10-8 


^Cew Brunswick 


10,778 


28-1 


3,780 


9-9 


5,628 


14-7 


5,150 


ft. 4 


Ontario 


72,297 


25-0 


29,361 


10-2 


40,410 


14-0 


31,887 


11-0 




18,322 


30-6 


6,068 


10-1 


6,511 


10-9 


11,811 


19-7 




22,839 


31-1 


5,320 


7-2 


5,918 


8-1 


16,921 


23-0 


Alberta 


16,531 


29-0 


5,107 


9-0 


5,674 


10-1 


10, 857 


19-1 


British Columbia 


10,492 


20-5 


4,690 


9-2 


4,739 


9-2 


5,753 


11-8 




















Total for Registration Area. . . . 


166,741 


26-0 


59,344 


9-4 


77,722 


12-3 


89,022 


13-7 




86,328 


37-2 


21,587 


9-3 


40,686 


17-5 


45,642 


20-0 




















Canada (exclusive of the Terri 
tories) 


253,069 


39 i 


80,931 


94 


118,408 


13-7 


m.Kiu 


15 6 




















1921. 
Prince Edward Island 


2,156 


24-3 


518 


5-9 


1,209 


13-6 


947 


10-7 


N"ova Scotia 


13,021 


24-9 


3,550 


6-8 


6,420 


12-3 


6,601 


12-6 




11,465 


29-6 


3,173 


8-2 


5,410 


14-0 


6,055 


15-6 




74, 152 


25-3 


24,871 


8-5 


34,551 


11-8 


39,601 


13-5 




18,478 


30-3 


_ 5,310 


8-7 


5,388 


8-8 


13,090 


21-5 




22,493 


30-0 


5,101 


6-7 


5,596 


7-4 


16,897 


22-6 


\lberta 


16,561 


28-1 


4,661 


7-9 


4,940 


8-4 


11,621 


20-0 




10,563 


20-3 


3,889 


7-4 


4,208 


8-0 


6,445 


12-3 




















Totsl for Registration Area 


168,979 


26-3 


51,073 


8-0 


67,722 


10-6 


101,257 


15-7 


Quebec 


88,749 


37-6 


18,659 


7-9 


33,433 


14-2 


55,316 


23-4 


Canada (exclusive of the Terri 
tories) 


257,788 


29 4 


69,732 


8-0 


101,155 


11 5 


156,573 


17-8 


1922. 


2,055 


23-4 


579 


6-6 


1,089 


12-4 


966 


11 -0 




12,591 


23-8 


3,167 


6-0 


6,616 


12-5 


5,975 


11-3 




11,461 


29-2 


2,795 


7-1 


5,129 


13-1 


6,332 


16-1 




71,264 


23-9 


23,360 


7-8 


33,969 


11-4 


37, 295 


12-5 




17,694 


28-3 


4,808 


7-7 


5,747 


9-2 


11,947 


19-1 




21,897 


27 -9 


5,061 


6-4 


6,016 


7-7 


15,881 


20-2 




15,896 


26-0 


4,263 


7-0 


5,115 


8-4 


10,781 


17-6 


British Columbia 


9,694 


18-0 


3,657 


6-8 


4,494 


8-3 


5,200 


9-7 


Total for Registration Area 


162,552 


24-8 


47,690 


7-3 


68, 175 


10-4 


94,377 


14-4 





















NOTE. All figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 

Birth, marriage and death rates for 1920 and 1922 are calculated on the estimated population for 1920 
and 1922, and for 1921 on the population as shown by the census of 1921. 



NATURAL INCREASE 



187 



39. Summary of Births, Marriages, Deaths and Natural Increase, by Cities of 10,000 

and over, for the calendar year 1921. 



Cities. 


Census 
population, 
1921. 


Births. 


Marriages. 


Deaths. 


Excess 
of births 
over 
deaths. 


Natural 
increase 
per 1,000 of 
population. 


P. E. Island- 
Charlotte town 


10,814 


337 


148 


278 


59 


5-45 


Nova Scotia 

Halifax 


58,372 


1,836 


922 


903 


933 


15-98 


Sydney 


22,545 


472 


227 


278 


194 


8-60 


Glace Bay . . 


17,007 


255 


111 


223 


32 


1-88 


New Brunswick 

St. John 


47,166 


1,225 


558 


785 


440 


9-33 


Moncton 


17,488 


620 


204 


235 


385 


?2-01 


Quebec 


618,506 


21,136 


5,984 


10,293 


10,843 


17-53 


Quebec 


95,193 


4,015 


857 


1,806 


2,209 


23-21 




25,001 


839 


93 1 


281 


558 


22-32 


Hull 


24,117 


1,075 


193i 


258 


817 


33-88 


Sherbrooke 


23,515 


785 


175 1 


339 


446 


18-97 


Three Rivers 


22,367 


955 


182 


392 


563 


25-17 


Westmount 


17,593 


71 


31i 


138 


-67 


3-81 


Lachine 


15,404 


602 


59 


193 


409 


26-55 




13 249 


92 


35 > 


80 


12 


0-91 


St Hvacinthe 


10 859 


308 


94 1 


132 


176 


16-21 




10 625 


567 


71 1 


174 


393 


36-99 


J^evis 


10,470 


357 


46 1 


208 


149 


14-23 


Ontario- 
Toronto 


521,893 


13,378 


6,309 


5,884 


7,494 


14-36 


Hamilton 


114,151 


3,498 


1,354 


1,459 


2,039 


17-86 


Ottawa . 


107,843 


3,250 


1,149 


1,644 


1,606 


14-89 


Xjondon 


60, 959 


1,458 


672 


974 


484 


7-94 


Windsor 


38,591 


1,326 


653 


465 


861 


22-31 


B rantf ord 


29,440 


858 


329 


338 


520 


17-66 


Kitchener 


21,763 


611 


247 


261 


350 


16-08 




21 753 


648 


262 


430 


218 


10-02 


Fort William ... 


20 541 


695 


204 


255 


440 


21-42 


Peterborough. . 


20 994 


554 


260 


273 


281 


13-38 


Sault Ste Mane 


21 092 


706 


245 


265 


441 


20-91 


St Catharines 


19 881 


710 


259 


298 


412 


22-73 


Guelph 


18,128 


424 


226 


316 


108 


5-96 


Stratford 


16,094 


458 


200 


231 


227 


14-10 


St Thomas 


16,026 


385 


170 


223 


162 


10-11 


Port Arthur 


14 886 


518 


165 


197 


321 


21-56 


Sarria 


14,877 


379 


166 


181 


198 


13-31 


N iagara Falls 


14,764 


447 


383 


172 


275 


18-63 


Chatham 


13,256 


391 


212 


231 


160 


12-07 


Gait 


13,216 


359 


125 


158 


201 


15-21 


Belleville 


12,206 


365 


159 


206 


159 


13-03 


Owen Sound .... 


12 190 


332 


109 


185 


147 


12-06 


Oshawa 


11 940 


409 


111 


154 


255 


21-36 


North Bay 


10 692 


417 


124 


130 


287 


26-84 


Brockville 


10,043 


258 


114 


177 


81 


8-07 


Manitoba 

W innipe " 


179 087 


6 323 


2,810 


1,774 


4,549 


25-40 


Brandon 


15,397 


492 


234 


214 


278 


18-06 


St Boniface 


12 821 


472 


157 


316 


156 


12-17 


Saskatchewan 

Regina 


34,432 


1,171 


680 


376 


795 


23-09 


Saskatoon 


25 739 


938 


572 


332 


606 


23-54 




19 285 


695 


393 


213 


482 


24-99 


Alberta- 
Calgary 


63,305 


2,086 


1,074 


722 


1,364 


21-55 


Edmonton 


58,821 


2,136 


1,059 


782 


1,354 


23-02 


Lethbridge 


11,097 


406 


234 


156 


250 


22-53 


British Columbia- 
Vancouver 


117,217 


3,298 


1,606 


1,377 


1,921 


16-39 


Victoria 


38,727 


926 


426 


437 


489 


12-63 


New Westminster. . . 


14.495 


441 


177 


227 


214 


14-76 



1 Catholics only. 



188 



POPULATION 



2. Births. 

Almost throughout the civilized world, the birth rate has in the past generation 
been on the decline, though the consequent decline in the rate of natural increase 
has to a considerable extent been offset by a decline in the death rate. 

The crude birth rate of England and Wales, for example, was 35-4 per 1,000 
population on the average of the decennium 1871-80, 32-5 in 1881-90, and 29-9 in 
1891-1900. In 1913 the birth rate was 24-1 and though it rose to 25-5 in 1920 it 
fell again to 22 -4 in 1921. 

Similarly in France, the crude birth rate declined from an average of 25-4 per 
1,000 population in the 1870 s, 23-9 in the 1880 s and 22 -2 in the 1890 s to 20-4 in 
1920. In Germany, again, the crude birth rate was 39-1 in the 1870 s, 36-8 in the 
1880 s, 36-1 in the 1890 s and 23-6 in 1922. 

In Canada the birth rate still stands at the comparatively high figure of 29-4 
per 1,000 in 1921 the last year for which complete figures are available. This is, 
however, largely due to the influence of Quebec, where the birth rate stood at the 
very high figure of 37-6 per 1,000 in 1921, as compared with 26-3 per 1,000 in the 
registration area, where the figures varied from 20-3 per 1,000 in British Columbia 
to 29-6 in New Brunswick, 30-0 in Saskatchewan and 30-3 in Manitoba. 

Preliminary figures for 1922 show 162,552 living births, of which 158,738 
were single births; 1,889 were twin births (3,778 infants); and there were 12 cases 
of triplets (36 infants). Complete statistics for 1920 and 1921 are given in Table 40. 

40. Summary Analysis of Birth Statistics for the calendar years 1920 and 1921. 



Province. 


Living births. 


Single 
births. 


Number 
pairs of 
twins. 




Il 
legiti 
mates. 


Birth 
rate per 
1,000 
popu 
lation. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


WumDe 
cases o 
triplets 


1920. 
Prince Edward Island. . . 
Nova Scotia 


1,172 
6,740 
5,578 
37,044 
9,399 
11,836 
8,463 
5,458 


1,129 
6,439 
5,200 
35,253 
8,923 
11,003 
8,068 
5,034 


2,301 
13,179 
10,778 
72,297 
18,322 
22,839 
10,531 
10,492 


2,257 
12,872 
10,540 
70,655 
17,845 
22,221 
16,107 
10,292 


22 
152 
113 
791 
231 
303 
209 
100 


1 
1 
20 
5 

4 
2 


71 
453 
234 
1,387 
328 
219 
273 
96 


25-9 
25-3 
28-1 
25-0 
30-6 
31-1 
29-0 
20-5 


New Brunswick 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Total Registration Area. 
Quebec 


85,690 
44,975 


81,049 
41,353 


166, 739 
86,328 


162,798 
_i 


1,921 
-i 


33 

_i 


3,061 
_i 


26-0 
37-2 


Canada (exclusive of the 
Territories) 


130,66: 


132,402 


253,067 


162, 798 * 


1,8*1- 


332 


3,061- 


29 4 

24-3 
24-9 
29-6 
25-3 
30-3 
30-0 
28-1 
20-3 


1921. 
Prince Edward Island. . . 
Nova Scotia 


1,073 
6,695 
5,942 
38,307 
9,455 
11,620 
8,493 
5,549 


1,083 
6,326 
5,523 
35,845 
9,023 
10,873 
8,068 
5,104 


2,156 
13,021 
11,465 
74,152 
18,478 
22,493 
16,561 
10,653 


2,104 
12,702 
11,209 
72,548 
18,025 
21,873 
16,171 
10,404 


26 
158 
128 
784 
222 
304 
192 
123 


1 

12 
3 
4 
2 
1 


49 
396 
205 
1,592 
420 
258 
299 
128 


New Brunswick 
Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Total Registration Area. 
Quebec 


87,134 
46,705 


81,845 
42,044 


168,979 
88,749 


165,036 
_i 


1,937 
_i 


23 
-i 


3,347 
_ i 


26-3 
37-6 


Canada (exclusive of the 
Territories) 


133,839 


123,889 


257,728 


165,036" 


1,937 s 


232 


3.34V2 


29 4 





1 These statistics are not available for the Province of Quebec. 

2 Partial totals for eight provinces, figures for Quebec not being available. 



BIRTHS 



189 



Undoubtedly the test of birth rate most generally accepted by vital statisticians 
is supplied by the comparison of the total number of legitimate births with the 
total number of married women between the ages of 15 and 45, though a small 
number of births occur where the mothers are either below 15 or past the 45th 
birthday. This test is applied to the registration area of Canada in Table 41. 

41. Births per 1,000 Married Women of Child-bearing Age, by Provinces, 1921. 



Province. 


Married 
women 
between 
the ages of 
15 and 45 
years. 


Legitimate 
births. 


Legitimate 
births 
per 1,000 
married 
women of 
child-bear 
ing age. 


Prince "Edward. Island 


No. 

8,610 


No. 

2,107 


No. 

245 




57,916 


12,625 


218 




44,333 


11,260 


254 




379,307 


72,560 


191 




82,325 


18,058 


219 




104,348 


22,235 


213 




83,353 


16, 262 


195 


British Columbia 


73,039 


10,525 


144 




833,231 


165,632 


199 


Quebec 


265,488 


88,749 


3341 


Canada (exclusive of Territories) 


1,09S,719 


354,3811 


232 1 











i No statistics of illegitimate births in Quebec are available. The total number of births in Quebec 
has accordingly been used, though as a result the fertility of Quebec and of Canadian married women is 
somewhat overestimated. 

Table 42 shows the number of living births reported for each province in 1921 
which were male and female, together with the proportion of male to female births. 
Prince Edward Island is the only province in which the number of female births 
exceeded male births. The preliminary figures for 1922 indicate that among every 
1,000 born in 1922, 512 were males and 488 females, as compared with a proportion 
of 516 to 484 in 1921 and 514 to 486 in 1920. 

42. Births by Sex and Ratio of Males to Females, 1921. 



Province. 


Births, 1921. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males 
to 
1,000 
females. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Prince Edward Island 


2,156 
13,021 
11,465 
74, 152 
18,478 
22,493 
16,561 
10,653 


1,073 
6,695 
5,942 
38, 307 
9,455 
11,620 
8,493 
5,549 


49-8 
51-4 
51-8 
51^7 
51-2 
51-7 
51-3 
52-1 


1,083 
6,326 
5,523 
35,845 
9,023 
10,873 
8,068 
5,104 


50-2 
48-6 
48-2 
48-3 

48-8 
48-3 
48-7 
47-9 


999 
1,058 
1,073 
,069 
.018 
,069 
,053 
,087 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick . . 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Total Registration Area 
Quebec 


158,979 

88,749 


87,134 
46,705 


51-6 
52-6 


81,845 
42,044 


48-4 
47-4 


1,065 
1,111 


Canada (exclusive of the 
Territories) 


257,728 


138,839 


51 9 


123,889 


48 1 


1,080 





190 



POPULATION 



Illegitimacy. The ratio of illegitimate to total births is, generally speaking, 
low in Canada as compared with other countries. 

Out of 168,979 living births in the registration area of Canada 3,347, or 2 p.c., 
were returned in 1921 as the issue of unmarried mothers. Preliminary statistics 
for 1922 show that out of 162,552 births reported in the registration area, 3,308 or 
2 p.c., were illegitimate. Statistics are given in Table 43. 

43. Illegitimate Births in Registration Area by Age of Mother and by Provinces, 

1921 and 1922. 



Age of mother. 


P.E.I. 


N.8. 


N.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


SasK. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


Total. 


1921. 
Under 15 years 


1 




3 


11 


4 


5 




2 


9ft 


15-19 


14 


151 


72 


551 


144 


106 


1 


50 


1 089 


20-24 


19 


168 


84 


528 


154 


66 


1 


45 


1 065 


25-29 


7 


43 


26 


208 


56 


31 


1 


13 


385 


30-34 


3 


16 




112 


30 


30 




14 




35-39 




9 


- 


63 


19 


11 




2 


111 


40-44 




5 


: 


15 


9 


5 




2 


39 


45-49 








4 


2 








R 


Not given 


5 


4 


3 


100 


2 


4 


296 




414 






















Male 


16 


201 


113 


796 


222 


122 


154 


68 


1 692 


Female 


33 


195 


92 


796 


198 


136 


145 


60 


1 655 






















Total births 


49 


396 


iil. i 


1,592 


420 


258 


299 


128 


3 347 






















Per cunt of total births. . . 


2-3 


3-0 


1-8 


.2 1 


2-3 


1-1 


1-8 


1-2 


2-0 


1922. 
Under 15 vears 




2 


3 


20 


5 


1 


6 


2 


39 


15-19 


14 


182 


89 


544 


110 


105 


105 


51 


1 230 


20-24 


16 


171 


78 


479 


145 


75 


104 


29 


Y *<< 

1 097 


25-29 


10 


H 


26 


192 


56 


27 


36 


15 


420 


30-34 


5 


24 


8 


102 


37 


21 


22 


9 


228 


35-39. . . 




12 


8 


58 


20 


13 


17 


3 


131 


40-44 




5 


5 


14 


6 


3 


4 




37 


45-49 




1 




1 


1 








3 


Not given 


4 




4 


98 




2 


15 




/ 

123 






















Afule 


23 


236 


115 


822 


210 


131 


169 


45 


1 751 


Female 


26 


219 


106 


686 


200 


116 


140 


64 


1,557 






















Total births . 


49 


r>:> 


221 


1,508 


410 


247 


309 


109 


3,308 






















Per cent of total births . . . 


2-4 


3-6 


1-9 


2-1 


2-3 


1-1 


1-9 


1-1 


2-0 



NOTE. The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 



BIRTHS 



191 



Stillbirths. Statistics of the number of children born dead in 1921 and 1922 
are shown below for the registration area of Canada, according to the status and 
age of the mother. In Quebec in 1921 there were in all 2,837 still-births. 

44. Stillbirths in Registration Area by Age and Status of Mother, and by 

Provinces, 1921 and 1922. 



Age of mother. 



1921. 

Under 15 years of age 

15 years 

16 " 10 

17 " 11 

18 " 26 

19 " 16 

20 " 21 

21 10 

22 18 

23 14 

24 16 

25 9 

26 12 

27 6 

28 - 3 

29 " 

30 years and over 

Unknown 

Total 240 

1922. 

Under 15 years of age 

15 years 5 

16 " 11 

17 " 15 

18 " 22 

19 " 16 

20 " 13 

21 " 7 

22 " 9 

23 " 12 

24 " 9 

25 " 13 

26 " 5 

27 " 2 

28 " 3 

29 " 2 

30 years and over 

Unknown 

Total.. 192 



Stillbirths, Registration Area. 



Unmar 
ried 
mothers . 



Married mothers. 



Total. 



P.E.I. 



3 

2 

3 

24 
11 



58 



63 



\-.s. 



2 

6 

5 

8 

12 

18 

12 

15 

19 

23 

21 

12 

16 

22 

164 

141 



496 



2 

5 

9 

13 

12 

11 

27 

15 

15 

28 

21 

18 

19 

23 

197 

1 



416 



3 

7 

6 

8 

4 

19 

11 

8 

10 

12 

10 

11 

10 

8 

87 
100 

314 



8 

9 

2 

8 

9 

6 

11 

15 

13 

11 

11 

14 

112 

28 



259 



Ont. 



o 

12 

43 

78 

92 

85 

125 

127 

157 

158 

173 

106 

150 

119 

1,284 

626 



3,340 



1 

4 

19 

45 

54 

89 

97 

99 

130 

137 

108 

146 

157 

119 

107 

1,310 

388 



3,010 



Man. 



1 
4 
11 
11 
10 
10 
21 
14 
20 
25 
21 
35 
23 
16 
253 
111 

586 



13 
10 
11 
14 
24 
20 
18 
29 
25 
28 
34 
21 
314 
3 



566 



Sask. 



1 
1 

2 

4 

11 

9 

16 

20 

23 

18 

14 

20 

17 

22 

29 

16 

276 

129 



628 



1 

6 

10 

16 

22 

20 

16 

23 

20 

13 

22 

32 

20 

255 

145 



621 



Alta. 



399 



399 



1 

7 

12 

7 

17 

12 

18 

19 

17 

12 

14 

18 

22 

182 

69 



427 



B.C. 



7 
4 
4 
6 
4 

11 
7 
9 

11 
9 

76 
175 



326 



1 

1 
1 
1 
4 

4 

10 

14 
2 

13 
9 
6 
6 

91 
132 



295 



3 

4 

24 

44 

103 

132 

162 

169 

219 

203 

243 

258 

263 

204 

244 

193 

2,198 

1,721 

6,387 



18 
47 
111 
125 
155 
182 
202 
227 
248 
235 
250 
264 
247 
217 
2.513 
797 



NOTE. Figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 



Birth Rates in Various Countries. The relative position occupied by Can 
ada and its individual provinces among the countries of the world with respect to 
crude birth rate (the annual number of births per 1,000 of population) is shown in 
Table 45. 



192 



POPULATION 



45. Crude Birth Rates of Various Countries in Recent Years. 



Country. 


Year. 


Crude 
Birth 
Rate. 


Country. 


Year. 


Crude 
Birth 
Rate. 


Russia, European 


1909 


44-0 


Finland ... 


1920 


25-1 


Rumania 


1914 


42-5 


Switzerland 


1920 


25-1 


Bulgaria 


1911 


40-2 


Australia 


1921 


25-0 


Serbia 


1912 


38-0 


Prussia 


1921 


24-9 


Quebec 


1921 


37-6 


Norway 


1921 


24-6 


Chile 


1914 


37-0 


South Australia 


1921 


24-1 


Ceylon 


1920 


36-5 


Ontario 


1922 


23-9 


Japan 


1921 


35-1 


Nova Scotia ... 


1922 


23-8 


Jamaica 


1919 


34-1 


United States^ .... 


1920 


23-7 


Portugal 


1920 


32-2 


Germany 


1922 


23 -6 


Spain 


1921 


30-4 


Prince Edward Island 


1922 


23-4 


Hungary 


1922 


29-4 


Western Australia 


1921 


23-4 


Canada 


1921 


29-4 


New Zealand 


1921 


23-3 


New Brunswick 


1922 


29-2 


Victoria 


1921 


23-2 


Union of >S. Africa (whites).. . . 


1920 


28-9 


United Kingdom 


1921 


22-5 


Manitoba 


1922 


28-3 


England and Wales 


1921 


22-4 


Netherlands 


1920 


28-2 


Austria 


1920 


22-1 


Saskatchewan 


1922 


27-9 


Belgium 


1920 


21-4 


Tasmania 


1921 


27-0 


Sweden 


1921 


21-4 


Queensland 


1921 


26-6 


France 


1920 


20-4 


New South Wales 


1921 


25-9 


Ireland 


1921 


20-2 


Denmark 


1921 


25-5 


Italy 


1917 


19-0 


Scotland 


1921 


25-2 


British Columbia . 


1922 


18-0 















Birth Registration Area. 



3. Marriages. 



Nearly a century ago it was observed in the United Kingdom that the number 
of marriages tended to be high when the price of wheat was low and to be low when 
the price of wheat was high. This was quite naturally the case among a population, 
the majority of which was living at a comparatively low standard of comfort, and 
where the staple food, as a consequence, was the chief factor in the cost of living. 

More recently, the curve showing mairiage rates has in the United Kingdom 
and in other English-speaking countries ceased to bear any constant relation to the 
price of wheat, the staple food of the people, though it still does so in poorer countries. 
Its place in influencing the marriage rate, has, however, been taken by the general 
level of prosperity. Marriages in such countries as the United Kingdom, the United 
States, Canada and Australia tend to increase in "good times" and to diminish in 
"hard times," when great numbers of those who are contemplating marriage are 
led to postpone such marriage until the advent of better industrial conditions. 

Even in the short period covered by the vital statistics of the registration area 
of Canada, the truth of the above statement is supported by the evidence. In 
1920, a year of great prosperity, the marriages occurring in the registration area of 
Canada numbered 59,344 or 9-4 per thousand of population; in 1921 they declined 
to 51,073 or 8-0 per thousand, and in 1922 to 47,690 or 7-3 per thousand of popula 
tion, largely owing to the industrial depression in these years. It should also be 
mentioned, of course, that there doubtless occurred in 1920 a number of deferred 
marriages, which under more normal conditions would have occurred in the war 
years. Summary statistics of marriages contracted in 1921 and 1922 appear in 
Table 46. 



MARRIAGES 



193 



46. Marriages and Marriage Rates, by Provinces, 1921 and 



Provinces. 


Population 
in 
thousands, 
1921. 


Marriages, 1921. 


Population 
in 
thousands, 
1922. 


Marriages, 1922. 


No. 


Per 

1,000 
pop. 


No. 


Per 

1,000 
pop. 


Prince Edward Island 


89 
524 
388 
2,934 
610 
758 
589 
525 


518 
3,550 
3,173 
24,871 
5,310 
5,101 
4,661 
3,889 


5-8 
6-8 
8-2 
8-5 
8-7 
6-7 
7-9 
7-4 


88 
528 
392 
2,981 
626 
786 
611 
539 


579 
3,167 
2,795 
23,360 
4,808 
5,061 
4,263 
3,657 


6-6 
6-0 
7-1 
7-8 
7-7 
6-4 
7-0 
6-8 


Nova Scotia . 


New Brunswick . . . 


Ontario 


Manitoba 




Alberta 


British Columbia 


Canada (registration area) 


6,417 
2,361 

8,775 


51,073 
18,659 

69,733 


8-0 
7-9 

8-0 


6,551 


47,690 


7-3 


Quebec 


Canada (exclusive of the Terri 
tories) 





NOTE. The figures for 1922 are preliminary. 

Conjugal Condition of Brides and Grooms. Statistics showing the 
previously existing conjugal condition of the contracting parties in the 51,073 
marriages which took place in the registration area in 1921 are presented in Table 47. 

47. Previous Conjugal Condition of Brides and Grooms, 1921. 



Marriages between 



Provinces. 


Bachelors and 


Widowers and 


Divorced Men and 


Spin 
sters. 


Wi 
dows. 


Di 
vorced 
Women. 


Spin 
sters. 


Widows. 


Di 
vorced 
Women. 


Spin 
sters. 


Wi 
dows. 


Di 
vorced 
Women. 


Prince Edward Island 
Nova Scotia 


No. 

446 
2,965 
2,607 
20,958 
4,438 
4,240 
3,787 
2,975 


No. 

17 
154 
141 
1,052 
254 
303 
276 
247 


No. 

10 
23 
49 
40 
26 
40 
92 


No. 

28 
227 
221 
1,657 
307 
289 
276 
243 


No. 

25 
168 
141 
1,032 
215 
204 
220 
186 


No. 

3 
7 
20 
6 
2 
10 
27 


No. 

1 
18 
19 
68 
38 
24 
37 
67 


No. 

1 
4 

8 
28 
9 
11 
7 
19 


No. 

1 

6 
7 
3 
2 
8 
33 


New Brunswick 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Canada (registration 
area) 


42,416 


2,444 


280 


3,248 


2,191 


75 


272 


87 


CO 





Nativity of Brides and Grooms. It may be noted in Table 48 that more 
than 50 p.c. of brides and grooms in the western provinces were not Canadian born, 
while in the eastern provinces in most instances more than 70 p.c. were native born. 
In Prince Edward Island 97 p.c. of contracting parties were Canadian born. In 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick more than 80 p.c. were native born. Altogether 
40-1 p.c. of the grooms and 36-7 p.c. of the brides were born outside of Canada. 



6237313 



194 



POPULATION 



48. Nativity, by Percentages, of Persons Married in the Registration Area, 

by Provinces, 1921. 



Province-. 


Popu 
lation in 
thous 
ands. 


Marriages. 


Per cent distribution of Grooms and Bride.- by 
Nativity. 


Total. 


Per 

1,000 
popu 
lation. 


Born in province 
of residence 


Born in other 

provinces. 


Born 

where. 


Grooms. 


Brides. 


Grooms. 


Hrides. 




Brides. 


Prince Edward 
Island 


89 
524 
388 
2,9?4 
610 
758 
589 
525 


518 

3,550 
3,173 
24,871 
5,310 
5, 101 
4,661 
3,889 


5-8 
6-8 
8-2 
8-5 

--7 
6-7 
7-8 
7-4 


92-3 
76-3 
73-4 
03 -6 
26-4 
7-1 
7-0 
13-7 


94-6 
81-3 
78-0 
66-7 
37-2 
15-6 
14-2 
18-3 


5-0 
8-4 

10-1 
5-6 
18-1 
31-1 
26-1 
22-6 


1-9 
4-5 
8-4 
4-7 
14-1 
28-1 
25-1 
2(1-5 


2-7 
17-3 
16 -5 
30-8 
55-5 
61-5 
66-9 


3-5 

14-2 
13-(> 
38-6 
4S-7 
56-3 
60-7 
61-2 


Nova Scotia . . 


New Brunswick 
Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


\lberta 


British Columbia. 

Canada (registra 
tion area) 


6,417 


51,073 


79 


46 9 


52 


13 


11 3 


Ml 


36 7 





Marriage Rates in Various Countries. For comparative purposes, the 
crude marriage rate per 1,000 of population in various countries of the world is 
shown for the indicated years in Table 49. 

49. Crude Marriage Rates of Various Countries in Recent Years. 



Country. 


Year. 


Crude 
Marriage 
Rate. 


7 

Country. 


Year. 


Crude 
Man i 
R:i 




1921 


11-9 


Canada 


1921 


79 




1922 


11-1 


Quebec 


1921 


7-9 




1922 


10-5 


Tasmania 


1921 


:-s 




1911 


10-3 


Queensland 


1921 


7-8 




1921 


10-3 


.Ontario 


1922 


7-8 




1919 


9-9 


Manitoba 


1922 


7-7 




1920 


9-9 


France 


1913 


7-5 




1911 


9-4 


Austria 


1912 


7-4 




1921 


9-2 


New Brunswick 


1922 


7-1 




1921 


9-1 


Alberta 


1922 


7-0 




1920 


9-0 


Xorway 


1921 


6-9 




1921 


8-9 


British Columbia 


1922 


6-8 




1921 


8-8 


Finland 


1920 


6-7 




1920 


8-8 


Sweden 


1921 


6-6 




I J M 


8-8 


Prince Edward Island 


1922 


5-6 




1921 


8-7 


Saskatchewan 


1922 


6-4 




1921 


8-6 


Ireland 


1919 


6-1 




1914 


8-5 


Nova Scotia 


1922 


6-0 




1921 


8-4 


Chile 


1907-10 






1912 


8-0 


Ceylon 


1920 


5-2 




1921 


8-0 


Portugal 


1918 


5-0 




1921 


8-0 


Italv 


1920 


4-1 




1909 


7.9 


-la maica 


1909-12 


4-1 















4. Deaths. 

Within the past century and more especially within the past generation there has 
occurred generally throughout the countries of the white world a notable decline in 
the death rate, except where man has brought death upon himself through wars 
and the aftermath of wars. How far t his decline has been due to advances in medical 
science, how far to better sanitation and how far to the improvement in the 
general conditions of living as a result of the increase in the productive power of 
humanity, is in dispute, but concerning the facts there is no doubt. 



DEATHS 



195 



Perhaps the most impressive testimony regarding this decline in the death 
rate is furnished by the mortality statistics of Sweden, where vital statistics have 
been kept with great accuracy for the whole nation ever since 1750. There the 
crude death rate declined from an average of 35-67 per 1,000 in the decade 1751-60 
to 14-29 in the decade 1911-20, and to 12-78 (preliminary figure) in 1922. 

Similarly, in England, the crude death rate, which was 22-6 per 1,000 in the 
60 s and 21-3 in the 70 s and 18-2 in the 90 s of the last century, declined to 15-5 
in 1906, 13-8 in 1913 and 12-1 in 1921. In Scotland, again, the rate was 22-1 in 
the 60 s, 21-8 in the 70 s, 18-5 in the 90 s, 16-4 in 1906 and 13-6 in 1921. 

Of course, the preceding statements are not to be taken to mean that every 
year will show a decline in the death rate as compared with the preceding year. 
There will always be years of specially high mortality, as for instance 1918, when the 
death rate in Ontario, the most populous of the provinces included in the registra 
tion area of Canada, was 15-3 per 1,000 as against 12-0 in 1917 and 11-9 in 1919", 
Over a decade, however, these idiosyncrasies of individual years are reduced ta 
negligibility, and it remains true that from decade to decade there is, generally 
speaking and under normal conditions, a decline in the crude death rate of the count 
ries of the white world. 

As for Canada, there is little doubt but that the decline in the death rate which 
has been observed in other countries has also occurred among ourselves, though 
on account of the improved registration in recent years the diminution of the death 
rate is not apparent from the statistics collected. In Quebec, however, where the 
same methods of registration have been employed for many years, the mortality 
has shown a decline in recent years from 17-89 per 1,000 in 1910 to 14-15 per 1,000 
in 1921, largely on account of the reduction in infant mortality. 

The total deaths and death rates are given in Table 50 for the registration area 
of Canada, by provinces. It is worthy of note that the total deaths in 1921 and 
1922 (preliminary figures for the latter year) show a considerable decline as com 
pared with 1920, the first year in which the statistics are available on a comparative 
basis for the area. 

50. Deaths and Death Rates by Provinces, 1920, 1921 and 1922. 



Provinces. 


Population 
(in thousands). 


Total 
Deaths. 


Crude death rate per 
1,000 population. 


1920 
estirn. 


1921 
census. 


1922 

estirn. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


Prince Edward Island 
Nova Scotia . 


89 
520 
384 
2,889 
598 
735 
570 
511 


89 
524 
388 
2,934 
610 
757 
588 
525 


88 
528 
392 
2,981 
626 
786 
611 
539 


1.279 
7,563 
5,628 
40,410 
6,511 
5,918 
5,674 
4,739 


1,209 
6,420 
5,410 
34,551 

5,388 
5,596 
4,940 
4.208 


1,089 
6,616 
5,129 
33,969 
5,747 
6,016 
5,115 
4,494 


14-4 
14-5 
14-7 
14-0 
10-9 
8-0 
10-0 
9-3 


13-6 
12-3 
13 -fl 
11-8 
8-8 
7-4 
8-4 
8-0 


12-4 
12-5 
13-1 
11-4 
9-2 
7-7 
8-4 
8-3 


Xe\v Brunswick 


Ontario 


Manitoba 
Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Canada (registration area) 
Quebec 


6,296 
2,323 


6,415 
2,361 


6,551 


77, 722 
40,686 


67,722 
33,433 


68,175 


12-3 
17-5 


10-6 
14-2 


10-4 


Canada (exclusive of 
Territories). . 


8.619 


S.776 




I18.4M 


III I.I.-,.-, 




IS. 7 


ill 





Mortality by Sex. According to Table 51, the number of male children born 
in 1921 in the registration area exceeded the total male deaths for the year by 
50,723, while the gain in the female population during the same period was 50.534. 
62373131 



196 



POPULATION 



That is to say, while the number of male children born exceeded the females by 
5,289, yet, owing to the higher mortality among males as compared to females, 
98 : 77, the net increase for the year of the male over the female population in the 
registration area was reduced to 189. 

51. Excess of Births over Deaths, by Provinces, for each Sex and by Totals, 1921. 







Males. 






Females 




Both sexes. 


Provinces. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Excess of 
births over 
deaths. 


Births. 


Deatns. 


Excess of 
births over 
deaths. 


Excess of 
births over 
all deaths. 


Prince Edward Island. . 
Nova Scotia 


1,073 
6,695 


619 
3,372 


454 

3,323 


1,083 
6,326 


590 
3,048 


493 
3,278 


947 
6,601 


N^ew Brunswick 


5,942 


2,858 


3,084 


5,523 


2,552 


2,971 


6,055 


Ontario 


38,307 


18,062 


20,245 


35,845 


16,489 


19,356 


39,601 


Manitoba 


9,455 


2,964 


6,491 


9,023 


2,424 


6,599 


13,090 




11,620 


3,078 


8,542 


10,873 


2,518 


8,355 


16,897 


Alberta 


8,493 


2,858 


5,635 


8,068 


2,082 


5,986 


11,621 


British Columbia 


5,549 


2,600 


2,949 


5,104 


1,608 


3,496 


6,445 


















Total 


87,134 


36,411 


50,723 


81,845 


31,311 


50,534 


101,357 



















Mortality by Cause. In Table 52 are shown the deaths in the registration 
area in 1921 and 1922 by twenty leading causes. In both years diseases of the 
heart headed the list with 8-9 p.c. in 1921 and 9-6 p.c. in 1922 a significant increase. 
Pneumonia came second with 8-8 p.c. in 1921 and 9-3 p.c. in 1922, cancer in third 
place with 7-13 p.c.. in 1921 and 7-47 p.c. in 1922, and tuberculosis in fourth place 
with 7-07 p.c. in 1921 and 6-76 p.c. in 1922. While a comparison covering only 
two consecutive years must be considered as of a very tentative nature, the increases 
in heart disease and cancer must be regarded as very significant, especially since 
similar increases are occurring in other countries. On the other hand, the decline in 
tuberculosis must be considered as altogether satisfactory. 

52 Deaths in the Registration Area of Canada from Twenty Leading Causes, 

1921 and 1922. 



Causes of Death. 


P.E.I. 


N.S. 


N.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


Total. 

6,021 
5,966 
4,826 
3,903 
886 
3,250 
3,218 
2,914 

2,600 
2,555 
2.2B5 
2,041 
1,297 
940 
905 
862 
809 
816 
735 
678 
20,235 


1921. 


96 
97 
77 
112 
16 
20 
42 
126 

47 
15 
27 
44 
16 
20 
15 
9 
36 
11 
9 
6 
368 


563 
505 
480 
579 
123 
195 
241 
614 

211 
161 
291 
196 
63 
70 
87 
49 
144 
56 
44 
39 
1,709 


420 
500 
279 
344 
69 
141 
295 
389 

175 
88 
149 
126 
56 
84 
4(i 
35 
96 
47 
37 
30 
2,004 


3,394 
3,005 
2,585 
1,731 
352 
1,630 
1,619 
1,404 

1,553 
1,824 
1,029 
1,145 
653 
509 
510 
493 
382 
344 
511 
358 
9,520 


429 
563 
427 
305 
115 
330 
377 
82 

177 
127 
185 
116 
148 
57 
71 
81 
52 
72 
34 
54 
1,586 


339 
498 
309 
256 
66 
460 
326 
136 

143 
99 
247 
140 
172 
69 
S3 
90 
18 
123 
34 
47 
1,941 


308 
446 
281 
260 
53 
3iO 
243 
98 

97 
84 
252 
111 
156 
67 
47 
60 
48 
107 
31 
33 
1,848 


472 
352 
388 
316 
92 
164 
75 
65 

197 
157 
85 
163 
33 
64 
46 
45 
33 
56 
35 
111 
1,259 








Tuberculosis, other organs 


Diarrhoea and enteritis. . . 
Senility 


Cerebral haemorrhage, 














Congenital malformations 








All other causes 


Total. . . 


1,209 


6,420 


5,410 


34,551 


5,388 


5,596 


4,940 


4,208 


67,722 



DEATHS BY CAUSES 



197 



52. Deaths in the Registration Area of Canada from Twenty Leading Causes. 

1921 and 1922 concluded. 



Causes of Death. 


P.E.I. 


N.S. 


N.B, 


Ont. 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


Total. 


1922. 
Diseases of heart 


Ill 


578 


487 


3,752 


442 


368 


318 


534 


6,590 


Pneumonia 


107 


659 


481 


3,135 


561 


539 


443 


395 


6,320 


Cancer 


85 


534 


321 


2,605 


445 


345 


317 


440 


5,092 


Tuberculosis, lungs 


96 


559 


354 


1,629 


307 


254 


238 


320 


3,757 


Tuberculosis, other organs 
Premature birth 


15 

20 


132 

228 


63 

188 


347 
1,672 


69 

366 


86 
444 


65 
370 


75 

189 


852 
3,477 


Diseases of arteries 


20 


140 


110 


2,044 


157 


124 


124 


154 


2,873 


Diarrhoea and enteritis. . . 
Senility 


23 
142 


165 
561 


207 
337 


1,112 
1,266 


520 
82 


421 
161 


285 
82 


106 
60 


2,839 
2,691 


Cerebral haemorrhage, 
apoplexy 


45 


278 


169 


1,586 


168 


106 


89 


148 


2,589 


Influenza 


24 


218 


196 


961 


183 


293 


269 


209 


2,353 


Nephritis 


33 


210 


134 


1,100 


179 


160 


126 


156 


2,098 


Congenital debility 


26 


217 


170 


874 


172 


258 


148 


73 


1,938 


Diphtheria 


7 


45 


44 


410 


150 


199 


134 


23 


1,012 


Congenital malformations 
Bronchitis 


3 
13 


55 
95 


33 
39 


491 
445 


94 
73 


101 
54 


73 
83 


53 
40 


903 
842 


Appendicitis 


4 


57 


39 


331 


89 


125 


125 


66 


836 


Anaemia chlorosis 


13 


44 


31 


525 


50 


32 


33 


47 


775 


Paralysis 


22 


115 


100 


368 


37 


25 


27 


40 


734 


Diabetes mellitus 


8 


52 


45 


370 


58 


44 


55 


74 


706 


All other causes 


272 


1,674 


1,581 


8,946 


1,545 


1,877 


1,711 


1,292 


18,898 






















Total.. 


1,089 


6,616 


5,129 


33,969 


5,747 


6,016 


5,115 


4,494 


68,175 



Tuberculosis. Deaths assigned to tuberculous affections numbered in the 
aggregate, 4,789 in 1921 and 4,608 in 1922, the latter figures being subject to revision. 
The males numbered 2,439 in 1921 and 2,353 in 1922; the females, 2,350 and 2,255 
respectively. The mortality rate for the registration area was 747 per million 
people in 1921 and 703 per million (provisional) in 1922. In England the crude 
rate per million population was 1,131 in 1920. Tuberculosis caused in 1921 out of 
every 1,000 deaths, 106 in Prince Edward Island, 109 in Nova Scotia, 76 in New 
Brunswick, 60 in Ontario, 78 in Manitoba, 58 in Saskatchewan, 63 in Alberta and 97 
in British Columbia. 

53. Deaths from Tuberculosis in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1922. 



Sites. 


P.E.I. 


N.S. 


N.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


Total. 


1921. 

Respiratory system. Total 
M 
F 
Meninges and central 
nervous system Total 
.\i 
F 
Intestines and peri 
toneum Total 


112 
57 
55 

7 
2 
5 

4 


579 
274 
305 

52 
38 
14 

22 


344 
147 
197 

31 
17 
14 

18 


1,731 

856 
875 

119 

67 
52 

85 


305 
165 
140 

50 
27 
23 

23 


256 
131 
125 

18 
11 

7 

17 


260 
133 
127 

17 
9 

8 

20 


316 
211 
105 

46 
26 
20 

16 


3,903 
1,974 
1,929 

340 
197 
143 

205 


M 

F 
Vertebral column . . .Total 
M 
F 
Joints Total 


3 
1 

2 

2 


10 
12 
13 
11 
2 
3 


8 
10 
6 
3 
3 


31 
54 
28 
12 
16 
14 


11 
12 
6 
3 
3 
4 


4 
13 
5 
3 
2 
2 


12 

8 
3 
3 

2 


6 
10 
7 
5 
2 
4 


85 
120 
70 
40 
30 
29 



F 
Other organs Total 


2 


2 
1 
11 


10 


6 
8 
48 


1 
3 
11 


1 
1 
6 


2 
5 


2 
2 
6 


12 
17 

99 


M 
F 
Disseminated Total 


2 
1 


7 
4 
22 


6 
4 
4 


26 
22 
58 


5 

6 
21 


2 
4 
18 


3 

2 
6 


4 
2 
13 


53 
46 
143 


M 
F 
Total, both sexes .... 


1 
128 


8 
14 
702 


2 
2 
413 


32 
26 
2 083 


9 
12 
420 


14 
4 
322 


3 
3 
313 


10 
3 
408 


78 
65 
4,780 


M 
F 


62 
66 


350 
352 


183 
230 


1,030 
1,053 


221 

199 


166 
156 


163 
150 


264 
144 


2,439 
2,350 



198 



POPULATION 



53. Deaths from Tuberculosis in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 

1922 concluded. 



Sites. 


P 1" T 


N.S. 


N.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


S:\sk. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


Total. 






















1922. 




















Kft-pirutorv svstem. . . .V 


50 


266 


177 


797 


149 


127 


121 


214 


1,901 


F 


46 


293 


176 


832 


158 


127 


117 


106 


1,855 


Menimu S and central 




















nervous svstem \> 


2 


38 


7 


82 


17 


15 


12 


16 


169 


F 


1 


2: 


9 


45 


10 


14 


7 


10 


123 


Intestines and periton 




















eum . V 


1 


10 


9 


35 


3 


11 


S 


12 


89 


F 


5 


10 


14 


59 


11 


8 


10 


8 


125 


Vertebral column M 


2 


3 


4 


15 


1 


4 


4 


5 


38 


F 





5 


1 


16 


4 


2 


2 


1 


31 


Joints M 


1 


6 


1 


4 


_ 


2 


] 


5 


20 


r 


1 


2 




9 


2 




2 




16 


Other organs M 


_ 


4 


6 


24 


2 


8 


9 


3 


56 


i 


_ 


8 


2> 


22 


4 


1 


3 


S 


43 


Disseminated M 


_ 


9 


5 


27 


10 


15 


4 


10 


80 


F 


2 


10 


5 


29 


5 


6 


3 


2 


62 


Total, both st \rs. 


111 


691 


416 


1,976 


376 


: .!ii 


303 


395 


4,608 


M 


56 


336 


209 


964 


182 


182 


159 


265 


2,353 


F 


55 


355 


207 


1,012 


194 


158 


144 


130 


2,255 



X"iE. . The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 

Cancer. Deaths assigned to cancer aggregated in 1921 4,826, 2,309 males 
and 2,517 females, and in 1922 5,092, 2,414 males and 2,678 females. The crude 
rate was in 1921, 752 and in 1922, 777 per million population. Out of every 1,000 
deaths in the registration area in 1922, 75 were assigned to cancer as compared with 
71 in 1921. By provinces, the number of deaths due to cancer per 1,000 total deaths 
were in 1922 as follows, figures for 1921 being given in parentheses for comparative 
purposes: Prince Kdward Island, 78 (64); Nova Scotia, 81 (75); New Brunswick, 
<))! (52); Ontario, 77 (75); Manitoba, 77 (79); Saskatchewan, 57 (55); Albcrla, 
() 2 (57); British Columbia, 98 (92). 

54. Deaths from Cancer in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1922. 





















Total, 


Sites. 


P.K.I. 


N.S. 


N.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


regis 
tration 




















area. 


1921. 




















Buccal cavitv M 


3 


13 


6 


87 


9 


11 


~ 


13 


147 


F 


- 


1 


1 


11 


3 


- 


1 


- 


17 


Stomach and liver M 


21 


96 


76 


483 


118 


89 


85 


90 


1,058 


F 


13 


90 


17 


877 


78 


48 


28 


49 


730 


Peritoneum, intestines, 




















and rectum M 


5 


33 


11 


178 


29 


18 


32 


32 


338 


F 


7 


41 


17 


213 


24 


18 


16 


38 


374 


Female genital organs. . . F 


4 


38 


23 


236 


43 


29 


20 


40 


433 


Breast F 


6 


19 


20 


235 


21 


31 


16 


29 


377 


Skin. . M 


1 


11 


7 


41 


4 


3 


6 


5 


78 


F 




3 




25 




4 




- 


32 


Unspecified organs M 


9 


65 


35 


387 


58 


41 


40 


53 


688 


F 


8 


70 


36 


312 


40 


17 


32 


39 


554 


Total-... ..M. 


39 


218 


135 


1,176 


218 


162 


168 


193 


2,309 


F 


38 


262 


144 


1,409 


209 


147 


113 


195 


2,517 


Total, both sexes. .. . 


77 


480 


279 


2,S8f 


tr, 


309 


281 


388 


1,82$ 



COMPARATIVE DEATH RATIOS 



199 



54. Deaths from Cancer in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1923 concluded. 



Site-. 


P.E.I. 


N.S. 


X.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


. B.C. 


Total, 
regis 
tration 
area. 


1922. 
Jiuccal oavitv M 


- 


20 


13 


80 


14 


13 


10 


12 


167 


F 
Stonuicb and liver M 


18 


4 
109 


1 
64 


14 
476 


109 


2 
97 


78 



103 


25 
1,054 


F 
Peritoneum, intestines, 
and rectum M 


14 
6 


112 
23 


60 
23 


391 

20.3 


87 
33 


56 
29 


43 
23 


73 
34 


836 
374 


Female <:enital organs. . .F 
J5reu-t . F 


5 
4 

11 


44 
36 
34 


30 
15 
23 


236 

243 
231 


22 
46 
33 


14 

25 
24 


29 
36 
21 


36 
45 
37 


415 

450 
414 


Skin M 


2 


19 


7 


49 


7 


4 


10 


6 


104 


F 

Unspecified oro tin- ^1 


1 
9 


4 

67 


5 
43 


27 
379 


60 


1 
53 


2 
45 


2 
59 


42 
715 




10 


62 


37 


277 


34 


27 


20 


29 


496 


Total- V 


40 


238 


150 


1.187 


223 


196 


166 


214 


2,414 


F 


45 


296 


171 


1.418 


222 


149 


151 


.226 


2,678 


Total, both sexes 


85 


534 


321 


2,605 


US 


345 


317 


440 


5,092 



XOTE. The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 

Comparative Death Rates of Different Countries. In Table 55 will be 
found a comparative statement of the crude death rates of various countries and 
provinces for the latest available year. It is worthy of note that three Canadian 
provinces have the lowest death rates in the list, and that the registration area of 
Canada ha* a lower death rate than any other leading country except Australia 
;md New Zealand. The low death rates are in all three cases due in part to a favour 
able age distribution of population. 

55. Crude Death Rates of Various Countries in Recent Years. 



Country. 


Year. 


Crude 
Death 
Rate. 


Country. 


Year. 


Crude 
Death 
Rate. 




1922 
1922 
1922 
1921 
1922 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1932 
1921 
1921 
1920 
1922 
1921 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1922 
1922 
1921 
1920 
1920 


7-7 
8-3 
8-4 
8-7 
9-2 
9-3 
9-5 
9-9 
10-0 
10-3 
10 4 
10-4 
10-5 
11-1 
11-4 
11-5 
11-9 
12-1 
12-4 
12-4 
12-5 
12-5 
12-9 
13-1 


iS ew Brunswick 


1922 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1920 
1922 
1920 
1921 
1920 
1916 
1922 
1912 
1921 
1911 
1919 
1921 
1914 
1914-18 
1907-16 
1909 
1920 


13-1 
13-4 
13-6 
13-6 
14-2 
14-2 
14-4 
15-1 
15-2 
16-2 
16-5 
20-1 
20-8 
21-1 
21-3 
21-5 
22-2 
22-7 
23-8 
24-4 
28-6 
28-9 
29-6 




Belgium 




Scotland 




Prussia 




Quebec 




Ireland . . . , 




Switzerland 




Germany 




Finland 




Austria 




France 




Italy 




Hungary 


Union of South Africa (whites) 




Spain 




Bulgaria 




Jamaica 




Japan 




Rumania 




Portugal 




Chile 




Russia, European 




Ceylon 


United States 





Registration Area. 



200 



POPULATION 



Infantile and Maternal Mortality. 

In recent years a great part of the energy devoted by the medical profession 
and sanitarians to bring about a decline in the death rate has gone to reduce infant 
mortality, and in this field a large measure of success has been attained. In Canada 
both the Dominion, provincial and municipal health authorities have taken part 
in the struggle to reduce infantile mortality, and usually, in the absence of epidemics, 
each year is showing an improvement. Even in the three years for which the figures 
are available for the registration area, there is evident a considerable decline in 
infantile mortality. While in 1920 more than 10 p.c. of all children born died in the 
first year of life, in 1921 the proportion dropped to 8-8 p.c. or 14,893 deaths in a 
total of 168,979 births, and in 1922 the infantile death rate showed a further 
betterment, dropping to 8-6 p.c. or 14,069 deaths in a total of 162,552. Deaths of 
children under one year of age constituted 20-6 p.c. of all deaths in 1922, as com 
pared with 21-9 p.c. in 1921, and 21-4 p.c. in 1920. Table 56 shows that in nearly 
every province the infant death rate per 1,000 living births is lower in 1922 than it 
was in the two preceding years. 

56. Infantile Mortality by Provinces, together with the rate per 1,000 Living Births, 

1920, 1921 and 1922. 



Provinces. 


Infant Deaths. 


Infant Death Rate 
per 1,000 Births. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


Prince Edward Island 


184 
1,536 
"1,454 
7,497 
1,882 
1,958 
1,545 
638 


180 
1,311 
1,299 
6,768 
1,533 
1,814 
1,391 
602 


150 
1,225 
1,188 
5,910 
1,666 
1,874 
1,430 
626 


80-0 
116-5 
134-9 
103-7. 
102-7 
85-7 
93-5 
60-8 


83-5 
100-7 
113-3 
91-2 
83-0 
80-6 
84-0 
56-5 


73-0 
97-3 
103-7 
S2-9 
94-2 
85-6 
90-0 
64-6 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Canada (registration area) 


16,694 
14,134 


14,893 
11,387 


14,069 


100-1 
163-7 


88-1 
128-3 


86-6 


Quebec 


Canada (exclusive of the territories) 


30,828 


36,280 


- 


121-8 


102 


- 


i 



NOTE. The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 

Infant Mortality by Sex. Table 57 shows that while male births in 1921 ex 
ceeded female births by 5,289, yet owing to the greater mortality among male 
infants, their net advantage at the end of the year was only 3,066. For the registra 
tion area, the ratio of deaths to 1,000 births was 98 for males, as against 77 for 
females, and 88-1 per 1,000 births both sexes. 



INFANT MORTALITY 



201 



57. Number and Ratio of Infant Deaths in the Registration Area to Living Births, 

by Sex and Provinces, 1921. 



Provinces. 


Males. 


Females. 


Both 

Sexes. 


Living 
Births. 


Deaths under 1 yr. 


Living 
Births. 


Deaths under 1 yr. 


Deaths 
per 
1,000 
Births. 


Number. 


Per 1,000 
Births. 


.Number. 


Per 1,000 
Births. 


Prince Edward Island 


1,073 
6,695 
5,942 
38,307 
9,455 
11,620 
8,493 
5,549 


95 
738 
740 
3,918 
888 
1,048 
808 
343 


88 
110 
124 
102 
92 
90 
95 
62 


1,083 
6,326 
5,523 
35,845 
9,023 
10,873 
8,068 
5,104 


85 
573 
559 
2,845 
665 
7G6 
583 
259 


80 
90 
101 
79 

74 
70 
72 
51 


83-5 
100-7 
113-3 
91-2 
83-0 
80-6 
84-0 
56-5 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick , 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


British Columbia 


Totals.. 


87,134 


8,558 


98 


81,845 


6,335 


77 


88-1 



Infant Mortality by Cause. More than 82 p.c. of the total infant mortality in 
1921 was attributed to 12 diseases, being 83 p.c. for male children and 82 p.c. for 
female children. In 1922 the same 12 causes were responsible for more than 86 p.c. 
of the infant mortality. In Table 58 are given the statistics of infant mortality 
by causes for both years. 

58. Infantile Mortality by Sex in the Registration Area, by Principal Causes of 

Death, 1921 and 1922. 







192). 






1922. 






Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Premature birth 


1,862 


1,391 


3,253 


1,998 


1,479 


3,477 


Diarrhoea and enteritis 


1,348 


969 


2,317 


1,203 


931 


2,134 


Congenital debility 


1,322 


943 


2,265 


1,139 


797 


1,936 


Pneumonia 


918 


676 


1,594 


889 


661 


1,550 


Bronchitis 


150 


116 


266 


104 


94 


198 


Congenital malformations 


470 


363 


833 


504 


385 


889 


Convulsions 


325 


201 


526 


284 


205 


489 


Whooping cough 


194 


212 


406 


143 


138 


281 


Other infectious diseases 


293 


190 


483 


527 


370 


897 


Syphilis 


45 


33 


78 


34 


30 


64 


Meningitis .... 


92 


83 


175 


58 


44 


102 


Hernia 


64 


41 


105 


50 


27 


77 


Cause of death not stated 


472 


354 


826 


408 


293 


701 


Other diseases . .... 


1,003 


763 


1,766 


727 


547 


1,274 
















Total ... 


8,558 


6,335 


14,893 


8,068 


6,001 


14,069 


Rate ner 1,000 livins births. . . 


98-2 


77-7 


88-1 






86-6 



NOTE. The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 

Infant Mortality in Various Countries. The rate of infant mortality to 
living births has been greatly reduced in civilized countries by the recent advances 
in medical science and in sanitation. The low record is held at the present time by 
New Zealand, where in 1921 the rate of infantile mortality was only 47-8 per 1,000 
living births as compared with 68 in 1905. Queensland, with an infantile mortality 
rate of 54-2 in 1921, made a remarkable record for a sub-tropical country, while 
Norway and Sweden with rates of 62 3 and 64 4 respectively in the latest available 
years, were the lowest among European countries. 

As showing the improvement in recent years, it may be stated that the rate of 
infantile mortality in England and Wales has been reduced from 128 per 1,000 
living births in 1905 to 83 in 1921, while the rate in Germany has declined from 
196 in 1904 to 134 in 1921. In the Netherlands, again, the rate has declined from 



21Y2 



POPULATION 



131 per 1,000 living births in 1905 to 72-8 in 1920. Statistics arc given by loading 
countries in Table 59. 

59. Rate of Infant Mortality per 1,000 Living Births in Various Countries of the 

World in Recent Years. 



Country. 


Year. 


Rate of 
infant 
mortality. 


Country. 


Vi .ir. 


Rate of 
infant 
mortality. 




1921 


47-8 


Scotland 


1921 


90-0 




1921 


54-2 


Alberta 


1922 


90-0 




1919 


62-3 


Denmark 


1920 


90- 7 


^Vew South Wales 


1921 


62-6 


Manitoba . 


1922 


94-2 




1917 


64-4 


Finland 


1920 


96-7 




1922 


64-6 


Xova Scotia, 


1922 


97-3 




1921 


65-5 


Belgium 


1919 


102-9 




1921 


65 7 


New Brunswick 


1922 


103-7 




1921 


72-8 


Quebec 


1921 


128-3 




1920 


72-8 


German v 


1921 


134-0 




1922 


73-0 


Prussia 


1922 


134-0 




1921 


76-0 


Serbia 


1911 


146-0 




1912 


78-0 


Snain 


1921 


147-4 




1921 


78-0 


Italy 


1921 


147-5 




1921 


78-3 


Bulgaria 


1911 


156-0 




1919 


82-0 




1919 


161-0 




1922 


82-9 


Japan 


1921 


168-5 




1921 


83-0 


Cevlon . . 


1920 


182-0 




1921 


83-0 


Rumania 


1914 


187-0 




1920 


83-8 


Hungary 


1922 


199-6 




1922 


85-6 


\\istria 


1918 


205-8 


I nited States 1 


1920 


85-8 


Russia, European 


1909 


248-0 


Canada 1 


i9r* 


86 6 


Chile 


1914 


286-0 



1 Registration Area. 

Infant Mortality in Cities. In former times cities wore considered to be 
"the gravoyaids of population." The number of deaths, consequent upon the rapid 
spread of infectious diseases, was generally greater than the number of births and 
it was the prevailing opinion that cities would naturally come to an end if they were 
not being constantly reinforced by fresh young life from the prolific countryside. 
The unhoahhiness of cities was especially destructive of infant life, and it is one of 
the greatest triumphs of our time that the city life is in our days, if not as 
healthy, yet not necessarily more dangerous to human life or especially to infant 
life, than life in the country as a whole. 

To give particular examples, the rate of infantile mortality in London, England 
\\as in 1921, 80 per 1,000 living births as compared with a rate for England and 
\Valos of 83 per 1,000. New York City experienced in 1921 an infant mortality of 
71 per 1,000 as against a rate of 85 -8 per 1,000 for the registration area of the United 
States. The department of the Seine (Paris) had in 1919 an infantile mortality 
of 113 per 1,000 living births as compared with 123 for the 77 departments of France 
for which the vital statistics were collected. In Germany again, the infant mor 
tality for Berlin was, in 1921, 135 per 1,000 living births as compared with 134 for 
t he whole country. 

In Canada, our experience, except in the province of Quebec, has also up to 
the present been rather favourable to the cities. Montreal had in 1921 an infant 
mortality of 158 per 1,000 living births as compared with 128 for the province of 
Quebec. On the other hand, Toronto had in 1921 an infant mortality of 91 per 
1,000 living births as against 91-2 for the province of Ontario. So too, 
Winnipeg experienced in 1921 an infantile mortality of 77 per 1,000 as compared 
with S3 for Manitoba, and Vancouver in 1921 an infantile mortality of 59 per 1,000 
living births as compared with 56-5 in the same year in the province of British 
Columbia as a whole. 



MATERNAL MORTALITY 



203 



Statistics of the rate of infantile mortality arc given for the leading cities of 
the world for the latest available years in Table 60. 

60. Rate of Infantile Mortality per 1,000 Living Births in Great Cities of the World 

in Recent Years. 



City. 


Year. 


Rate of 
infantile 
mortality. 


City. 


Year. 


Rate of 
infantile 
mortality. 


Auckland 


1920 


48 


Edinburgh 


1921 


96 


Amsterdam 


1921 


54 


Ant we i p 


1921 


98 


Christiania 


1921 


54 


Tjiverpool 


1921 


105 


Zurich 


1916 


55 




1921 


106 


Rome 


1915 


56 


Aberdeen 


1921 


108 


Victoria. 


1921 


56 




1916 


111 


Vancouver.. . . 


1921 


59 




1921 


115 


Stockholm 


1921 


61 


Belfast 


1921 


115 


Brisbane 


1921 


62 


Dublin 


1921 


128 


Sydney, New South Wales 


1921 


62 


Munich . 


1921 


126 


Copenhagen 


1921 


67 


Genoa 


1916 


126 


New York 


1921 


71 


Berlin Germany 


1921 


135 


Geneva 


1916 


73 


Halifax 


1921 


135 


Wellington 


1920 


74 


T^eipzi .... .... 


1921 


136 


Adelaide 


1921 


74 


Ottawa 


1921 


139 


Melbourne 


1921 


74 


Cologne 


1921 


140 


Hobart 


1921 


75 


Chicago 


1916 


145 


Winnipeg 


1921 


77 


V ienna 


1921 


146 


Hamilton 


1921 


78 


St John 


1921 


147 


London, Eng 


1921 


80 


Prague 


1921 


151 


Perth, W. Australia 


1921 


81 


Sherbrooke 


1920 


154 


Birmingham 


1921 


82 


Marseilles 


1916 


157 


Regina 


1921 


82 




1921 


158 


Washington 


1919 


85 


Quebec 


1921 


163 


E dmonton 


1921 


89 


Bresiau 


1921 


170 


Saskatoon . 


1921 


91 




1912 


170 


Toronto 


1921 


91 


Madrid 


1915 


177 


London, Ont 


1921 


92 


Florence . . 


1916 


192 


Buenos Aires 


1916 


94 


Petrograd 


1912 


249 


Manchester 


1921 


94 




1921 


281 


Paris 


1921 


95 


Bombay 


1920 


556 


Hamburg 


1921 


95 





















Maternal Mortality. A subject of cognate interest with infantile mortality 
is that of maternal mortality. The maternal mortality in the eight provinces con 
stituting the registration area of Canada is shown by age groups in Table 61, and 
by causes in Table 62. 

61. Maternal Mortality in the Registration Area, by Age Groups, 1921 and 1922. 



Age crouds. 


P.E.I. 


N.S. 


N.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


Total. 


1921. 
15-19 


1 


2 


4 


22 


3 


7 


4 




43 


20-24 




13 


7 


51 


14 


22 


18 


12 


137 


25-29 . . 


2 


10 


9 


93 


15 


19 


34 


7 


189 


: J ,o-: 


3 


22 


20 


174 


39 


68 


46 


29 


401 


40-4!) 


1 


9 


7 


47 


10 


12 


9 


3 


98 






















Totals 


7 


56 


47 


387 


81 


138 


111 


51 


868 






















Rate per 1,000 living births 


3-2 


4-3 


4-1 


5-2 


. 4-4 


5-7 


6-7 


4-8 


5-1 


1922. 
15-19 


1 


3 


5 


18 


4 


7 


6 


2 


46 


20-24. 


2 


13 


5 


70 


8 


23 


19 


6 


146 


25-29 


3 


14 


14 


71 


29 


28 


24 


7 


190 


30-39 




32 


30 


158 


43 


50 


47 


33 


393 


40-49 


1 


8 


5 


51 


14 


17 


13 


11 


120 


50 and over 








1 


1 








2 


Age not stated 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 




_ 


_ 


_ 


1 






















Totals 


1 


70 


59 


370 


99 


125 


109 


59 


89S 






















Rateper 1,000 living births 


3-4 


5-6 


5-1 


5-2 


5-6 


5-7 


6-9 


6-1 


5-5 



XOTK. The fiacres for 1922 are subject to revision. 



204 



POPULATION 



2. Maternal Mortality in the Registration Area, by Causes of Death, 1921 and 1922, 



Cause of death. 


P.E.I. 


N.S. 


>v.B. 


Ont. 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


B.C. 


Total, 
regis- 
ration. 
area. 


1921. 

Accidents of pregnancy- 
total 


1 


8 


3 


98 


17 


26 


23 


11 


187 


(a) Abortion 




1 


2 


39 


9 


8 


9 


4 


72 


(b) Ectopic gestation. . . 
(c) Other accidents of 
pregnancy 


1 


1 
6 


1 


11 

48 


3 
5 


18 


8 
6 


4 
3 


27 
88 


Puerperal haemorrhage 
Other accidents of child 
birth total 


1 
1 


8 
5 


13 
4 


47 
48 


7 
15 


17 
21 


9 
21 


5 
5 


107 
120 


fa) Caesarean section.. . 
(b) Other surgical oper 
ations and instru 
mental delivery 
(c) Others under this 
title 


1 


1 

1 
3 


4 


4 

4 
40 


2 
13 


21 


2 
19 


3 

2 


12 

5 

103 




I 


9 


6 


75 


24 


33 


26 


14 


189 


Phlegmasia alba dolens; 
puerperal embolism or 
sudden death in puer- 




2 


3 


14 


3 


4 


t 
k 

3 


3 


32 


Puerperal albuminuria ant 
convulsions 


2 


23 


15 


81 


14 


21 


18 


9 


183 


Following childbirth (not 
otherwise defined) 
Puerperal diseases of the 
breast 




1 


3 


24 


1 


6 


11 


4 


50 


Totals 


7 


56 


47 


387 


81 


128 


111 


5 


SSS 






















1922. 

Accidents of pregnancy- 
total 


2 


12 


12 


78 


18 


27 


25 


18 


192 


(a) Abortion 


_ 


6 


2 


34 


9 


12 


17 


13 


98 


(b) Ectopic gestation., 
(c) Other accidents o 
pregnancy 


2 


1 
5 


4 
6 


18 
26 


3 
6 


5 
10 


2 
6 


5 


33 
Ml 
66 


Puerperal haemorrhage... 
Other accidents of child 
birth total 




5 

8 


6 
6 


55 
42 


14 
11 


21 
10 


12 
16 


6 
4 


119 
97 


(a) Caesarean section .. 
(b) Other surgical ooer 
ations and instiu 
mental delivery. . . . 
(c) Others under thi 
title 


- 


1 

7 


2 
4 


15 

3 
24 


2 
9 


1 

1 

8 


1 

2 
13 


4 


21 

7 
N 
69 




2 


12 


14 


59 


24 


31 


22 


9 


173 


Phlegmasia alba dolens 
puerperal embolism o 
sudden death in puer 




2 


2 


22 


4 


4 


8 


4 


46 


Puerperal albuminuria anc 
convulsions 


c t 


21 


11 


85 


19 


M 

WQ 


23 


13 


197 


Following childbirth (no 
otherwise defined) . . . 
Puerperal diseases of th 
breast 


1 


10 


8 


29 


8 
1 


9 


3 


C 
V 


73 

1 


Totals . . . 




70 


59 


370 


99 


125 


109 


59 


898 























NOTE. The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 



IMMIGRATION 205 



III. IMMIGRATION. 

Immigration has throughout Canadian history played a great part in reinforcing 
Canadian population, especially the English-speaking population. While the great 
majority of French-Canadians can trace their genealogy back to ancestors who left 
the Old World 200 or 250 years ago, or even longer, the great bulk of English- 
speaking Canadians are comparative newcomers both to Canada and to this con 
tinent, though a considerable number of the United Empire Loyalist families had 
been resident in the old colonies for generations before they moved north to estab 
lish English-speaking settlements in Canada. During the middle third of the 
nineteenth century there was a great English-speaking immigration which settled 
the province of Ontario and made it for the first time more populous than the sister 
province of Quebec, thus bringing about the agitation for representation by popula 
tion. Thereafter immigration slackened until the dawn of the twentieth century 
brought another flood of settlers to the newly opened territories of the Great North 
West, resulting hi an increase of population between the censuses of 1901 and 1911 
greater than the combined increase of the three decades from 1871 to 1901. 

1. Statistics of Immigration. 

Immigration during the second decade of the twentieth century promised at 
its commencement to be even greater than during the first. In its first three years 
no fewer than 1,141,547 persons are reported to have entered Canada for purposes 
of settlement. If this rate had been maintained, the population of Canada in 1921 
would certainly have been in excess of ten millions instead of being less than nine 
millions. The war, which commenced on August 4, 1914, dried up the sources of 
our immigration in Great Britain and Continental Europe, where every able-bodied 
man was needed for the defence of his country. Immigrant arrivals from the 
United Kingdom in 1918 only numbered some 3,000 as compared with 150,000 in 
1913; from Continental Europe immigrant arrivals numbered only about 3,000 in 
1916 as compared with approximately 135,000 in 1914. Since the war, immigration, 
though increasing, has never approached that of the pre-war period, which is prob 
ably a fortunate circumstance, since the capital necessary to set in employment 
such great bodies of labourers as came to Canada in 1912 and 1913 could hardly 
have been secured. 

Immigration to Canada, as to other new countries, is generally greatest in 
"boom" periods, when capital as well as labour is leaving the older countries for 
the newer in order to secure the more remunerative investments generally to be 
found in virgin territories where the natural resources are still unexploited. In 
periods of depression, however, the sending abroad of both capital and labour is 
diminished, both preferring at such times to endure the evils which they know at 
home rather than take the risks of a new departure at a distance. This proposition 
is aptly illustrated by the statistics of Table 63, which show that during the past 
25 years, immigration was at its minimum in the year of deepest depression, 1897, 
that it steadily increased from that time forward until 1908, that a decline took 
place in the fiscal year ended March 31, 1909, on account of the short depression of 
1908, that thereafter immigration steadily increased till 1913, while the fiscal year 
ended March 31, 1914, showed a decline due to the depression which occurred in 
the year preceding the war. In the fiscal years 1915 to 1919 political rather than 
economic conditions restricted immigration, but with the expansion of business at 
the end of the war eur immigration was more than doubled, while the depression 



200 



POPULATIOX 



which characterized 1921 and 1922 is reflected in the declining immigration of the 
fiscal years ended March 31, 1922 and 1923. The improvement in business 
conditions in 1923 has been reflected in an increase of immigration during the first, 
half of the fiscal year ending March 31, 1924. During these six months 94,333 
settlers entered Canada as compared with 46,331 in the same period of the pre 
ceding year an increase of 104 p.c. 

The number of immigrant arrivals in Canada from the United Kingdom, the 
United States and other countries is given by years from 1897 in Table 63. 

63 Number of Immigrant Arrivals in Canada from the United Kingdom, the United 

States and other countries, 1897-1923. 



Fiscal 

Years. 


Immigiant Arrivals 
from 


Total. 


Fiscal 
Years. 


Immigrant Arrivals 
from 


Total. 


United 
King 
dom. 

11,383 
11,173 
10,660 
5,141 
11,810 
17,259 
41.71)2 
50,374 
65,359 
86,796 
55,791 
120,182 
52,901 
59, 790 


United 
States. 


Other 
Coun 
tries. 


United 
King 
dom. 


United 

States. 


Other 

Coun 
tries. 


1&O71 


2,412 
9,119 
11,945 
8,543 
17,987 
26,388 
49,473 
45,171 
43,543 
57,796 
34,659 
58,312 
59,832 
103,798 


7,921 
11,608 
21,938 
10,211 
19,352 
23,732 
37,099 
34,786 
37,364 
44,472 
34,217 
83,976 
34,175 
45,206 


21,716 
31,900 
44,543 
23,895 
49, 149 
67,379 
128,364 
130,331 
146,266 
189,064 
124,667 
262,469 
146,908 
208,794 


1911 


123,013 
138,121 
150,542 
142,622 
43, 276 
8,664 
8,282 
3,178 
9,914 
59,603 
74,262 
39,020 
34,508 


121,451 
133,710 
139,009 
107,530 
59,779 
36,937 
til. 389 
71,314 
40,715 
49,656 
48,059 
29,345 
22,007 


66,620 
82,406 
112, SSI 
134,726 
41,734 
2,936 
5,703 
4,582 
7,073 
8,077 
26, 156 
21,634 
16,372 


311,084 
354,237 
402,432 
384,878 
144,789 
48,537 
75,374 
79,074 
57,702 
117,336 
148,477 
89,999 
72,887 


1CQQ1 


1912 


IQQQl 


1913 


10002 


1914 


10O1 


1915 


1009 


1916 


1QA9 


1917 




1918 


1Q AC 


1919 




1920 


1OO73 


1921 


1908 


1922 
1923 


1QOQ 


1910 






i Calendar year. 2 Six months, January to June, inclusive. 3 Nine months ended March 31. 
NOTE See Table 7 of this section for an estimate of the movement of population between the 
censuses oi 1911 and 1921. 



Nationality of Immigrant Arrivals. Immigration, which was at a low ebb 

during the war period, may once more become, when normal conditions are restored, 
the chief means of reinforcing population and populating the vast waste spaces of 
Canada. Under such conditions the racial and linguistic composition of that immi 
gration becomes of paramount importance. Canadians generally prefer that settlers 
should be of a readily assimilable type, already identified by race or language witl 
one or other of the two great races now inhabiting this country and thus prepared 
for the assumption of the duties of democratic Canadian ntisoii.-hip. Since the 
French are not to any great extent an emigrating people, th is means that the pre 
ferable settlers are those who speak the English language those coming from the 
Tinted Kingdom or the United States. Next in order of readiness of assimilation 
are the Scandinavians and the Dutch, who readily learn English and are already 
acquainted with the working of free democratic institutions; a few years ago m<t 
Canadians would have included the Germans in the same category. Settlers from 
Southern and Eastern Europe, however desirable from the purely economic point of 
view, are less readily assimilated, and the Canadianizing of the people from these 
regions who came to Canada in the first fourteen years of this century is a problem 
both in the agricultural Prairie Provinces and in the cities of the East. Less assimil 
able still, according to the general opinion of Canadians, are those who come to 
Canada from the Orient. 



IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS 



207 



On the whole the great bulk of Canadian immigration of the past generation 
has been drawn from the English-speaking countries, and from those continental 
European countries where the population is ethnically nearly related to the British. 
The nationalities of the immigrant arrivals of the 8 years from 1916 to 1923 are 
shown in Table 64. 

64. Immigrant Arrivals in Canada, by Nationalities and Races, fiscal years 1916-1923. 



Nationalities. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


1920. 


1921. 


1022. 


1923. 


Biitish Subjects British Isles 
English 


5 857 


5 171 


2 477 


7 954 


45 173 


47 fiS7 


90 99- 




Irish 


818 


958 


174 


336 


2 751 


fi Q>M 


3 -.7.) 


1V^, 15,S 


Scottish 


1 887 


2 062 


473 


1 518 


10 997 


10 9JC 


H">Qf> 


,000 


Welsh 


102 


88 


54 


106 


682 


Q43 


ft O7 


,u/l 


















ool 


Total, British Isles 


8 664 


8 2S2 


3 178 


9 914 


t;9 My) 


74 9fi9 


on nori 




















o4,oUN 


Other British- 
Africans, South 


11 


1 


4 




91 


CO 






Australians 


32 


18 


34 


9 1 ; 


R. 


on 




41 


Bermudians 




16 


10 


i 


i 


D 




67 


East Indians . ... 


1 










10 






Jamaicans 


9 





94 


2 


Q 


1 D 




21 


Maltese 


4 


109 


144 


2 


405 


I4n 


44 


oO 


Newfoundlanders 


255 


1 243 


1 199 


512 


44 1 ? 


1 f 14 9 


Qft7 




New Zoalanders 


18 


12 


13 


1 1 


SI 


40 


9- 


. >;>_ 


















oo 


Total, Other British 


330 


1 405 


1 48 


367 


004 


1411 


KA9 




















, oUct 


Grand Total, British Subjects... 

European Continental Nationali 
ties 
Albanians 


8,991 


9,687 


4,606 


10,481 


60,597 


75,673 

C 


39,582 


36,316 


Austrians 


15 








c 


9ft 




1 


Belgians 


172 


r>6 


19 


4.^ 


1 V*9 


1 ft^X 




Jo 


Bulgarians 


1 








1 






olo 


Czechoslovaks 




i 






A 


OAO 


i ^9 


19 


Dutch 


186 


151 


<1<t 


CQ 


1 ZA. 






1U1 


Esthonians 
















119 


Finnish 


139 


949 


113 


2 


AA 


1 4O1 




12 


French 


180 


199 


114 


999 


1 ZQA 






1 171 


Germans 


27 


9 


1 


i 


19 






Jol 


Greeks 


145 


258 


45 


4 


.Q 


7 




Jlo 


Hebrews, n.e.s 


18 


28 


2 


1 T 


39 


Q9O 


9 ooft 




Hebrews, Austrian 


1 










1 




Oov> 


Hebrews, German 


















Hebrews, Polish 










3ft 


1 Ron 


591ft 




Hebrews, Russian 


46 


108 


30 


7 


4X 


949 


RJ\1 




Hungarians 












00 






Italians 


388 


758 


189 


4t| 


1 1ft 1 ! 


OCA 




26 


Jugo-S!avs 


(5 


9 




j 


19 


on 


1 SO 




Latvians 


















Lithuanians 














10 




Luxembergers. . 










Hi 


1ti 






Polish 


g 


12 




t 


7fl 








Portuguese 




1 


1 




3 


A 




, J J 1 


Rumanians 


4 


4 






91 


no 






Russians 


40 


26 


49 


49 


1 


1 O77 


091 




Scandinavians - 
Danes 


167 


145 


74 


44 


933 


M 1 


Kit 




Icelanders 


15 


9 


3 


12 


[f 


^n 


ai 




Norwegian 


232 


303 


235 


91 


179 


490 


4^0 


^07 


Swedes 


177 


332 


156 


101 


241 


71^ 


4i > 


lllv 


Spanish 


11 


76 


28 


19 


i T 


909 






Swiss 


42 


30 


12 


11 


100 


OQK 


1^7 




Turks 




5 






i 


o 


<j 




Ukranians 








2 




401 


SO 


J ( : 




















Total European Continental 
Xationalities... 


2.020 


2.831 


1.158 


727 


S.filJi 


211. SO 


1S.51S 


1:1 >ftw 



208 



POPULATION 



64. Immigrant Arrivals in Canada, by Nationalities and Races, fiscal years 

1916-1923^concludod. 



Nationalities. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923. 


Non-European Nationalities or 
Races 
Arabians . 












8 


5 


2 


Argentinians 





_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


4 




4 


Armenians 





3 


2 


_ 


10 


85 


70 


59 


Chinese 


88 


393 


769 


4,333 


544 


2,435 


1,746 


711 


Cubans 


1 


3 


1 




2 








Egyptians 








_ 




9 


2 




Japanese 


401 


648 


883 


1,178 


711 


532 


471 


369 


Mexicans 






1 


3 




1 






Negroes 


34 


98 


35 


22 


61 


144 


42 


42 


Persians 


3 




2 


2 




1 


9 


1 


Syrians 


3 


9 


2 




18 


443 


123 


91 


West Indians 


38 


293 


273 


220 


62 


110 


24 


44 


Other Countries 


3 








3 






1 




















Total Non-European Nationali 
ties 


571 


1,447 


1,968 


5,758 


1,413 


3,772 


2,493 


1,324 




















From the United States 1 


36,95? 


61,109 


71,343 


40,736 


49,711 


48,169 


29,412 


22,039 




















Grand Total. . 


48,537 


75,374 


79,074 


57,702 


117,336 


148,477 


89,999 


72.8S7 



1 Includes United States citizens via ocean ports. 

Destination of Immigrant Arrivals. The destination of the immigrant 
arrivals in Canada are given for the period from 1901 to 1923 in Table 65, which 
may be compared with the census tables (Tables 1 to 4 of this section) showing the 
increase of population in the decades between 1901 and 1921. While immigration 
to the Maritime Provinces during the period was comparatively small that to 
Quebec was very considerable, and that to Ontario very large. The lion s share of 
the immigrant arrivals, however over 1,520,000 persons gave the Prairie Prov 
inces as their destination, and 410,619 stated their destination as British Columbia 
or the Yukon. 

65. Destination of Immigrants into Canada, by Provinces, 1901-1923. 



Fiscal Year. 


Mari 
time 
Prov 
inces. 


Quebec. 


Ontario. 


Mani 
toba. 


Sask 
atche 
wan. 


Alberta. 


British 
Colum 
bia and 
Yukon 
Terr y. 


Not 
shown . 


Totals. 


1901.. 


2,144 
2,312 
5,821 
5,448 
4,128 
6,381 
6,510 
10,360 
6,517 
10,644 
13,236 
15,973 
19,806 
16,730 
11,104 
5,981 
5,710 
5,247 
3,860 
5,554 
6,353 
3,222 
3,298 


10,216 
8,817 
17,040 
20,222 
23,666 
25,212 
18,319 
44, 157 
19,733 
28,524 
42,914 
50,602 
64,835 
80,368 
31,053 
8,274 
10,930 
9,059 
6,772 
13,078 
21,100 
13, 724 
9,343 


6,208 
9,798 
14,854 
21,266 
35,811 
52,746 
32,654 
75,133 
29,265 
46, 129 
80,035 
100,227 
122,798 
123,792 
44,873 
14,743 
26,078 
23,754 
13,826 
39,344 
62,572 
34,590 
30,444 


11,254 
17,422 
39,535 
34,911 
35,387 
35,648 
20,273 
39,789 
19,702 
21,049 
34,653 
43,477 
43,813 
41,640 
13, 196 
3,487 
5,247 
6,252 
4,862 
11,387 
12,649 
8,904 
6,037 


14 
22 
43 
40 
39 
28,728 
15,307 
30.5UO 
22,146 
29,218 
40,763 
4(, 15S 
45, 147 
40,999 
16,173 
6,001 
9,874 
12,382 
8,552 
14,287 
13.392 
9,894 
8,186 


160 
199 
898 
397 
289 
26,177 
17,559 
31,477 
27,651 
42,509 
44,782 
45,957 
48,073 
43, 741 
18,263 
7,215 
12,418 
16,821 
11,640 
20,000 
17,781 
11,825 
8,798 


2,600 
3,483 
5,378 
6,994 
6,008 
12,406 
13,650 
30,768 
21,862 
30,721 
54,701 
51,843 
57,960 
37,608 
10,127 
2,836 
5,117 
5,559 
8,190 
13,686 
14,630 
7,840 
6,781 


2,567 
3,348 
1,838 
1,093 
1,977 
1,766 
395 
195 
32 


49, 149 
67,379 
128,364 
130,331 
146,266 
189,064 
124,667 
262,469 
146,908 
208, 794 
311,084 
354,237 
402,432 
384,878 
144,789 
48,537 
75,374 
79,074 
57,702 
117,336 
148,477 
89,999 
72.887 


1602 


1903 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 (9mos.) 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


Total... 


176,339 


577,958 


1,040,940 


510,374 


1,010,427 


410,748 


13,211 


3,740,197 



OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT ARRIVALS 



209 



Occupation of Immigrant Arrivals. As stated below in the paragraphs 
dealing with immigration policy, the settlers most universally acceptable to Can 
adians are those who settle on the land or those females who enter domestic service. 
In Table 66 will be found statistics of the occupations of immigrant arrivals in 
Canada during the fiscal years ended March 31, 1922 and 1923. 

66. Occupation and Destination of Total Immigrant Arrivals in Canada for the 

Fiscal Years 1922 and 1923. 







1922. 






1923. 




Description. 


Via 
Ocean 
Ports. 


From the 
United 

States. 


Totals. 


Via 
Ocean 
Ports. 


From the 
United 
States. 


Totals. 


Farmers and farm labourers 
Men 


11,556 


8,049 


19,605 


11,370 


6,380 


17,750 


Women 


3,600 


2,384 


5,984 


2,536 


2,070 


4,606 


Children 


3,185 


2,861 


6,046 


2,242 


2,544 


4,786 


General labourers 
Men 


2,812 


1,802 


4,614 


2,675 


884 


3,559 


Women 


844 


445 


1,289 


388 


229 


617 


Children 


594 


. 340 


934 


344 


169 


513 


Mechanics 
Men 


3,623 


2,285 


5,908 


4,158 


1,382 


5,540 


Women 


1,886 


544 


2,430 


1,293 


386 


1,679 


Children 


919 


453 


1,372 


836 


351 


1,187 


Clerks, traders, etc. 
Men 


1,404 


1,175 


2,579 


1,003 


688 


1,691 


Wbmen 


1,049 


489 


1,538 


651 


315 


966 


Children 


428 


283 


711 


237 


181 


418 


Miners 
Men 


494 


146 


640 


920 


175 


1,095 


Women 


101 


19 


120 


111 


30 


141 


Children . 


109 


22 


131 


142 


25 


167 


Domestics 
Women 


6,880 


755 


7,635 


6,273 


701 


6,974 


Not classified 
Men 


3,256 


1,995 


5,251 


2.264 


1,387 


3,651 


Wbmen 


9,973 


3,073 


13,046 


7,359 


2,414 


9,773 


Children 


7,941 


2,225 


10, 166 


6,078 


1,696 


7,774 
















Totals- 
Men 


23,145 


15,452 


38,597 


22,390 


10,896 


33, 286 


Women 


24,333 


7,709 


32,042 


18,611 


6,145 


24, 756 


Children 


13,176 


6,184 


19,360 


9,879 


4,966 


14,845 
















Totals 


60,654 


29,345 


89,999 


50,880 


22,007 


72,887 
















Destination 
Maritime Provinces 


2,033 


1,189 


3,222 


2,368 


930 


3,298 


Quebec 


9,357 


4,367 


13,724 


6,163 


3,189 


9,343 


Ontario 


25,741 


8,849 


34,590 


24,417 


6,027 


30,444 


Manitoba 


7,188 


1,716 


8,904 


4,580 


1,457 


6,037 


Saskatchewan 


5,365 


4,529 


9,894 


4,413 


3,773 


8,186 


Alberta 


5,243 


6,582 


11,825 


4,113 


4,685 


8,798 


British Columbia 


5 722 


2 008 


7,730 


4,819 


1,833 


6,652 


Yukon 


5 


105 


110 


7 


122 


129 

















Prohibited Immigration. The following is a summary of the classes whose 
admission to Canada is prohibited under the existing regulations. The regulations, 
however, do not apply to Canadian citizens or persons having Canadian domicile: 

(1) Imbeciles, feebleminded persons, epileptics, insane persons, persons 
of constitutional psychopathic inferiority, persons suffering from chronic 
alcoholism and those mentally defective to such a degree as to affect their 
ability to earn a living. 
6237314 



210 



POPULATION 



(2) Persons afficted with tuberculosis or with any loat-hosome, contagious 
or infectious disease or a disease which may be dangerous to public health; 
immigrants who are dumb, blind or otherwise physically defective. 

(3) Prostitutes and women and girls coming to Canada for any immoral 
purpose, pimps, procurers and persons who have been convicted of any crime 
involving moral turpitude. 

(4) Professional beggars or vagrants, charity aided immigrants and 
persons who are likely to become public charges. 

(5) Anarchists, persons who disbelieve in or are opposed to organized 
government or who belong to any organization teaching disbelief in or opposi 
tion to organized government, persons who have been guilty of espionage or 
high treason and persons who have been deported from Canada. 

(6) Persons over fifteen years of age unable to read. The literacy test, 
however, does not apply to a father or grandfather over fifty-five years of age, 
or to a wife, mother, grandmother or unmarried daughter or widowed daught er. 

The Immigration Act provides for the rejection and deportation of immigrants 
belonging to the prohibited classes and also for the deportation of those who become 
undesirables within Canada within five years after legal entry. 

The operation of the above regulations is illustrated in Table 67, which gives 
the numbers of immigrants rejected or deported after admission, the causes of such 
rejection or deportation, and the nationalities of those deported, for each of the ten 
fiscal years ended 1914 to 1923, together with the totals for the 21 fiscal years from 
1903 to 1923. 

67. Rejections of Immigrants upon Arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after 
Admission, by Principal Causes and by Nationalities, 1903-1923. 



Principal causes. 


Number Rejected at Ocean Ports. 


Total. 


1903- 
1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923. 


Accompanying patients.. 
Alien enemies 


434 

754 
87 
65 
6 
1,675 

1,768 
4,162 

295 
10 


76 
102 
3 
994 

76 
398 

178 


58 
56 
2 

452 

71 
319 

40 


4 
17 
4 
38 

55 
34 

11 


8 
4 

66 

55 
30 

22 


1 
11 
1 
19 

19 
12 

8 


2 
4 
1 

10 

27 
19 

7 


9 

J 
1 
3 

28 

125 
21 

474 


13 
4 



14 
255 

236 
09 

291 
32 


39 
5 
2 

6 

202 

20S 
60 

278 
193 


13 
3 
20 

4 
24 

119 
37 

318 
94 


655 
12 
978 
92 
103 
6 
8,842 

2,759 
:>, I . l 

1,922 
10 
319 


Had character 


Contract labour 


Criminality 


Head tax 


Lack of funds 


Likely to become a pub 
lic charge 


Medical causes 


Not complying with 
regulations 
Previously rejected 
Unskilled labour, B.C.. 

Totals 


9,256 


1,827 


998 


163 


174 


71 


70 


662 


!t,V5 


l.IKi 


632 


15,889 




Principal causes. 


Number Deported after Admission. 






Accompanying patients. 
Bad character 


145 

506 
1,083 
2,296 

24 
2,853 


10 
159 
376 
570 

4 
715 


34 
128 
404 
379 

789 


.") 
68 
329 
206 

635 


9 
60 

277 
98 

161 


39 

84 
274 
39 

91 


10 
35 
236 

70 

103 


18 
22 
334 
123 

158 


37 
52 

586 
133 

236 


48 
105 
030 
313 

950 


52 

66 
543 

282 

10 
67 


407 
1 , 2S5 
5,072 
4,509 

38 

7.: , 7 ) 


Criminality 


Medical causes 


Not complying with 
regulations 


Public charges 


Totals 


6,907 


l,s:n 


1,7:51 


I.-,M:J 


605 


527 


454 


655 


1,044 


2,046 


1,632 


l.S.fiM 





J U VENILE IMMIGRA TION 



211 



67. Rejections of Immigrants upon Arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after 
Admission, by Principal Causes and by Nationalities, 1903-1923 concluded. 



Nationalities. 



British 

American 

Other countries. 



Totals 



Number Deported after Admission. 



1903- 
1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923. 


Total. 


4,358 
1,066 
1,483 


952 
405 
477 


877 
461 
.396 


602 
437 
204 


186 
324 
95 


36 
407 
84 


99 
279 
76 


184 
392 

79 


295 
616 
133 


1,107 

725 
214 


888 
520 
224 


9,584 
5,632 
3,465 


6,907 


1,834 


1,734 


1,243 


605 


527 


154 


655 


1,014 


2,016 


1,632 


18,681 



Juvenile Immigration. Among the most generally acceptable immigran 
arrivals are the juveniles of both sexes, who are trained by highly accredited British 
organizations for Canadian life before coming to Canada, the boys being taught the 
lighter branches of farm work, while the girls are instructed in domestic occupations. 
On arrival in Canada the boys are placed on farms, while the girls are placed either 
in town or country, but the organizations remain the legal guardians of the children 
until they have reached maturity, and in addition the children are subject to 
efficient and recurrent Government inspection until they reach their nineteenth 
year. This inspection is under the control of the Supervisor of Juvenile Immigra 
tion. 

The number of juveniles immigrated to Canada in each year since 1901, to 
gether with the number of applications for their services, is given in Table 68, from 
which it may be seen that the applications are in recent years from 10 to 15 times 
the number of young persons immigrated. 

68. Juvenile Immigrants and Applications for their Services, 1981-1923. 



Fiscal 
Yeai . 


Juvenile 
immigrants. 


Applications 
for their 
services. 


Fiscal 
Year. 


Juvenile 
immigrants. 


Applications 
for their 
services. 


1901 


No. 
977 


No. 

5 783 


1913 


No. 

2,642 


No. 
33,493 


1902 


1 540 


8 587 


1914 . . . . . 


2,318 


32,417 


1903 


1 979 


14,219 


1915 


1,899 


30,854 


1904 . 


2 212 


16,573 


1916 


821 


31,725 


1905... 


2 814 


17,833 


1917 


251 


28,990 


1906 


3 258 


19,374 


1918 




17,916 


19071 


1 455 


15 800 


1919 


_ 


11,718 


1908 


2,375 


17,239 


1920 


155 


10,235 


1909 


2 424 


15 417 


1921 


1,426 


19,841 


1910 


2 422 


18 477 


1922 


1,211 


15,371 


1911 . 


2 524 


21,768 


1923 . .... 


1,184 


17,005 


1912 


9 fiCQ 


^i run 














Total 


38,576 


151,675 















NOTE. The above are included in the total number of immigrants recorded elsewhere. 
1 Nine months 

Oriental Immigration. The immigration to Canada of labourers belonging 
to the Asiatic races, able because of their low standard of living to underbid the 
white man in selling their labour is fundamentally an economic rather than a racial 
problem, affecting most of all those portions of the country which are nearest to the 
East and the classes which feel their economic position threatened. 

62373 14J 



212 



POPULATION 



Chinese Immigration. As a result of the influx of Chinese into Canada, legis 
lation was passed in 1885 (48-49 Viet., c. 71) providing that thereafter Chinese of 
the labouring class should be required as a condition of their entry into Canada to 
pay a head tax of $50 each; on January 1, 1901 (62-64 Viet., c. 32), this amount 
was increased to $100 and on January 1, 1904 (3 Edw. VII, c. 8) to j-500. This tax 
is paid by Chinese immigrants, with the exception of consular officers, merchants 
and clergymen and their families, tourists, men of science, students and teachers, a 
record showing the number of Chinese admitted who paid the tax, the number 
exempt from it, and the revenue realized being given by years from 1886 in Table 
69. In recent years the number of Chinese immigrants entering Canada has been 
much reduced, owing to the operation of Orders in Council (renewed every six months 
from December 8, 1913, and replaced by an Order in Council of June 9, 1919) under 
which the landing in British Columbia of skilled and unskilled artisans and labourers 
is prohibited. 

69. Record of Chinese Immigration, 1886-1923. 



Fiscal Year. 


Paying 
tax. 


Exempt 
from tax. 


Percentage of 
total arrivals 
admitted 
exempt 
from tax. 


Registra 
tion for 
leave. 


Total 
Revenue. 


1886-91 ... 


No. 
4,590 


No. 

222 


p.c. 
4-61 


No. 
7,041 


- 
239,664 


1892 


3,276 


6 


0-18 


2,168 


166,503 


Ig93 


2,244 


14 


0-62 


1,277 


113,491 


1894 


2,087 


22 


1-04 


666 


105,021 


Ig95 


1,440 


22 


1-50 


473 


72,475 


1896 


1,762 


24 


1-34 


697 


88,800 


1897 


2,447 


24 


0-97 


768 


123,119 


1898 


2,175 


17 


0-78 


802 


109, 7.54 


1899 


4,385 


17 


0-39 


859 


220,310 


1900 


4,231 


26 


0-61 


1,102 


215,102 


1901 


2,518 


26 


1-02 


1,204 


178,704 


1902 


3,25 


62 


1-73 


1,922 


364,972 


1903 


5,245 


84 


1-58 


2,044 


526, 744 


1904 


4,719 


128 


2-64 


1,920 


474,420 


1905 


8 


69 


89-61 


2,080 


6,080 


1906 


22 


146 


86-90 


2,421 


13,521 


19071 


91 


200 


68-::; 


2,594 


48,094 


1908 . 


1,482 


752 


33-6J 


3,535 


746,535 


1909 


1,411 


695 


33-00 


3,731 


713,131 


1910 


1,614 


688 


29-89 


4,002 


813,003 


1911 


4,515 


805 


15-13 


3,956 


2,262,056 


1912 


6,083 


498 


7-57 


4,322 


3, 04.1,71 :. 


1913 


7,078 


367 


4-93 


3,742 


3,549,242 


1914 


5,274 


238 


4-32 


3,450 


2,644,593 


1915 


1,155 


103 


8-19 


4,373 


588, 124 


1916 


20 


69 


77-53 


4,064 


19,389 


1917 


272 


121 


30-78 


3,312 


140,487 


1918 


650 


119 


15-47 


2,907 


336,757 


1919 


4,006 


267 


<>!;> 


3,244 


2,069,669 


1920 


363 


181 


33-27 


5,529 


538,479 


1921 


885 


1,550 


63-66 


6,807 


474,332 


1922 . 


1,459 


287 


16-44 


7,532 


743,032 


1923 


652 


59 


8-30 


6,682 


434,557 


Totals 


81,744 


7,908 


8-82 


101,226 


22,189,882 















Nine months. 



The Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 (13-14 Geo. V, c. 38) restricts the entry 
to or landing in Canada of persons of Chinese origin or descent, irrespective of 
allegiance or citizenship, other than government representatives, Chinese children 
born in Canada, merchants (defined by what regulations the Minister of Immigra- 



ORIENTAL IMMIGRATION 



213 



tion and Colonization may prescribe) and students the last two classes to possess 
passports issued by the Government of China and endorsed by a Canadian immi 
gration officer. 

Japanese immigration to Canada was comparatively negligible prior to the Russo- 
Japanese war of 1904-5, but thereafter assumed considerable proportions, no fewer 
than 7,601 Japanese immigrants entering Canada, largely from Hawaii, in the fiscal 
year ended March 31, 1908, and settling mainly in British Columbia. In that year 
an agreement was made with the Japanese Government under which the latter 
undertook to limit the number of passports issued to Japanese emigrating to Canada, 
while the Canadian Government agreed to admit those possessing such passports, 
while prohibiting others from entering. The statistics of Table 70 show that hi this 
way Japanese immigration has been effectively limited. 

East Indian immigration to Canada, like Japanese, is shown by the statistics 
of Table 70 to have been negligible down to 1907, when no fewer than 2,124 East 
Indian immigrants arrived. However, as a consequence of the operation of section 
38 of the Immigration Act of 1910, East Indian immigration has since that date 
been comparatively small. A resolution of the Imperial War Conference of 1918 
declared that "it is the inherent function of the Governments of the several com 
munities of the British Commonwealth that each should enjoy complete control 
of the composition of its own population by means of restriction on immigration 
from any of the other communities." However, it was recommended that East Indians 
already permanently domiciled in other British colonies should be allowed to bring 
in their wives and minor children, a recommendation which was implemented, so. 
far as Canada was concerned, by Order in Council of March 26, 1919. However., 
in the fiscal years ended March 31, 1921, 1922 and 1923, only 10, 13, and 21 East 
Indian immigrants respectively were admitted. 

70. Record of Oriental Immigration, 1901-1923. 



Fiscal 
Year. 


Chi 
nese. 


Japan 
ese. 


East 
Indians. 


Total. 


Fiscal 
Year. 


Chi 
nese. 


Japan 
ese. 


East 
Indiaas. 


Total. 


1901.. 


No. 

2,544 


No. 

6 


No. 


No. 
2,550 


1913 . 


No. 
7,445 


No. 

724 


No. 
5 


No. 
8 174 


1902 


3,587 




_ 


3,587 


1914 


5,512 


856 


88 


6 45ft 


1903 . . 


5 329 


_ 




5 329 


1915 


1 258 


592 




1 850 


1904 


4 847 






4 847 


1916 


89 


401 


1 


491 


1905 


77 


354 


45 


476 


1917 .. 


393 


648 




1,041 


1906 


168 


1,922 


387 


2,477 


1918 .. 


769 


883 




1 652 


19071 


291 


2,042 


2,124 


4,457 


1919 ... 


4,333 


1,178 




5 511 


1908 


2,234 


7,601 


2,623 


12,458 


1920 


544 


711 




1,255 


1909 


2,106 


495 


6 


2,607 


1921 


2,435 


532 


10 


2,977 


1910 


2,302 


271 


10 


2,683 


1922 


1,746 


471 


13 


2,230 


1911 .... 


5,320 


437 


5 


5,762 


1923 . . . 


711 


369 


21 


1,101 


1912 


6181 


76 "i 


Q 


7 -240 






















Total 


60,821 


21,258 


5,341 


87,220 























1 Nine months. 



214 



POPULATION 



Expenditure on Immigration. The sums expended by the Dominion 
Government on immigration in each of the fiscal .years ended 1868 to 192. ! 
inclusive, ns stated in the Public Accounts issued annually by the Department of 
Finance, are shown in Table 71. 

71. Expenditure on Immigration in the Fiscal Y ears 1868-1923. 

(Compiled from the Tublio Account?). 



iTear. 


- 


Year. 


? 


Year. 


| 


Year. 


$ 


1868 . 


36,050 


1883 


373 958 


1898 


261 195 


1912 


1 365 000 


1869 


26,952 


1884 . . 


511 209 


1899 


255 879 


1913 


407 112 


1870 


55,966 


1885 


423,861 


1900 


434,563 


1914 


893 298 


1871 


54 , 004 


1S86 . . 


257 355 


1901 


444 730 


1915 


ii5S 18? 


1872 


109,954 


1887 . . 


341 236 


1902 


494 842 


1916 


307 480 


1873 


265, 718 


1888 


244 789 


1903 


642 914 


1917 


181 991 


IS 74 . . 


291,297 


1889 


202 499 


1904 


744 788 


1918 


211 954 


1875 


278,777 


1890 . . 


110 092 


1905 


972 357 


1919 


112 07!! 


1876 


338,179 


1891 . . 


181,045 


1906 


842 668 


1920 


388 185 


1S77 


309,353 


1892 . . 


177,605 


1907 . 


611 201 


1921 


688 961 


1878 


154,351 


1893 . 


180 677 


1908 


1,074 697 


1922 


2,052 371 


hS7!l 


186, 403 


1894 . . . 


202,235 


1909 


979 326 


1923 


1,987,745 


1880 


161 213 


1895 


195 653 


1910 


960 676 






1881 


2 14. 251 


1896 . . 


120, 199 


1911 


1,079 130 


Total 


34,420,982 


INN" 


215,339 


1897. ... 


127,438 



























i Xine months. 

2. Immigration Policy. 

At the close of the war there was a general anticipation that the movement of 
immigration to Canada would again become very heavy, but for several reasons 
this anticipation was not realized. Canada, in common with all other countries, 
experienced a share of the dislocation of business and the industrial uncertainties 
of the reconst ruction period. The demobilization of the Canadian forces, coincident 
with the suspension of all war activities, created a surplus of labour which made it 
impracticable for the Canadian Department of Immigration and Colonization to 
extend inducements to immigration. The welfare of the country seemed to demand 
that, as a rule, only those should be admitted who would assist in developing its 
natural resources, chief among which is its fertile agricultural land. Farmers and 
farm labourers became more than ever the objective of the Department. Other 
factors contributing to a lower immigration as compared with the period immedi 
ately preceding the war were the high cost of ocean and laud transportation and the 
balance of exchange against British and European set tiers, coupled with the generally 
impoverished condition of some of the countries which had formerly contributed 
immigrants, and the fact that, although great areas of land were still available in 
( anada as free homesteads, t hey were now located for the most part at considerable 
distances from railways. The recent policy of the Department has been not to 
encourage settlement in localities likely to require additional railway construction 
at an early date. Most of the restrictive regulations have now been cancelled, but 
they created in the minds of many people outside of ( anada some doubt as to their 
welcome in the Dominion. 



IMMIGRATION POLICY 215 



During 1923, on account of the return of prosperity and the absorption of sur 
plus labour, it became increasingly evident that popular opinion in Canada favoured 
a resumption of immigration activities on a considerable scale. The Government 
annoi;nc< d its intention of encouraging the migration of the largest possible number 
of those clashes of settlers which Canada can absorb. This policy was embodied 
in a statement made by the Hon. J. A. Kobb shortly after his appointment as 
-Minister of Immigration and Colonization, and elicited favourable comment in the 
British press, which welcomed a resumption of Canadian immigration activities. 
While, as the Minister pointed out, there are would-be immigrants into Canada 
who are not suited for the Dominion owing to physical, moral or industrial unfit- 
ness or becatise they belong to races that cannot be assimilated without social or 
economic loss to Canada, there are in Great Britain and Continental Europe tens 
of thousands of skilled workers and unskilled workers (not agriculturists) who 
would be an asset to Canada if steady employment could be found for them. 

The present immigration policy of the Canadian Government recognizes that 
while Canada requires increased population, quality rather than quantity must 
count : that British immigration must hold first place in the programme, and that 
the selection of Canada s new settlers must have due regard to their physical, 
industrial, and financial fitness, ar.d the Dominion s power of absorption. 

The greatest need is for those able and willing to settle on the land and assist 
in agricultural development. While capital is essential to immediate land settle 
ment, its absence will not close the road to prosperity to those strong of hand and 
stout of heart, determined to succeed. The open door policy prevails for those 
classes likely to succeed and for whom there is a demand. In the interests of the 
immigrant and of Canada, determination of fitness, as far as possible, takes place 
before the immigrant leaves his own country. Final approval is not given until 
the immigrant arrives in Canada, but those \\ho consult the Canadian Government 
agents overseas are able to learn the conditions of admission, and many journeys 
\\hichvould have ended in reject on arc thus prevented. As the British Wr< 
alone cannot furnish a sufficient quota of the agricultural classes, efforts are being 
made to encourage immigration from certain areas of the continent of Europe 
and from the United States. 

Steps have been taken to ensure efficient co-operation with the British Govern 
ment under the terms of the Empire Settlement Act as they apply to affording 
assistance to those of the agricultural and house-worker classes from the Mother 
country. To promote the better functioning of colonization activities in Canada, 
the machinery of the Soldier Settlement Board has been co-ordinated with that of 
the Department of Immigration and Colonization. This action has placed at the 
command of the Department a large and well organized staff, with representatives 
throughout the Dominion thoroughly conversant with local conditions and able 
to advise and direct the newcomer to his best advantage. 



216 PRODUCTION 



VII. PRODUCTION. 

This section includes a general survey of production, followed by statistics 
of agriculture, the fur trade, forestry, fisheries, minerals, water powers, manu 
factures and construction. 

The term "production" is used in this connection in its popular acceptation, 
i.e., as including such processes as the growing of crops, extraction of minerals, 
capture of fish, conversion of water power into electrical current, manufacturing, 
etc., in economic phrase, the creation of "form utilities." It dees not include 
various activities which are no less "productive" in a broad and strictly economic 
sense, such as (a) transportation, refrigeration, merchandising, etc., which add 
to commodities already worked up into form the further utilities of "place", "time" 
and "possession", and (b) personal and professional services, such as those of the 
teacher and doctor, which are not concerned with commodities at all, but are never 
theless useful to a civilized society representing, in economic language, the creation 
of "service utilities". 

As showing the importance of these latter activities, it may be pointed out, 
for comparison with the figures in the accompanying tables, that railway gross 
earnings in 1920 amounted to $492,101,104, street railway gross earnings to $47,047,- 
246, and telephone and telegraph earnings to $44,811,140, all of which from a broad 
point of view may be considered as "production". It may be further noted that 
of 2,723,634 persons ten years of age and over employed in 1911 in gainful occupa 
tions in Canada, 217,544 were engaged in transportation, 283,087 in trade and 
merchandising, 411,232 in domestic, personal and professional service, and civil 
and municipal government, a total of 911,863 or one-third of the whole. In 
other words, only about two-thirds of usefully and gainfully employed persons are 
engaged hi "production" according to the definition adopted in the present state 
ment. We might therefore add one hah" to the present total as a rough estimate 
of the value in dollars of the total productive activity of the Canadian people accord 
ing to the economist s definition of production, which approximates to the concept 
of national income. 

I. GENERAL SURVEY OF PRODUCTION. 

There is frequent demand in Canada for a survey of production that will differ 
entiate the more important branches and at the same time give a purview of the 
whole that is free from overlapping. This is somewhat difficult to accomplish with 
clearness, in view of the varying definitions that attach to industrial groups from 
different points of view. For example, brick, tile and cement are frequently included 
in "mineral production" as being the first finished products of commercial value 
resulting from the production process; frequently, however, they are regarded as 
"manufactures" in view of the nature of the production process, both allocations 
being correct according to the point of view. 

The accompanying tables show the total value of all commodities produced 
in Canada during 1920 and 1921, the values being as in the producers hands. 

"Gross" and "Net" Production. The values of products are shown under 
two headings, namely, "gross" and "net". "Gross" production shows the total 
value of all the individual commodities produced under a particular heading. "Net" 
production represents an attempt to eliminate the value of materials consumed in 
the production process. For purposes of ordinary economic discussion the net 



GENERAL SURVEY OF PRODUCTION 217 

figures should be used in preference to the gross, in view of the large amount of 
duplication which the latter includes because of the necessity of making the indi 
vidual items self-contained. 

Interpretation of Items. The primary industries of agriculture, fishing, 
forestry, mining, etc., are separated in this statement from the secondary or manu 
facturing process. The close association between the two at points and the over- 
lappings that are apt to occur have already been pointed out. As further explain 
ing the procedure that has been followed in drawing up the tables, the following 
notes are appended : - 

Agriculture. Dairy factories are included under this heading; farm dairy 
products (gross) include the milk consumed whole and sold to dairy factories, 
and butter, etc., made on the farm. 

Forestry. -Forestry production is understood to consist of the operations in 
the woods as well as those of saw mills and pulp mills, the latter being limited 
to the making of first products such as lumber, lath, shingles, pulp and cooper 
age stock. 

Fur Production. The item of fur production is limited to wild life pro 
duction. To obtain a total of the peltries produced in Canada it would be 
necessary to add the wild life output to the production of pelts on fur farms. 
Mineral Production. Under mineral production all items are included 
that might be allocated to "manufactures". Considerable overlapping exists 
as between "mineral production" on the one hand and "manufactures" on the 
other. The Bureau presents the detailed statistics of these groups (the chief 
of which are smelters, brick, cement, lime, etc.) in its reports on mineral pro 
duction, since their product is the first to which a commercial value is ordinarily 
assigned. 

Total Manufactures. The figure given for the heading is a comprehensive 
one, including the several items listed with the extractive industries above, 
though also frequently regarded as "manufactures", viz., dairy factories, fish 
canning and curing, saw mills, pulp mills, shipbuilding and certain mineral 
industries. This duplication is eliminated from the grand total as well as from 
"manufactures, n.e.s." listed in Table 3. 

For the purpose in hand, a change was made in the total value of manu 
factured products, viz., $2,747,926,675 in 1921, as shown hi the subsection on 
manufactures. The totals for construction, hand trades and repair, exclusive 
of shipbuilding, amounting to $191,436,045, and for the central electric stations, 
amounting to $73,636,094, were deducted, and the value of the products of 
certain mineral industries amounting to $53,213,256 was added. 

Manufactures, n.e.s. The figures given for manufactures, n.e.s., are exclu 
sive of the value of the products of all manufacturing processes closely asso 
ciated with the extractive industries that are frequently included under this 
heading; hence it is obvious that the grand total is equivalent to an amount 
obtained by adding the values for manufactures, n.e.s., and for the other eight 
divisions. 

Analysis of Tables. On reference to Table 1, it will be observed that in 
1920 manufactures outstripped agriculture as the chief wealth-producing industry, 
the net output of manufactures in 1920 being nearly $1,559,000,000 as contrasted 
with a total of $1,520,000,000 for agriculture. When the cost of materials is 
added to the net output, the lead of manufacturing is obviously much greater. 
Confining the analysis to net production, forestry contributed 11 p.c. of the total 



i> is PRODUCTION 



output of 3,682,000,000 as compared with 41 p.c. for agriculture. Mineral pro 
duction followed with a value of about 5.8 p.c. of the net output (Table 3). Con 
traction is credited with a net production of $136,000,000 or 3.7 p.c. Other 
industries, each credited with less than 2 p.c. of the national pi-eduction, weie {ho 
generation of electric power, custom and repair work, fisheries and trapping, which 
cont ributed to the value of production during 1920 in the order named. 

Manufactures, construction and repair shops such as garages, blacksmithing 
and steam laundries are regaided as secondary production, which may be contrasted 
with the extractive or primary industries. Deducting the net value of the products 
made by manufacturing establishments closely associated with the primary indus 
tries, a value of about $1,957,000,000 remained in 1920 as the product of the strictly 
extractive processes. This compares with $1,404,000,000, the net value of secondary 
production after all duplication has been eliminated. In other words, the combined 
extractive industries exceeded in net ovitput the secondary industries by $553,000,000 
in 1920. 

With reference to the provincial statistics given in Tables 2 and 3, the analysis 
relates to the net production in 1920. The pre-eminence of Ontario as the most 
productive province is distinctly shown in Table 2. It produced in 1920 about 
38 p.c. of the Canadian total of $3,682,000,000. Quebec held second place with 
26-2 p.c., and the three western provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and British 
Columbia followed with percentages of 7-8, 7-2 and 6-2 respectively. The well 
known agricultural resources of Manitoba enabled the province to contribute 5-7 
p.c. of the net output for 1920. 

A series of percentages designed to show the relative importance to each prov 
ince of the several productive industries in 1920 is given in Table 3. Tofacilit. to 
comparison the percentages of the net output of manufactures to the net production 
of all industries have also been computed. 

Xova Scotia was dependent almost equally on agriculture and manufacturing. 
The contribution of agriculture was 32-9p.c. as compared with a percentage o f 
23-3 for manufactures, n&.8. The percentage for the whole of the manufactured 
product was 31-9. The mining industry was also important with a production 
of 18-4 p.c. Agriculture, including fur-farming, contributed 81 p.c. of the net 
output of Prince Edward Island. Farming was the chief industry of New Bruns 
wick and lumbering was a close second, the respective contributions being 40-6 
and 35-4 p.c. The whole of manufactures was represented by a percentage of 31-4, 
while manufactures, n.e.s. was valued at 13-3 p.c. 

The income derived from manufacturing in Quebec was greater than that 
from any other industry. The portion, aside from the output of establishments 
associated with the extractive industries, was equivalent to 37-6 p.c., while the net 
output of the entire manufacturing process, referred 10 the same base, was 48- 1 p.c. 
Farming held second place with a production of 36-9 p.c. and forestry with an out 
put of 14-4 p.c. occupied third rank in this connection. A simi ar order obtained 
in the province of Ontario, the pre-eminence of manufacturing being more marked 
than in the sister province of Quebec. The percentages for agriculture and forestry 
were 30-7 and 8-1 respectively. Mining was credited with an output of 4-8 p.c. 
and construction followed with a production of 3-7 p.c. Nearly X7 p,c. of the 
output of Saskatchewan was derived from farming, and the records of Manitoba 
and Alberta were 60 p.c. and 72-5 p.c. respectively. Manufacturing held second 
place in Manitoba and mining in Alberta, themineial pi< duct ion of Alberta, consist 
ing chiefly of coal mining, formed 12-7 p.c. of the net output of the province. 



CKXERAL SURVEY OF PRODUCTION 



219 



Lumbering constituted the chief industry of British Columbia, although manu 
facturing, agriculture and mining were also of importance, indicating the variety 
of the resources of the western province. Nearly 38 p.c. was contributed by the 
lumber industry, while farming and mining contended for third place with per 
centages of 17-8 and 17-2 respectively. The chief industry of the Yukon Terri 
tory was mining, with an output of 48-5 p.c. of the total production of the Territory. 

1. Summary by Industries of the Value of Production in Canada during 

1929 and 1921. 





19 


20. 


192 


1. 




Gross. 


Net. 


Gross. 


Net. 


Agriculture 


$ 
2 099,209,494 


- 
1,519,842,776 


$ 

1 485 109 796 


$ 
1 09 422 570 


Forestry 


545,763,505 


408,831,482 


343,122,670 


258,325 785 


Fisheries 


63,588 428 


49,241 339 


43 456 34 


34 931 935 


Trapping . . 


20 999,300 


20 999 300 


9 527 029 


9 527 029 


Mining 


22", 859, 665 


213,041,895 


171,923,342 


16 9 926 580 


Electric power 


65 705 060 


65 705 060 


73 376 580 


73 376 580 












Total primary production 


3 9 3 V 5 452 


2 277 661 352 


2 126 515 759 


1 631 510 621 












Construction . . 


206 168 135 


135 871 044 


1 9 1 836 367 


76 396 407 


Custom and repair . . 


102 266 442 


63 962 896 


89 108 737 


57 956 11 


Manufactures 1 


3,675,989,988 


1,588,544,194 


2,536,067,792 


1 151 970 2 9 6 












Total ^econdary production 1 


3 qS4 494 5f,5 


1 758 381 134 


2 747 012 896 


1 9 86 3" 745 












Grand total 


6,352,856,119 


3,681,948,905 


4,485,487,785 


2,728,906,285 













1 The item "manufactures" includes dairy factories, saw mills, pulp mills, fish canning and curing, 
shipbuilding and certain mineral industries, which are alto included in other headings aboye. This duplica 
tion amounting to a gross of $654,693,898 and a net of $354.093,581 for 1920 and a gross of $388,040,870 and a 
net of 5188,927,081 for 1921 is eliminated from the grand total. 

2. Summary by Provinces of the Value of Production in Canada, 1920. 





19 


20. 


Percent 
ages of 




Gross 
Valve. 


Net 
Value. 


Net 
Value. 


Prince Edward Island 


$ 
33 648 064 


1 

24 399 552 


0-7 


Nova Scotia 


285 079,452 


185,292,183 


5-0 


New Brunswick 


185,862,194 


115,305,489 


3-1 


Quebec 


1 637 681 148 


962 419 765 


26-2 


Ontario 


2 723,133,265 


1,399,556,657 


38-0 


Manitoba. . . 


347 461 153 


210 599 661 


5-7 


Saskatchewan 


384,684,146 


287,312,910 


7-8 


Alberta. . . . 


376 420 786 


264 571,430 


7--> 


British Columbia . . . . 


375,560,788 


229,138,933 


6-2 


Yukon 


3 325 123 


3,252,325 


0-1 










Grand Total 


6, . {.52, 856, 119 


3,681,948,905 


100-0 











220 



PRODUCTION 



3. Percentages of the Value of the Net Production in each Industry to the 
Total Net Output of each Province, 1929. 



Industry. 




Prince 
Edward 
Island. 


Nova 
Scotia. 


New 
Bruns 
wick. 


Quebec. 


Ontario. 


Agriculture 




81-0 


32-9 


40-6 


36-9 


30-7 


Forestry 




4-2 


8-7 


35-4 


14-4 


8-1 


Fisheries 




7-0 


6-9 


3-8 


0-3 


0-2 


Trapping 




1-5 


0-1 


0-2 


0-5 


0-4 


Mining 






18-4 


2-2 


3-0 


4-8 


Electric power 




0-4 


1-0 


1-0 


1-9 


2-2 


Construction 




0-4 


7-2 


2-2 


4-1 


3-7 


Repair work 




0-7 


1-5 


1-3 


1-3 


1-9 


Manufactures, n.e.s 




4-8 


23-3 


13-3 


37-6 


48-0 
















Grand Tota 1 




100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 
















Total manufactures (percentage to gran 
net nroduction) 


d total of 


9-3 


31-9 


31-4 


48-1 


57-6 
















Industry. 


Mani 
toba. 


Saskat 
chewan . 


Alberta. 


British 
Columbia. 


Yukon. 


Canada. 


Agriculture 


60-0 


86-8 


72-5 


17-8 




41-3 


Forestry - 


2-0 


1-6 


1-2 


37-9 


_ 


11-1 


Fisheries . 


0-6 


0-1 


0-2 


9-8 


1-0 


1-3 


Trapping 


1-5 


0-8 


0-6 


0-3 


(1)44-1 


0-6 


Mining . . ^ 


2-0 


0-7 


12-7 


17-2 


48-5 


5-8 


Electric power. 


1-3 


0-7 


1-0 


3-0 


3-0 


1-8 


Construction. . . 


3-5 


1-1 


1-0 


6-8 


2-3 


3-7 


Repair work. . . < .. 


2-4 


1-6 


1-5 


2-7 


1-1 


1-7 


Manufactures, n e s 


26-7 


6-6 


9-3 


4-5 




32-7 
















Grand Total 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100 -0 
















Total manufactures (percentage to grand 
total of net oroduction) . . 


29-6 


7-8 


11-5 


33-3 


2-3 


42-3 



( ) Includes the trapping industry of the Northwest Territories. 

II. AGRICULTURE. 

Agriculture, in the wider acceptation of the term as including stock raising and 
horticulture, is the chief industry of the Canadian people, employing in 1911,34-3 
p.c. of the total gainfully occupied population. In addition it provides the raw 
material for many Canadian manufactures and its products constitute a very large 
percentage of Canadian exports. It is therefore treated here in considerable detail. 

The section commences with an account of the "Development of Agriculture 
in Canada." Thereafter is found a statement of current Governmental activities 
in connection with the promotion of agriculture, including those of the 
Dominion and Provincial Experiment Stations. Then come the statistics of agri 
culture, including field crops, farm live stock and poultry, fur farming, dairying, 
fruit, farm values, farm labour and wages, prices and miscellaneous, and since 
Canadian exports of agricultural commodities are sold in the world market, the 
section closes with a sub-section on the world s statistics of agriculture, compiled 
from the publications of the International Institute of Agriculture. 

1. Development of Agriculture in Canada. 1 

The Beginnings of Agriculture. 

In the whole area now constituting Canada, the first settlement, and at the 
same time the first effort at agricultural production made by white men, was most 

1 Abridgement and revision of the article by Dr. Grisdale, published in the Year Book for 1921, p. 202. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 221 

probably that begun at Port Royal, now Annapolis, Nova Scotia, by the French 
under de Monts in 1605. Here some of the settlers cultivated patches of land and 
grew maize, pumpkins and beans, while cows were brought here by Poutrincourt in 
1606. The Indians also grew maize to a small extent to supplement food obtained 
by hunting. According to the census of 1671, the Acadians, then numbering 441, 
had 429 arpents under cultivation, together with 866 cattle, 407 sheep and 36 goats. 
Thereafter the settlers continued to clear the lands and reclaim the fertile marshes 
from the sea, chiefly along the Basin of Minas, on which hay grew abundantly. 

In the valley of the St. Lawrence, farming on a small scale appears to have been 
carried on by Champlain, the founder of Quebec, as early as 1608, when cattle were 
imported and hay and fodder grown, together with wheat and other grains. In 1626, 
Champlain established a farm at Cap Tourmente for cattle which he sent from 
Quebec. 

The first real farmer, however, was Louis Hebert, who landed in Quebec in 
1617 and immediately began to clear and cultivate the soil on what is now part of 
Upper Town, Quebec. His only tool was a spade, but he worked away till the soil 
was ready to receive the seed and also planted some apple trees. Hebert was followed 
by other farmers, among them Guillaume Couillard, Abraham Martin and Robert 
Giffard, the latter of whom was said to have had in 1635 large crops of wheat, peas 
and Indian corn. In the district of Three Rivers, Pierre Boucher had large crops of 
grains and vegetables, and in 1648, Pierre Gadbois and others commenced farming 
on land where now stands the city of Montreal. 

The land was held under seigneurial or feudal tenure, similar to that prevailing 
in old France, a system which seems to have promoted the development of agri 
culture. Many former hunters and traders settled down as cultivators of the soil, 
and came to be known as "habitants." 

In 1667 there were 11,448 arpents of land under cultivation, while the farmers 
owned 3,107 cattle and 85 sheep. More live stock of all kinds was gradually brought 
into the country. A census of 1721 gives the following statistics: arpents under 
cultivation, 62,145; in pasture, 12,203; grain harvested wheat, 282,700 bushels; 
barley, 4,585 bushels; oats, 64,035 bushels; peas, 57,400 bushels; corn, 7,205 
bushels; flax, 54,650 lb.; hemp, 2,100 lb.; tobacco, 48,038 Ib. There were at 
this time 5,603 horses, 23,288 cattle, 13,823 sheep and 16,250 swine in the colony. 

The period following the English conquest of Quebec, 1760 to 1850, was a 
critical one for agriculture, the governing classes being too much engrossed in 
politics to pay much attention to it. However, the settlement of the Eastern Town 
ships was begun in 1774 by the United Empire Loyalists, who brought their cattle 
with them. These settlers were granted lands which were held under the tenure 
known as "free and common soccage." These settlements made good progress and 
were reinforced later on by French-Canadians from the seigneuries. 

Agriculture in the Provinces before Confederation. 

Prince Edward Island. The first record of settlement in Prince Edward 
Island or St. John Island, as it was then called, was in 1713, when some families of 
Acadians migrated to its shores, bringing a few cattle with them. In 1763 the island 
was ceded to Great Britain, divided, and granted to persons who had claims on the 
ground of military service, but practically no attempt was made to cultivate the land. 
However, farming received a slight impetus on the arrival in 1783 of the United 
Empire Loyalists, who brought their cattle with them and began to cultivate the 
land. The country was undulating and the soil was found to be a bright red loam, 



222 PRODUCTION 



very suitable for the growing of cereal crops and potatoes. Rich deposits of mussel 
mud were found, which were used as fertilizer with good results. Soon Prince 
Edward Island oats and potatoes were listed on the markets of the Maritime 
Provinces. 

Nova Scoiia. While the territory which is now Nova Scotia became a British 
possession by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the first English-speaking settlement 
was made in Halifax in 1749, and for military rather than economic purposes. 
However, between 1751 and 1753 about 1,615 German and Swiss immigrants had 
settled in what is now the county of Lunenburg. Further, after the expulsion of 
the Acadians from Port Royal in 1755, a considerable number of Now Englanders 
had settled in the Annapolis Valley. As early as 1762, 14,340 acres were und.-r 
cultivation producing hay, grain and potatoes and supporting some live stock. In 
1783, after the Peace of Paris, many United Empire Loyalists came to Xova Scotia, 
bringing their live stock with them. They received from the British Government 
grants of land, agricultural implements and seed corn. 

In the Atlantic Provinces generally, the farmers were unprogressive and farm 
ing was at a rather low ebb when, in 1818, a series of letters published in the Acadian 
Recorder under the signature of "Agricola," attracted public attention. These 
letters dealt with all phases of the industry. The people were awakened from their 
lethargy and the outcome was the formation at the end of 1818 of the Central 
Agricultural Society of which "Agricola," now found to be John Young, a Scotsman 
who had come to Nova Scotia a few years previously, became secretary. Twenty- 
five other agricultural societies were organized within the next two years. Yearly 
exhibitions were held, improved stock and seed were distributed and conditions 
improved generally. 

New Brunswick As early as 1605 French adventurers, ascending the Si. 
John river, noticed fields of Indian corn on the flats along its shores; but the first 
settlement was made by some fifty Acadians with a few cattle near that river in 1693. 
When Acadia was ceded to Great Britain* in 1713, others moved north from the 
peninsula of Nova Scotia into New Brunswick, settled in the valleys and devoted 
themselves to growing corn and hay. The land was very fertile and produced 
abundant crops. About 1762 a number of Massachusetts colonists formed a settle 
ment at a place now called Maugerville; others took the alluvial lands between 
there and the Jemseg river. In 1784, when a large part of the land belonging to 
the Acadians was seized by the British and given to the United Empire Loyalists, 
the Acadians moved to the northern part of the Province and founded the nourish 
ing settlement of Madawaska. The rich soil along the St. John river, when only 
cleared of the trees and harrowed, produced 20 bushels of corn and 20 bushels of 
wheat per acre and when properly worked gave much better yields. In 1788 seventy 
acres of land were sold for 42 3s. 6d., but in the early years of the nineteenth 
century, land rose rapidly in value. Large quantities of hay, roots and vegetables 
of all kinds, as well as beef and mutton, were marketed at St. John. 

Quebic. During two centuries and a half the habitant varied his system of 
farming very little. When the land was cleared of trees, wheat and oats were sown 
among the stumps. Two crops of this nature were harvested and then hay and 
other grasses were grown for several years. When the stumps were sufficiently 
rotten, the land was ploughed. Half the land was ploughed in three consecutive 
years and seeded to cereals and roots; the other half was kept for the production 
of hay as pasture for live stock. This was alternated during the next three 
years, and so on. The quantity of live stock kept was small compared with the 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



area of the farm. This was not a very scientific system, but the soil was so rich that 
the crops of grain, roots and hay were always plentiful, so much so that flour, wheat 
and peas were being exported in 1749. Butter and cheese were always made, while 
maple sugar has been one of the regular products since 1690, and potatoes were 
first grown in 1758. 

Ontario. Agriculture in Ontario may be said to have begun in 1671, when 
Frontenac founded the first settlement near Kingston. He was granted a vast 
territory on the understanding that he would foster agriculture and stock raising; 
but little agricultural work was actually done, as all of the settlers time was taken 
up in warring with the Indians. In 1701, a small settlement on the Detroit river 
was started by La Motte Cadillac, who is said to have brought some cows with him. 

The first English-speaking agricultural settlement was not commenced until 
1783, when the United Empire Loyalists arrived from the United States. They 
settled principally around Niagara, York, now Toronto, and the bay of Quinte, 
the settlements along the bay of Quinte and the St. Lawrence river being among 
the most populous. Townships were surveyed and grants of land given. As these 
exiled settlers were very poor owing to the confiscation of their property, they had 
to be provided with rations, clothes, implements, seed grain, etc. A cow was allotted 
to every two families and other articles were divided among them. The implements 
supplied them were very crude, but by combining their efforts they were able to 
clear open spaces in the forests, build rude huts and sow the seed among the stumps. 
The crops of wheat, corn, etc., grown on this virgin soil gave excellent yields for the 
first three years, but the crop of 1788 was a failure. During these years, flour mills 
were built at Cataraqui river, Napanee, Matilda, Niagara Falls, fort Erie and 
Grand river. The pioneers had many hardships to contend with, not the least being 
the depredations of the Indians and wild beasts. Later, during the Crimean war, 
the price of wheat rose from 30 cents to $2 per bushel, which, followed by the high 
prices obtaining during the American Civil War, gave many of the farmers their 
first real start, enabling them to bring in cattle, horses and sheep from Lower Canada 
and the United States. 

The building of roads, under an Act of 1793, opened up the country, and soon 
grain, especially corn, was being exported. Cheese and butter were made, and a 
market was opened at Kingston in 1801. Wheat was the leading cereal produced, 
the valley of the Thames being noted for the quantity and quality of this grain. 
After the war of 1812, grants of 100 acres with provisions and implements were made 
to the soldiers. Legislation was passed to encourage the growing of hemp, but little 
success was obtained in the handling of this crop. According to the census of 1817, 
the Midland districts of Ontario contained 3,600 horses, 100 oxen, 6,185 cows and 
1,654 young cattle. 

NorJiw^t Territories. The earliest attempts at cultivation in the Wc-t 
date from the arrival of the Selkirk settlers at the Red river in 1812. The twenty- 
two men who composed the settlement immediately commenced to break the land, 
which was sown with winter wheat. The wheat crops of 1813 and 1814 were com 
plete failures, owing both to lack of knowledge and to the fact that the only imple 
ment available for breaking the sod was the hoc. The yield of potatoes and tur 
nips was, however, good, and the crop of 1815 was a success. 

During the first few years of the settlement, there was great rivalry between 
the North-West Company and the Hudson s Bay Company, which ended in blood 
shed in 1816. Many of the settlers were killed and the remainder fled up lake 
Winnipeg to Jack river. Early in 1817 a relief force was sent by Lord Selkirk, fort 



224 PRODUCTION 



Douglas was recaptured and the settlers were persuaded to return and resume farm 
ing. Misfortune, however, seemed to follow the efforts of this colony, its crops being 
wiped out by grasshoppers in 1818 and 1819. As the supply of seed was exhausted, 
some of the settlers went south to Wisconsin and, after much hard labour, returned 
with 250 bushels of seed. Small crops followed and the people were only saved from 
suffering and want by the generosity of Lord Selkirk. 

In 1882 the population was 681 and the numbers of live stock were: horses, 78; 
oxen, 6; cattle, 48; calves, 39; sheep, 10; pigs, 12. The quantities of seed sown 
were in bushels: wheat, 235; barley, 142; corn, 12; potatoes, 570. The first 
satisfactory crop of grain was reaped in 1824, wheat yielding 44 bushels from the 
plough and 68 bushels after the hoe. It was gathered with the sickle and threshed 
with the flail. The crops varied during succeeding years, but by 1830 the colony 
was in a flourishing condition. 

In the territories now known as the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta 
the agriculture of early days was limited to the trading posts of the Hudson s Bay 
Company. About these posts settlers grew vegetables, wheat, barley and oats. 

British Columbia Daniel Williams Harmon was the first farmer in British 
Columbia, settling in the Eraser Lake district. Entries in his diary show that in 
1811, 1815 and other years, he planted potatoes, vegetables and barley and that the 
yields were large, one bushel of potatoes producing forty-one, and five quarts of 
barley sown yielding five bushels. For many years fine crops were grown in this 
district and at the posts of the Hudson s Bay Company, which, together with the 
North-West Company, was the pioneer in agriculture in British Columbia. In 
1837 the Hudson s Bay Company had a large farm near fort Vancouver, producing 
grain, vegetables and other crops and carrying all kinds of live stock. They had 
large farms at Nisqually and Cowlitz and smaller ones on Vancouver island, Dr. 
John McLoughlin being one of the great promoters of agriculture. With the gold 
rush to the Cariboo in the 50 s, and the springing up of mining camps, an impetus 
was given to farming. This was the beginning of stock raising in the valleys of 
the Thompson and Nicola. Later many of the miners turned to farming and stock 

raising. 

Progress Since Confederation. 

The political union of Canada, as effected under the British North America 
Act, 1867, did much to stimulate agricultural progress throughout Canada, especially 
as it allowed the establishment of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, 
whose efforts have been a powerful addition to those of the Provincial Departments 
of Agriculture. Universal agricultural depression in the eighties led to the creation 
of the e -perimental farm system and the consequent improvement of agricultural 
practice in many directions. Great changes in the incidence of farming operations 
were brought about by the opening up of the Prairie Provinces through the building 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, completed for traffic in 1886. Various changes of 
fiscal policy on the part of both Canada and the United States have had important 
results. An influence, temporarily, in the wrong direction was the adoption in 1890 
of the McKinley tariff, the effect of which was largely to exclude Canadian agri 
cultural products from the United States. Grain growing in Ontario and Eastern 
Canada generally was adversely affected by this tariff and also by the rapidly 
increasing grain production of the Prairie Provinces under conditions of virginal 
fertility and low cost. These conditions diverted the trade in agricultural products 
from the United States to the United Kingdom and gave rise to the establishment 
in Eastern Canada of cheese factories and creameries and to an important export 



THE GOVERNMENT IN RELATION TO AGRICULTURE 225 

trade in dairy products, especially cheese, to the United Kingdom. The introduction 
from Denmark in 1882 of the centrifugal cream separator was another noteworthy 
element in the expansion of the Canadian dairying industry. Through the efforts 
of the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture and other varied forms 
of associated activity, much improvement in agricultural practice has been accom 
plished. In connection with dairying alone the present practice of forcing milk pro 
duction in the winter as well as in the summer, largely through the use of corn 
silage, was undreamed of a generation ago. Similar remarks apply to the year- 
round forcing of meat production, also a practice now followed by advanced 
farmers where the conditions are suitable. 

Towards the end of the nineteenth century a policy of extensively adver 
tising the agricultural possibilities of Canada for the attraction of new immi 
grants was vigorously pursued and proved highly successful. The annually increasing 
tide of fresh settlers, and the investment in Canada of large amounts of British 
capital, were indeed outstanding features of the first decade of the present century, 
and the extraordinary progress in the settlement and development of the Prairie 
Provinces was due to these factors. The number of new immigrants arriving in a 
single year reached its maximum in 1913 with 402,432. Then came the outbreak 
of the great war in 1914, causing a complete disruption of national life and entailing 
consequences profoundly affecting agriculture. Reviewing the period as a 
whole in the light of the statistics available, it may be stated that with a population 
of 8,966,834 as compared with 3,454,000, the acreage under wheat has grown from 
1,646,781 in 1870 to 22,500,000 in 1922, and the wheat production, which was not 
more than 16| million bushels in 1870, reached the maximum of almost 400 million 
bushels in 1922. l Canada is, in fact, at the present time the world s second largest 
wheat-producing and wheat-exporting country, ranking next to the United States; 
indeed in the crop year ended July 31, 1923, Canadian wheat exports exceeded those 
of the United States. The value of all field crops, which in 1870 was estimated to be 
$196,789,000, 2 attained its maximum with $1,537,169,000 in 1919 and was $962,- 
526,000 in 1922. For 1870 the value of farm live stock has been estimated at about 
$142,000,000, whilst in 1922 the estimated value was $681,887,000. 

2. The Government in Relation to Agriculture. 

It is provided in section 95 of the British North America Act that "in each 
province the Legislature may make laws in relation to agriculture in the province"; 
it is also "declared that the Parliament of Canada may from time to time make 
laws in relation to agriculture in all or any of the provinces; and any law of the 
Legislature of a province relative to agriculture shall have effect in and 
for the province as long and as far only as it is not repugnant to any Act of the 
Parliament of Canada." In other words, the right of concurrent legislation by the 
Dominion Parliament and Provincial Legislatures is expressly established. 

As a result of this provision, there exist at the present time Departments of 
Agriculture with Ministers of Agriculture at their head both in the Dominion and 
in all the nine provinces, though in most of the provinces the portfolio of agriculture 
is combined with one or more other portfolios in the hands of a single Minister. A 
short sketch of the functions of the various Departments is appended. 

*The yield of wheat in 1923 ia provisionally estimated by the Bureau of Statistics at 469,761,000 
bushels. 

2 Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Statistics, May, 1923, p. 185. 

6237315 



226 PRODUCTION 

1. The Dominion Department of Agriculture. 

The Dominion Department of Agriculture was constituted in 1868 under 
authority of 31 Viet., c. 53, with numerous functions which were by no means 
purely agricultural, including (1) agriculture; (2) immigration and emigration; 
(3) public health and quarantine; (4) the marine and emigrant hospital at Quebec; 
(5) arts and manufactures; (6) the census, statistics and the registration of statistics; 
(7) patents of invention; (8) copyright; (9) industrial designs and trade marks. 

In the course of time the purely agricultural work of the Department came to 
demand greater attention; the non-agricultural functions were one by one en 
trusted to other Departments of the Government, while specialization became the 
order of the day within the Department itself. At the present time it includes the 
following branches: (1) Experimental Farms; (2) Dairy and Cold Storage; 
Health of Animals; (4) Live Stock; (5) Seed; (6) Entomological; (7) Fruit; (8) 
Publications; (9) Agricultural Instruction Act; (10) International Institute. 

For the Acts of Parliament administered by the Dominion Department of 
Agriculture, see in the index "Acts of Parliament, list of principal, administered by 
Departments of Dominion Government." For the publications of the Department, 
covering a wide field of information, see in the index the entry "Publications of the 
Dominion Government." 

2. Provincial Departments of Agriculture. 

Prince Edward Island. The Department is under a Minister entitled Com 
missioner of Agriculture, and supervises agricultural instruction, the agricultural 
and technical high school, the cheese and butter factories, and the women s insti 
tutes of the province. 

Nova Scotia. The Department of Agriculture of Nova Scotia was in 1921 
divided into six main branches: (1) Agricultural Societies, Exhibitions and Associ 
ations, (2) Horticultural Branch, (3) Entomological Branch, (4) Dairying Branch, 
(5) Poultry Branch, (6) Women s Institutes. 

New Brunswick. The branches of the New Brunswick Department were in 
1921 as follows: Immigration and Farm Settlement, Elementary Agricultural 
Education, Agricultural Societies, Dairy Division, Live Stock Division, Horti 
culture Division, Soils and Crops Division, Poultry Division, Apiary Division, 
Women s Institute Branch and Entomological Branch. 

Quebec. The Quebec Department of Agriculture includes the following 
divisions: Dairy, Agronomy, Live Stock, Horticulture, Poultry, Council of Agri 
culture. 

Ontario. The Ontario Department of Agriculture includes the following 
branches: Agricultural Societies, Live Stock, Institutes and Dairy, Fruit, Co 
operation and Markets, Statistics and Publications, Agricultural Representatives 
Branch (supervising the work of 48 local representatives in 1921), Colonization and 
Immigration. The Department conducts the affairs of the Ontario Agricultural 
College and the Ontario Veterinary College at Guelph, and the Agricultural School 
at Kemptville. 

Manitoba The Manitoba Department of Agriculture includes an Agri 
cultural Extension Service, a Weeds Commission, a Dairy Branch, a Publications 
and Statistics Branch, a Live Stock Branch, a Game Branch, besides operating the 
Manitoba Agricultural College. 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS 227 



Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan Department includes six principal 
branches: the Live Stock Branch, the Field Crops Branch, Dairy Branch, the 
Bureau of Statistics Branch, the Game Branch and the Co-operative Organization 
Branch. 

Alberta. The Alberta Department conducts the following main services: 
Dairy, Live Stock, Veterinary, Agricultural Schools and Demonstration Farms, 
Seeds and Weeds, Poultry, Fairs and Institutes, Branding, Crop Reports and 
Statistics. 

British Columbia. The branches of the Department of Agriculture are: 
Horticultural, Live Stock, Dairy, Inspection and Fumigation of Imported Fruits, 
Nursery Stock, etc., Entomology and Plant Pathology, Markets, Apiary Inspection, 
Statistics and Publications. 

For the publications of the Provincial Departments of Agriculture, see in the 
index the entry "Publications of Provincial Governments." 

3. Agricultural Experiment Stations of Canada. 

Among the most important contributions of Canadian Governments to the 
development of agriculture throughout the country, is the maintenance of agricul 
tural experiment stations where research work in both plant and animal breeding 
and adaptation to climatic conditions is carried on. Already this work has had a 
profound effect in the improvement of Canadian agriculture: for example, in the year 
1923 about 360,000,000 bushels of Marquis wheat, a variety produced at the Central 
Experimental Farm at Ottawa, were grown in Canada. Amongst the earlier experi 
ments undertaken, the results of which have passed permanently into good Cana 
dian farm practice, may be mentioned those relating to early seeding, summer 
fallowing, the use of farmyard manure, the fertilizing value of clover crops and the 
introduction into western agriculture of suitable grasses and clovers. Both the 
common red clover and alfalfa are now entering into western rotations as the result 
of efforts on the part of the farms to obtain hardy strains and to discover means 
of resistence to winter-killing. Further experiments with earlier-ripening and 
drought-resisting cereals are now being carried on, each new discovery increasing 
the cultivable area of Canada. Other researches relate to the production of frost- 
resisting fruit trees for the Prairie Provinces. This research work has already 
had a profoundly ameliorating effect upon the Canadian agriculture; a state 
ment regarding the work now under way at the Dominion and Provincial experi 
ment stations is appended. 

Dominion Experimental Farms and Stations. 

Central and Branch Farms. Inaugurated in 1886 by Act of Parliament, 
the Dominion Experimental Farms system was at first made up of the Central Farm 
at Ottawa and four branch Farms: one at Nappan, Nova Scotia, for the Maritime 
Provinces; one at Brandon for Manitoba; one at Indian Head for the Northwest 
Territories, and one at Agassiz for British Columbia. 

The opening up and rapid settlement of the Dominion have led to a corres 
ponding increase in the number of Experimental Farms and Stations 1 . These, with 
the two Tobacco Stations, now total 24, with a total acreage of 12,757, as compared 
with the original five Farms, having a total acreage of 3,472, as established in 1886. 
The following table shows the present number of Farms and Stations with the 
acreage of each and the date of establishment. 

1 The five original farms established in 1886 are known as "Experimental Farms": those added since 
are styled "Experimental Stations." No distinction in the work is expressed by these titles. 

62373 15J 



228 



PRODUCTION 



DOMINION EXPERIMENTAL FARMS AND STATIONS, 1923. 



Farm or Station. 


Province. 


Acreage. 


Date 

e>tab- 
lished. 




Ontario 


467 


1886 




Ontario 


1,282 


1916 




Ontario 


249 


1909 




Prince Edward Island 


151 


1909 




Nova Scotia 


460 


1886 




Nova Scotia 


434 


1912 




New Brunswick 


520 


1912 




Quebec 


340 


1911 




Quebec 


339 


1911 




Quebec 


455 


1914 




Quebec 


1,200 


1916 




Quebec 


65 


1912 




Manitoba 


625 


1886 




Manitoba 


302 


1915 




Saskatchewan 


680 


1886 




Saskatchewan 


650 


1908 




Saskatchewan 


520 


1910 




Saskatchewan 


640 


1920 




Alberta 


850 


1907 




Alberta 


400 


1906 




British Columbia 


53 


1912 




British Columbia 


550 


1914 




British Columbia 


1,400 


1886 




British Columbia 


125 


1912 











In addition there are nine sub-stations, viz.: Salmon Arm, B.C.; Swede Creek, 
Yukon Territory; Fort Vermilion, Grouard and Beaverlodge, Alberta; Forts Smith, 
Resolution and Providence, Northwest Territories; and Betsiamites, Saguenay 
County, Que. Experimental work under the Division of Illustration Stations is 
conducted on 15 farms in Saskatchewan, 11 in Alberta, 10 in British Columbia, 
31 in Quebec, 10 in New Brunswick and 11 in Nova Scotia. 

Organization of the System of Experimental Farms. The Central Farm at Ottawa, 
as its name implies, is the centre or headquarters of the system. Thereat are situated 
the Director, having control and general supervision of the whole, and the chief 
technical officers, having charge each of his special line of work, both at the Central 
and Branch Farms. At Ottawa, the policy to be pursued throughout the system is 
settled by agreement after discussion by the Director, the technical officers and 
the superintendents on whose branch farms the work is to be conducted. The 
technical staff at Ottawa supervise the actual experimental work at the Central 
Farm. At the branches, the superintendents are in charge of the carrying out of the 
various lines of general experiment and also conduct experiments of local importance. 
Exclusive of the Division of Bacteriology, about to be organized, the Divisions 
at Ottawa, which represent the different lines of work carried on throughout the 
system, and which have each a technical officer in charge, are as follows: (1) Animal 
Husbandry; (2) Bees; (3) Botany; (4) Cereals; (5) Chemistry; (6) Extension and 
Publicity; (7) Economic Fibre Production; (8) Field Husbandry; (9) Forage 
Plants; (10) Horticulture; (11) Illustration Stations; (12) Poultry and (13) Tobacco. 
Briefly the main lines of the work of these Divisions are as follows: 

Animal Husbandry. This Division comprises work with beef cattle, dairy cattle 
and dairying, horses, sheep and swine, and undertakes experiments in the breeding, 
feeding, housing and management of each of these classes of live stock. 

g ees , The Bee Division covers the breeding, feeding and manipulation of bees, 
and the study of bee products, including their marketing. 



DOMINION EXPERIMENTAL FARMS 229 

Botany. The work of this Division falls into two classes, economic botany 
and plant pathology. The former includes the study of medicinal, poisonous and 
economic plants. Different varieties and strains of fibre plants are also studied, 
and special attention is given to the life history and control of weeds. The Division 
has also charge of the arboretum at the Central Farm. In plant pathology, in addi 
tion to the pathological laboratory at Ottawa, there are laboratories at Charlotte- 
town, P.E.I., Fredericton, N.B., St. Catharines, Ont., Brandon, Man., Indian 
Head, Sask., and Summerland, B.C. Investigations are being conducted into diseases 
affecting forest trees, fruit trees, cereals, small fruits, potatoes, vegetables and 
tobaccos. 

Cereals. In the Cereal Division, the work comprises the production, by cross 
breeding and selection, of new varieties of grains and the testing of these as to their 
suitability for various parts of Canada. Approved varieties are grown on. a larger 
scale and samples are distributed free to applicant farmers. Among the more 
recent varieties produced in this Division and now widely grown in Canada are the 
Arthur pea and the Huron, Marquis and Prelude wheats. Two interesting varieties 
now being introduced are the ruby wheat, ripening not quite as early as Prelude 
but yielding better, and the Liberty Hull-less oat, which should greatly widen the 
field of usefulness of this cereal and simplify the processes of its manufacture into 
food for man and beast. The Division also carries on extensive milling and baking 
tests. 

Chemistry. The work of the Division of Chemistry comprises the analysis 
of fodders and feeding stuffs, fertilizers, soils, well waters, insecticides, fungicides, 
etc. It also assists other Divisions in chemical problems and does a large amount 
of analytical work for other branches of the Department and for military and 
civilian use abroad. Field tests with various kinds and quantities of fertilizers are 
carried on by this Division at a number of the branch farms and stations. 

Extension and Publicity. This Division acts as a connecting link between the 
Experimental Farms and the farmer by making the work of the former as widely 
known as possible. Two chief means used are the exhibits at as many fairs as 
possible each year and the extension of the departmental mailing lists. 

Economic Fibre Plants. The Division studies the areas in Canada suitable 
for fibre production, the best varieties and strains of seed of fibre plants, cultural 
methods, harvesting, retting and scutching processes, etc. Chiefly for demonstra- 
tional purposes, the Division is operating at Clinton, Huron County, Ontario, a 
leased commercial flax mill. 

Field Husbandry. This Division applies, under field conditions, the results 
obtained by other Divisions more directly engaged in scientific research. Some of 
the main lines of work under way are tests of fertilizers, methods of drainage, 
rotations and cultural methods. Data of cost of production of field crops are gathered 
in connection with this work. 

Forage Plants. The Division has for its work the variety testing of grasses, 
leguminous forage plants, field roots and Indian corn; plant breeding with these; 
the collection of genera and species likely to be of value as forage plants; the study 
of the possibilities and methods of growing root seed, including sugar beets, in 
Canada, and the distribution for trial of seed of varieties newly obtained and not 
available commercially. 

Horticulture. The work of the Division of Horticulture falls under four main 
heads: vegetable gardening, orcharding and small fruits, ornamental gardening 



230 PRODUCTION 



and plant breeding. In the three first named, the testing of varieties is a main feature, 
with a view to ascertaining the hardiest, earliest, best-yielding and most disease- 
resistant sorts. In plant breeding, the aim is the improvement of existing sorts by 
cross-breeding. Greenhouse work is also given special attention at Ottawa. Can 
ning experiments and demonstrations are carried on. 

Illustration Stations. This Division forms another connecting link between 
the Experimental Farms and the farmer. These Stations are now 88 in number. 
Each is located on the farm of a representative farmer, who does the work according 
to directions framed to illustrate the best rotations, the best varieties of crops, and 
the best cultural methods, as determined by the work of years on the Experimental 
Farms. 

Poultry. The scope of work of the Poultry Division has been greatly extended 
during the last few years. It now covers the following main lines of investigation: 
artificial and natural incubation, poultry breeding, systems of breeding and rearing, 
production of heavy-laying strains, feeding for eggs and table, and housing of 
poultry. Poultry survey work, i.e., the endeavour to get groups of farmers in 
various localities to keep accurate records of their poultry costs and returns, is 
already showing results in the better housing, breeding and care of the farm flock. 
Egg-laying contests and record of performance work are carried on. 

Tobacco. The Tobacco Division deals with the breeding, variety tests and 
cultural methods, the warehousing and marketing of tobacco. A complete analysis 
of the soils of the tobacco-producing regions of Canada is being made. During the 
growing season,, inspectors examine the tobacco fields of as many growers as 
possible, with a view to suggesting the best cultural methods and means of com 
bating diseases and insect pests. 

In addition to the work done by the Division of Extension and Publicity and 
Illustration Stations, the results of the work of the Experimental Farms are made 
available to the farmer (1) by correspondence; (2) by publications; (3) by "Season 
able Hints," now in its eighth year, a l(>-page pamphlet brought out every four 
months, with a circulation of about 383,000; and (4) by articles in the press. The 
Farm officers devote considerable time each year, to lecturing, demonstrating, 
judging at fairs and assisting at Short Courses in Agriculture. Excursions to the 
various farms are also a valuable means of bringing the work to the attention of the 
farmer. 

Provincial Experimental Farms and Stations. 
Nova Scotia. 

College of Agriculture, Truro. About 430 acres are devoted to general 
farming, gardening and investigations. Conducted primarily as a college and 
distributing station for pure-bred live stock and seeds, investigational work does 
not occupy so prominent a position as it does at a purely experimental station. 
Nevertheless, practical experiments are being carried on, amongst which the follow 
ing, together with those described qn pages 305 and 306 of the 1921 Year Book, 
are the most important. 

A permanent pasture experiment was begun twelve years ago to determine the 
value of top dressing with basic slag, acid phosphate and wood ashes. In addition 
to the foregoing, the application of crude kainite is now being tried on the permanent 
pasture. Fairly extensive experiments are being tried with Wild Kentish clover as 
a pasture crop. 



PROVINCIAL EXPERIMENTAL FARMS 231 

Experiments to determine the fertilizing value of a crude salt mined at Mala- 
gash have given good results for mangolds, but results with other crops have not 
been impressive. 

Three classes of silage crops are being tried under identical conditions, viz.: 
corn, sunflowers and O.P.V. (the college name for a mixture of oats, peas and 
vetches). The value of the O.P.V. mixture is now thoroughly proved under Nova 
Scotia conditions. Sunflowers have given good results for four years, but corn has 
proved very variable. A trench silo filled in 1922 gave very satisfactory results. 
Field and garden experiments have shown good results from the use of home grown 
oats, wheat, turnips and tomatoes, as compared with seed of these crops grown 
elsewhere. Experiments already carried on for two years are being continued in 
the control of scab hi potatoes by the application of ground sulphur and inoculated 
sulphur. Experiments have been conducted in the control of the cabbage root 
maggot, and with insects affecting orchard fruits, carrots and other vegetables. 
The cabbage root maggot is now perfectly controlled, but further work remains to 
be done with other root and vegetable pests. Extensive experiments in the control 
of insect pests on fruit trees are being carried out, mainly at points in the Annapolis 
valley, where conditions are more favourable for such investigations than at the 
college. Model orchards at some 35 localities outside of the recognized fruit belt 
are operated to determine varieties and methods suitable for these localities. Details 
of the college experimental work, including results obtained, are published in the 
Annual Report of the Secretary for Agriculture for the Province. 

The College enrols about 50 to 100 students annually in its regular course and 
from 200 to 300 annually in various short courses. Numerous extension short 
courses are annually conducted at various centres in the province. 

A college prospectus, issued annually, contains complete accounts of the nature 
of the studies in these courses. 

Quebec. 

Macdonald College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue. The College is situated about 
20 miles west of Montreal and is incorporated with McGill University. The College 
property comprises 786 acres, divided as follows: main farm, 584 acres; cereal 
husbandry plots, 75 acres; poultry department, 17 acres; orchard, 35 acres; vege 
table gardens, 25 acres; the campus, including driveways, lawns, trees, shrubs, 
flower beds, school garden and recreation fields for students of both sexes, 50 acres. 
The agricultural engineering, animal husbandry, bacteriology, botany, cereal 
husbandry, chemistry, horticulture, physics, poultry, zoology, and entomology 
departments are all well equipped for the numerous researches and experiments 
under way. In the School of Agriculture, the courses offered include 4-year courses, 
leading to the B.S.A. and B.Sc. in Agr. degrees, a 4 months winter practical course 
for farmers and farmers sons, and various short courses. Postgraduate work can 
be taken in cereal husbandry, entomology, plant pathology, bacteriology, etc. 
the higher degrees offered being M.S.A., M.Sc. and Ph.D. In the School of House 
hold Science, the courses include a 4-year course, leading to the degree of Bachelor 
of Household Science, a 2-year institution administration course, a 1-year home- 
maker course, three short courses each of about 3 months duration in household 
science, etc. In the School for Teachers, courses under the Protestant Committee 
of the Council of Public Instruction of the Province of Quebec are offered leading 
to model, kindergarten and elementary diplomas. The teaching and experimental 
staff of the College consists of about 60 members. The total enrolment for 1921-22 
was 762. More complete information respecting the work of the College will be 



232 PRODUCTION 



found oh record in the Canada Year Book of 1916-17, pp. 241-242, and 1918, pp. 
235-237. The annual report of the College and the annual announcement should be 
consulted. 

Oka Agricultural Institute. Situated on the Lake of Two Mountains, 
about 20 miles from Montreal, the Oka Agricultural Institute is one of the oldest 
experimental farms in Canada. It was affiliated to Laval University of Mont 
real (now University of Montreal) on March 25, 1908. The total area of the farm 
comprises 1,800 acres, including all kinds of soil. Horticulture holds an important 
place. The area devoted to fruit trees is about 40 acres, and includes 4,000 trees 
(apples, cherries, pears and plums) grown according to the most recent methods. 
Special attention is given to the breeding of live stock. The dairy herd is of con 
siderable importance and has been entirely -formed at the Institute itself. Official 
milk records begun in 1918 have already resulted in the registration of 52 animals 
in the "Record of Performance," with an average yield exceeding 10,000 Ib. of milk. 
The raising of swine, poultry and bees is also practised. The poultry houses shelter 
thousands of birds, amongst them the famous hen "Chantecler," bred by the poultry 
manager and registered in the United States Standard of Perfection in 1921. Mention 
should also be made of the modern rabbit hutch, 70 ft. x 13 ft., probably unique of its 
kind in Canada. The Institute can accommodate about 150 indoor students. The 
present curriculum includes (1) a scientific course of four years leading to the 
University degree of B.S.A.; (2) a practical course of two years for young men less 
advanced, embracing all the principal agricultural subjects such as general agri 
culture, cereals, fodder plants, rural and hygienic construction, machines and 
motors, the cultivation of fruits and vegetables and the breeding and utilization 
of farm live stock. The famous Oka cheese (Port du Salut) made at this Institute is 
widely known throughout the North American continent. 

School of Agriculture, Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere. This school, with 
accommodation for 125 boarders, is situated on the southern slope of a hill domin 
ating a farm of nearly 600 acres. Within oae mile of the Intercolonial Railway and on 
the Quebec-Rlviere-du-Loup line, it is easily accessible, and attracts thousands of 
visitors, who seek agricultural information from both the School and the Dominion 
Experimental Station, which is not more than a mile from the village. The students 
of the School are divided into (1) those taking a four-years agronomic course, and 
(2) those receiving special practical training for two years. The School is affiliated 
to Laval University, Quebec, which awards the degree of B.S.A. (Bachelor of Science 
in Agriculture) to successful students of the first class, whilst those in the other 
receive a Certificate of Agricultural Proficiency (Brevet de Capacite Agricoje). 
Lectures in adjacent parishes are frequently given by the School professors, who also 
conduct agricultural pages in two of the largest provincial weeklies for the extension 
of new agricultural information. Cultural experiments are also undertaken at the 
School, and bulletins are published. 

Ontario. 

Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm, Guelph. The 

College and Experiment Station were established in 1874 to train young farmers in 
the science and practice of agriculture and to conduct agricultural experiments for 
the benefit of the province. The land property consists of a little more than 700 
acres of average loam soil. The farm property consists of 500 acres; experimental 
plots of about 100 acres and campus and woodlots form the remainder. The growth 
of the institution as an educational centre has been very rapid. Academic work 



PROVINCIAL EXPERIMENTAL FARMS 233 

at the present time requires the space and equipment of sixteen large buildings 
for dormitories, class rooms and laboratories. Courses offered include a four-year 
course for the degree of B.S.A. (Bachelor of Science in Agriculture), a two-year 
course for the Associate Diploma, winter courses for farmers and farmers sons, 
summer courses for teachers of the province and domestic science courses at Mac- 
donald Institute. The teaching and experimental staff consists of about seventy- 
five members. In 1874 the College opened with 28 students. The total enrolment 
in long and short courses in the academic year 1921-22 was 2,112. More complete 
information respecting the researches and experimental work undertaken at the 
college will be found on record in the Canada Year Book of 1916-17, pp. 243-245, 
and 1918, pp. 238-241. Also reference may be made to the Forty-seventh Annual 
Report of the College, covering the year 1921. 

Manitoba. 

Manitoba Agricultural College, Winnipeg. Field husbandry experiments 
are conducted in five divisions: (1) Forage Crop Improvement; (2) Cereal Crop 
Improvement; (3) Soil and Crop Management; (4) Co-operative Experiments; 
and (5) Studies in Quality of Farm Crops. The work of the Forage Crops Improve 
ment Division has for its object the production and improvement of plants suitable 
under Manitoba conditions for pasture, hay and fodder. Varieties and strains of 
forage crops have been imported from the United States and European countries, 
and improvement is being obtained by selection and hybridization. The major 
investigations are being conducted with alfalfa and red clover, but work is also 
being done with sweet clover, timothy, western rye, brome, meadow fescue and 
meadow foxtail. Profitable results have been obtained in fodder corn, especially 
by securing early maturing strains. In the Cereal Crop division, the work consists 
of the testing and classification of cereal varieties with a view to standardization. 
The crops under study are wheat, oats, barley, flax, spring and fall rye, peas and 
buckwheat. Introductions of cereals have been made from various parts of the 
world, and selections have been made which promise to be of value. Hybridization 
for improvement is also followed, and some promising crosses are now under test. 
In the Soil and Crop Management division the projects include soil renovation and 
soil cultivation experiments, experiments in cereal crops, perennial and annual 
forage crops, hoed crops and cropping sequence. Work is also being done in silage 
and in ascertaining the carrying capacity of the grasses and clovers when used for 
pasture. Co-operative experiments are being conducted in order to determine the 
varieties and practices best suited to the different agricultural zones of the province. 
These experiments are being conducted with both government institutions and 
individual farmers. In this work experimental fields, on which complete variety tests, 
fertility tests and management tests are made, are operated at the Birtle Demon 
stration Farm, Killarney Demonstration Farm, Teulon High School Farm, Elkhorn 
Indian School Farm, and Pas Indian School Farm. Tests in which farmers are 
trying out three or more varieties or methods are in operation at about 100 places. 
In addition to this, considerable work is being done co-operatively on the reclamation 
of peat lands and drifting soils. Studies in quality of farm crops are being con 
ducted with wheat and barley. In the former case milling and baking tests have 
been made of wheat from different points of the province with an idea of estab 
lishing the quality of wheat grown under different soil and climatic conditions. 

The Departments of Botany and Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Physics, 
Chemistry and Engineering are also carrying on numerous investigations. 



234 PRODUCTION 



Saskatchewan. 

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. The College of Agriculture has 
over 1,300 acres of land at the University and another 560 acres about 35 miles 
distant which were bequeathed to the College by a pioneer settler, an ex-student 
of the University of Cambridge, England. Of the 1,300 acres, 210 acres are set 
aside for experimental work in field husbandry and horticulture. Two hundred and 
seventy acres of prairie were purchased in 1918, 100 acres of which have been broken 
for the Field Husbandry Department. The remaining 800 acres are operated as a 
general farm with great diversification of crops. The buildings, paddocks, etc., 
are located on an adjoining half section of land designated as the campus or building 
plot. The College offers a four-year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture (B.S.A.), and a three-year associate course for farmers sons 
intending to make farming their life work. Short courses in general agriculture, 
tillage, crops, live stock, poultry, dairying and engineering, are held for adult 
farmers during the winter months, both at the College and at various points through 
out the province. 

Practical experiments are undertaken in the departments of field and animal 
husbandry, as well as a variety of scientific investigations in the departments of chem 
istry, physics, biology, engineering, etc. 

Alberta. 

College of Agriculture, Edmonton South. A College of Agriculture has 
been established at the University of Alberta, Edmonton South. A definite four- 
year course with matriculation entrance leading to the B.Sc. degree is under way. 
Students from the provincial schools of agriculture will enter the second 
year of the course after satisfying special entrance requirements. At these 
schools various experiments are in progress as described in the 1920 edition of the 
Year Book, p. 286. At the College itself numerous agricultural experiments are 
also being conducted, including the followirtg tests: Determination as to whether 
the present varieties of wheat, oats, barley and peas are suitable for the Park Belt 
sections of Alberta; breeding and selection of promising varieties of wheat for earlier 
maturity combined with high milling qualities; the testing of alfalfas, red clover, 
sweet clover and alsike for winter hardiness and of sweet clover in the Open Plains 
sections to determine its drought hardiness; varieties of corn and sunflowers for 
fodder; relative suitability of corn and sunflowers for the Park Belt; selection of a 
suitable grain corn for the dry sections; growth of alfalfa and sweet clover for hay 
and seed ; nurse crops with clover and timothy. Extensive experiments in the feeding 
of cattle, sheep and swine have been under way for three or four years. They include 
both winter feeding and summer pasture work. Other researches have been made 
on the utilization of the best native grasses of Alberta; hay and pasture production; 
effects of frost on grain; production of alfalfa seed; factors of hardiness in winter 
wheat; sunflowers; potatoes; seed production; various experiments with cattle, 
sheep and swine. A start has been made in a definite soil survey of the province, 
beginning with the soil-blown area of the south. 

British Columbia. 

Department of Agriculture. Horticultural Branch. Demonstration work 
in continuation of researches previously undertaken was again carried on this year. 
This included work on the control of the strawberry root weevil (Otiorhynchus 
ovatus, Linn.) and the various strengths of lime-sulphur sprays to be used in the 



STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE 235 

control of apple scab. Soil work was also continued along -the line of cover crops 
as well as the use of commercial fertilizers. New work was undertaken in the use 
of oil sprays for the control of blister mite, oyster-shell scale and leaf roller, and also 
in the commercial use of spreaders for spraying work. 

Soil and Crop Branch. The seed potato inspection and certification work 
started in 1921 by the Soil and Crop Branch was continued and extended during 
1922, in co-operation with the provincial plant pathologist. 

University of British Columbia. Progress has been made with the clearing 
and preparation of land for experimental and general farm purposes. The results 
obtained by the departments of agronomy and horticulture are becoming increas 
ingly valuable, especially for farmers and gardeners cultivating upland coast soils. 
In the department of animal husbandry, excellent foundation stock has been pur 
chased, consisting of Jerseys, Ayrshires, Shorthorns and Herefords, and good York 
shire and Berkshire pigs and Southdown, Shropshire and Oxford Down sheep have 
also been acquired. Seven Clydesdale mares formerly at Colony Farm now form 
the horse-breeding nucleus. Departments of dairying and poultry have been 
organized, and are carrying on investigational and instructional work. In addition 
to the teaching and investigational work at the University, the members of the 
Faculty of Agriculture, in co-operation with the Dominion and Provincial Govern 
ments, have organized and conducted considerable extension work throughout the 
province. 

3. Statistics of Agriculture. 

Annual Statistics. Since 1918 the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, in co 
operation with the nine Provincial Governments, has been collecting annually the 
basic agricultural statistics of Canada. These statistics are secured by means of a 
simple schedule calling for a statement of the areas sown to field crops and of the 
numbers of farm animals alive on June 15. When completed they are compiled 
into totals by the Bureau, and the areas as finally estimated form the basis for the 
estimation during the growing season and after harvest of the yields of field crops. 
These yields are estimated in each district by the experienced crop correspondents 
of the Bureau. In 1922 schedules were returned for about 25 p.c. of the farms of the 
Dominion, and, on the basis of these 25 p.c., estimates for the field crops and live 
stock of the Dominion were prepared. 

In six of the provinces the schedules were distributed in 1923 through the 
agency of the rural schools, in British Columbia and in Prince Edward Island they 
were mailed direct to farmers; in Quebec, through the co-operation of the Quebec 
Bureau of Statistics, the schedules were distributed by local agents under the 
direction of the agronomists or district agricultural representatives. This system 
has been found effective in securing a larger sample of the farms of the country than 
could be obtained in any other way. 

Census Statistics. At each of the six decennial censuses of Canada taken since 
Confederation, statistics of the agricultural activities carried on throughout the 
country have been secured, such, for example, in the kter censuses, as the acreage 
sown, the yield of crops, the value of that yield, the number of fruit trees, the 
value of farms, the number of live stock, etc. In the publication of the results of 
each of these censuses, a special volume has been devoted to agricultural (and 
horticultural) activities, and this will be the case in the publications of the census 
of 1921, some of the results of which are used in the following statistics. Censuses 
of population and agriculture have also been taken for the three Prairie Provinces 
in 1906 and 1916. 



236 PRODUCTION 



Presentation of Agricultural Statistics. In the current edition of the Year 
Book, the statistics of agriculture are presented under the following headings: (1) 
Acreage, yield, quality and value of crops, (2) Farm live stock and poultry, (3) Fur 
farming, (4) Dairying, (5) Fruit, (6) Farm labour and wages, (7) Prices, (8) Mis 
cellaneous, (9) Summary of agricultural revenue and agricultural wealth, (10) 
World statistics of agriculture. 

1. Acreage, Yield, Quality and Value of Crops. 

Field Crops, 1917-22. In Table 1 are presented for Canada, by provinces, 
estimates of the area, yield, quality and value of the principal field crops for each 
of the six years 1917 to 1922, with the five-year averages for the period 1917 to 1921. 1 
The estimates of 1922 are based upon statistics collected from about 168,000 
farmers throughout Canada in June of that year under arrangements made between 
the Dominion and Provincial Governments in accordance with plans dating from 
1917 for the four provinces of Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, 
and from 1918 for the remaining five provinces of Prince Edward Island, Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba. As was pointed out in previous 
editions of the Year Book (see 1920 edition, p. 188), comparability with the statistics 
of 1917 and 1918 was somewhat affected by the change in the method of estimation 
which then took place. In estimating totals for the year 1922 it was possible to use 
a preliminary count of the number of farms, according to the schedules of the census 
of 1921 as received and compiled. 

Season of 1921-22. Taken altogether, the Canadian agricultural season of 
1922 was of marked excellence. In parts of the Dominion, notably British Columbia 
and the northern and central districts of Alberta and Saskatchewan, severe drought 
prevailed during the growing season up to the end of July; but in the southern dis 
tricts of Alberta and Saskatchewan the rainfall was ample, and the grain crops were 
superior to any since 1915. These conditions were a very welcome change from a 
series of bad seasons in the southern and clrier districts of the two provinces. In 
Manitoba and Ontario an excellent all-round harvest was gathered. In Quebec the 
grain crops were generally good, and the yields were superior to those of last year. 
Potatoes however in this province, as a consequence of drought in September follow 
ing excessive rains, did not realize early expectations, and the tubers were as a rule 
small and few. Abundant rains in the Atlantic provinces resulted in good grain 
crops, but the yield of potatoes was below average, and the wet season induced 
rotting. The fall of 1922 was fine and mild, enabling cattle to be kept out of doors 
until a late date; and in most parts of the Dominion live stock entered upon the 
winter with plentiful supplies in prospect. 

Areas and Yields of Grain Crops. The total yield of wheat in Canada 
for the year 1922 was finally estimated at 399,786,400 bushels from an area of 
22,422,693 acres, as compared with 300,858,100 bushels from 23,261,224 acres in 
1921 and with 236,025,200 bushels from 18,545,863 acres, the annual average for 
the five years 1917-21. The total for 1922 consisted of 18,956,000 bushels from 
892,569 harvested acres of fall wheat and of 380,830,400 bushels from 21,530,124 
sown acres of spring wheat. The total wheat crop of 399,786,400 bushels, as finally 
estimated, was the largest on record for Canada, and compares with 393,542,600 
bushels, the previous record crop of 1915. The average yield per acre of all wheat 

1 Statistics of acreage, yield, and value of various field crops collected at the decennial censuses since 
1871 will be found in the "Statistical Summary of the Progress of Canada," immediately following the 
Table of Contents. 



AREA, YIELD AND VALUE OF CROPS 237 

for 1922 worked out at 17f bushels, as compared with 13 bushels in 1921, with 12f 
bushels, the five-year average, and with 26 bushels, the record for 1915. For fall 
wheat the average yield per acre in 1922 was 21J bushels, as against 21| bushels in 
1921 and 22\ bushels, the five-year average. For spring wheat the 1922 average 
was 17f bushels, as compared with 12f bushels in 1921 and 12J bushels, the five- 
year average. 

Oats yielded in 1922 the total of 491,239,000 bushels from 14,541,229 acres, as 
compared with 426,232,900 bushels from 16,949,029 acres in 1921, with 530,709,700 
bushels from 15,849,928 acres, the record crop of 1920 and with 436,130,380 bushels 
from 15,170,961 acres, the annual average for the five years 1917-21. The average 
yield per acre for 1922 was 33f bushels, as against 25i bushels in 1921 and 28| 
bushels, the five-year average. Barley yielded a total of 71,865,300 bushels from 
2,599,520 acres, as compared with 59,709,100 bushels from 2,795,665 acres in 1921 
and with 62,350,808 bushels from 2,707,801 acres, the five-year average. The 
average yields per acre were 27f bushels in 1922, 21 bushels in 1921 and 23 bushels, 
the five-year average. Flaxseed gave a total yield of 5,008,500 bushels from 
565,479 acres, as compared with 4,111,800 bushels from 533,147 acres in 1921 and 
with 5,914,480 bushels from 1,008,409 acres, the five-year average. The yield per 
acre was 8-85 bushels in 1922, 7| bushels in 1921 and 5-85 bushels, the average. 

For the remaining cereal crops, the total yields for 1922 were in bushels as 
follows, the corresponding totals for 1921 and for the five-year average being shown 
within brackets: Rye 32,373,400 (21,455,260; 11,066,132); peas 3,170,100 (2,769,- 
081; 3,408,824); beans 1,303,300 (1,089,900; 1,716,236); buckwheat 9,701,200 
(8,230,100; 9,260,100); mixed grains 27,707,700 (22,271,500; 26,872,656); and 
corn for husking 13,798,000 (14,904,000; 13,629,440). 

Root and Fodder Crops. Expressed in centals of 100 lb., the yield of potatoes 
in 1922 was 55,745,300 from 683,594 acres, as compared with 64,407,600 centals 
from 701,912 acres in 1921, and with 66,118,860 centals from 739,474 acres, the 
five-year average. The yield per acre of 1922 was 81^ centals, compared with 91| 
centals in 1921 and with 89| centals, the five-year average. Turnips, mangolds, 
etc., produced a total of 43,973,500 centals from 224,256 acres in 1922, as against 
39,575,150 centals from 227,675 acres in 1921 and with 49,398,040 centals from 
275,705 acres, the five-year average. The yield per acre in 1922 was 196 centals, 
as compared with 173| centals in 1921 and with 179 centals the average. Sugar 
beets produced 190,400 tons from 20,725 acres in 1922, as against 268,000 tons from 
28,367 acres in 1921 and 243,600 tons from 24,231 acres, the average. The yield per 
acre was in 1922, 9-20 tons, in 1921, 9-45 tons .and for the average 10 tons. Of hay 
and clover the total yield was in 1922 14,488,200 tons from 10,001,667 acres, as 
compared with 11,366,100 tons from 10,614,951 acres in 1921 and with 13,901,960 
tons from 10,071,857 acres, the average. The yield per acre was 1-45 ton in 1922, 
1-07 ton in 1921 and 1-40 ton, the average. Grain hay in Alberta and British 
Columbia gave a total yield in 1922 of 1,624,100 tons, as compared with 1,288,976 
tons in 1921. Of alfalfa, the total yield in 1922 was 806,400 tons from 305,933 
acres, as compared with 662,200 tons from 263,892 acres, and with 489,798 tons 
from 207,114 acres, the five-year average. The yield per acre was 2-65 tons in 
1922, 2 1 tons in 1921 and 2-35 tons the average for the five years. Fodder corn 
yielded 5,879,000 tons from 654,624 acres in 1922, as against 6,361,600 tons from 
585,395 acres in 1921 and with 4,884,796 tons from 510,946 acres, the average. 
The yield per acre in 1922 was 9 tons, as against lOf tons in 1921 and 9 tons the 
five-year average. 



238 



PRODUCTION 



Values of Field Crops. The average prices per unit, as received by fanners 
in 1922, are estimated from the reports of crop correspondents for all Canada as 
follows, the corresponding prices for 1921 and for the five-year average 1917-21 
being given within brackets: Per bushel: Fall wheat $1.01 ($1.02; $1.89); spring 
wheat 84 cents (80 cents; $1.65); all wheat 85 cents (81 cents; $1.66); oats 38 cents 
(34 cents; 62 cents); barley 46 cents (47 cents; 92 cents); rye 58 cents (72 cents; 
$1.15); peas $1.84 ($1.96; $2.78); beans $2.85 ($2.90; $5.02); buckwheat 84 cents 
(89 cents; $1.36); mixed grains 60 cents (62 cents; $1.05); flaxseed $1.72 ($1.44; 
$2.66); corn for husking 83 cents (83 cents; $1.32); Percental: potatoes 90 cents 
($1.28; $1.55); turnips, mangolds, etc., 54 cents (67 cents; 86 cents). Per ton: 
hay and clover $13.46 ($23.56; $19.24); alfalfa $12.77 ($19.95; $19.97); fodder 
corn $4.97 ($7.05; $6.80); grain hay $12.87 ($12.17, 1921); sugar beets $7.88 
($6.50; $10.07). 

The total values of field crops in 1922 are estimated as follows, the corresponding 
values for 1921 and for the five-year average 1917-21 being given within brackets: 
Wheat $339,419,000 ($242,936,000; $392,546,320); oats $185,455,000 ($146,395,300; 
$270,406,080); barley $33,335,300 ($28,254,150; $57,487,784); rye $18,703,200 
($15,399,300; $12,744,150); peas $5,818,200 ($5,439,400; $9,467,240); beans 
$3,713,800 ($3,155,800; $8,613,200); buckwheat $8,140,800 ($7,285,100; $12,618- 
020); mixed grains $16,500,700 ($13,901,220; $28,088,214); flaxseed $8,638,900 
($5,938,400; $15,747,620); corn for husking $11,509,700 ($12,317,000; $18,040,080); 
potatoes $50,320,000 ($82,147,600; $102,776,960); turnips, mangolds, etc., 
$23,886,000 ($26,620,400; $42,259,360); hay and clover $194,950,000 ($267,764,200; 
$267,459,520); grain hay $20,910,000 ($14,476,000 in 1921); alfalfa $10,295,000 
($13,211,000; $9,780,740); fodder corn $29,197,600 ($44,880,800; $33,207,060); 
sugar beets $1,500,000 ($1,742,000; $2,453,100). The aggregate value of all field 
crops in 1922 is $962,293,200, as compared with $931,863,670 in 1921. 

1 Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1917-22 and 

Five- Year Average, 1917-21. 



Field crops. 


Area. 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


Total 
yield. 


Weight 
per 
measured 
bushel . 


Average 
price 
per 
bushel. 


Total 
value. 


Canada- 
Fall wheat 1917 


acres. 
725,300 


bush. 
21-50 


bush. 
15,533,450 


lb. 
59-37 


$ 
2-08 


$ 
32,336,900 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


416,615 
672,793 
814,133 
720,635 
892,569 
669,895 


19-00 
23-75 
24-00 
21-50 
21-25 
22-25 


7,942,800 
16,006,000 
19.469,200 
15,520,200 
18,956,000 
14,894,330 


61-19 
61-20 
60-14 
58-77 
59-91 
60-13 


2-08 
2-45 
1-88 
1-02 
1-01 
1-89 


16,516,000 
39,336,000 
36,550,500 
15,846,000 
19,059,000 
28,117,080 


Spring wheat 1917 


14,030,550 


15,50 


218,209,400 


59-48 


1-93 


420,701,700 


19K 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


16,937,287 
18,453,175 
17,418,241 
22,540,589 
21,530,124 
17,875,968 


10-75 
9-50 
14-00 
12-75 
17-75 
12-25 


181,132,550 
177,254,400 
243,720,100 
285,337,900 
380,830,400 
221,133,870 


58-69 
58-53 
59-07 
58-10 
60-31 
58-77 


2-02 
2-36 
1-60 
0-80 
0-84 
1-65 


365,161,700 
418,386,000 
390.806,800- 
227,090,000 
320,360,000 
364,429,240 


All wheat . . 1917 


14,755.850 


15-76 


233,742,850 


59-46 


1-94 


453,038,600 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averaees.. ... 1917-21 


17,353,902 
19.125,968 
18,232,374 
23,261,224 
22,422,693 
18,545,863 


11-00 
10-00 
14-50 
13-00 
17-75 
12-75 


189,075.350 
193.260,400 
263,189,300 
300,858,100 
399,786,400 
236,025,200 


59-44 
59-12 
59-35 
58-11 
60-24 
59-10 


2-02 
2-37 
1-62 
0-81 
0-85 
1-66 


381,677,700 
457,722,000 
427,357,300 
242,936,000 
339,419,000 
392,546,320 



AREA, YIELD AND VALUE OF CROPS 



239 



1. Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1917-22 and 

Five- Year Average, 1917-21 con. 



Field crops. 


Area. 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


Total 
yield. 


Weight 
per 
measured 
bushel. 


Average 
price 
per 
bushel. 


Total 
value. 


Canada con. 
Oats 1917 


acres. 
13,313,400 


bush. 
30-25 


bush. 
403,009,800 


Ib. 
33-55 


$ 

0-69 


* 

277 065 300 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


14,790,336 
14,952,114 
15,849,928 
16,949,029 
14,541,229 
15,170,961 


28-75 
26-25 
33-50 
25-25 
33-75 
28-75 


426,312,500 
394,387,000 
530,709,700 
426,232,900 
491,239,000 
436,130,380 


35-61 
34-16 
35-62 
32-97 
35-68 
34-38 


0-78 
0-80 
0-53 
0-34 
0-38 
0-62 


331,357,400 
317,097,000 
280,115,400 
146,395,300 
185,455,000 
270 406 080 


Barley... ..1917 


2,392,200 


23-00 


55,057,750 


46-97 


1-08 


59 654 400 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


3,153,711 
2,645,509 
2,551,919 
2,795,665 
2,599,520 
2,707,801 


24-50 
21-25 
24-75 
21-25 
27-75 
23 -CO 


77.287.24C 
56,389,400 
63,310,550 
59,709,100 
71,865,300 
62,350,808 


47-24 
46-32 
47-62 
46-05 
47-66 
46-84 


1-00 
1-23 
0-83 
0-47 
0-46 
0-92 


77! 378^670 
69,330,300 
52,821,400 
28,254,150 
33,335,300 
57 487 7S4 


Rye 1917 


211,880 


18-25 


3 857 200 


53-44 


1-62 


fi 9A7 Oftft 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


555,294 
753,081 
649,654 
1,842,498 
2,105,367 
802,481 


15-25 
13-50 
17-50 
11-75 
15-50 
13-75 


8,504,400 
10,207,400 
11,306,400 
21,455,260 
32,373,400 
11 066 132 


55-60 
55-09 
55-44 
55-06 
55-71 
54-93 


1-49 
1-40 
1-33 
0-72 
0-58 
1-15 


12,728,600 
14,240,000 
15,085,650 
15,399,300 
18,703,200 

19 744 IRA 


Peas 1917 


198,881 


15-25 


3 026 340 


50.01 


3.154 


in 794 inn 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


235,976 
230,351 
186,348 
192,749 
178,890 
208, 861 


18-25 
14-75 
19-00 
14-25 
17-75 
16-25 


4,313,400 
3,406,300 
3,528,100 
2,769,981 
3,170,100 
3 408 824 


59-93 
59-60 
60-44 
59-42 
60-08 
59-84 


2-99 
2-86 
2-42 
1-96 
1-84 
2-78 


12,899,100 

9,739,300 
8,534,3 
5,439,400 
5,818,200 

94fi7 94(1 


Beans ..1917 


92,457 


13-75 


1 274 000 


59-70 


7-45 


Q 403 dnn 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


228,577 
83,577 
72,163 
62,479 
79,899 
107,851 


15-50 
16-50 
17-50 
17-50 
16-25 
16-00 


3,563,380 
1,388,600 
1,265,300 
1,089,900 
1,303,300 
1 716 236 


58-67 
59-99 
59-73 
59-30 

59-39 
50.40 


5-41 
4-48 
3-88 
2-90 

2-85 
K.no 


19,283,900 
6,214,800 
4,918,100 
3,155,800 
3,713,800 

8C19 OAft 


Buckwheat... ..1917 


395,977 


18-00 


7 149 400 


46-49 


l-4fi 


1A AAO Af\f\ 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


548,097 
444,732 
378,476 
360, 758 
430,982 
425 608 


20-75 
23-50 
23-75 
22-75 
22-50 
21-75 


11,375,500 
10,550,800 
8,994,700 
8,230,100 
9,701,200 
9 260 100 


47-41 
47-23 
47-95 
47-35 
47-80 

47-90 


1-58 
1-50 
1-28 
0-89 
0-84 
1 .3fi 


18,018,100 
15,831,000 
11,512,500 
7,285,100 
8,140,800 

19 filfi non 


Mixed grains 1917 


497,236 


32-50 


16 157 080 


44-41 


1 .Ifi 


i o oni 7KA 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


921,826 
901,612 
811,634 
861,1361 
779,800 
798 689 


38-75 
31-00 
40-00 
25-75 
35-50 
33-75 


35,662,300 
27,851,700 
32,420,700 
22,271,500 
27,707,700 
26 872 656 


46-39 
44-83 
44-65 
41-62 
44-33 

44.38 


1-14 

1-36 
0-90 
0-62 
0-60 
i .p>; 


40,726,500 
37,775,400 
29,236,200 
13,901,220 
16,500,700 


Flaxseed 1917 


919 500 


6-50 


K Q34 QAn 


<!4.73 


2 .fie 




1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


1,068,120 
1,093,115 
1,428,164 
533,147 
565,479 
1 008 409 


5-75 
5-00 
5-60 
7-75 
8-85 
5-85 


6,055,200 
5,472,800 
7,997,700 
4,111,800 
5,008,500 

5Q14 4ftA 


53-72 
55-14 
54-79 
54-34 
55-04 

KA, KA 


3-13 
4-13 
1-94 
1-44 

1-72 


18,951,000 
22,609,500 
15,502,200 
5,938,400 
8,638,900 


Corn for husking 1917 


234,339 


33-00 


7 762 700 


KR.10 


1 *ft4 


1A 0/17 <V\A 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages . . . . 1917-21 


250,000 
264,607 
291,650 
296,866 
318,397 
267.482 


56-75 
64-00 
49-25 
50-25 
43-25 
Si -nn 


14,205,200 
16,940,500 
14,343,800 
14,904,000 
13,798,000 
13 R9Q ddl) 


53-97 

56-45 
55-56 
55-45 

SS.S4 


1-75 
1-34 
1-16 
0-83 
0-83 

1.30 


24,902,800 
22,080,000 
16,593,400 
12,317,000 
11,509,700 

1Q fMf. AOA 



Including "Other grains" in Manitoba. 



240 



PRODUCTION 




..-Area, TU*. Qua,,,, 



Field crops. 


Arc 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


Total 
yield. 


Weight j 
per 
measured 
bushel. 


Vverage 
price 
per 

cental. 


Total 
value. 


Canada^con. 

Potatoes l"i 


acri 

656,958 
735,192 
818,767 
784,544 
701,912 
683,594 
739,474 

218,233 
325,037 
317,296 
290,286 
227,675 
224,256 
275,705 

8,225,034 
10,544,625 
10,595,383 
10,379,292 
10,614,951 
10,001,667 
10,071,857 

1,220,000 
60,390 
60,612 
57,603 
56,626 
59,535 

109,825 
196,428 
226,869 
238,556 
263,892 
305,933 
207,114 

366,518 
502,069 
511,769 
588,977 
585,395 
654,624 
510, 94C 

14,0(K 
| 18,00( 
24,50( 
36,28! 
28,36 
20,72 
24,23 

36,00 
8 30,25 
35,59 
37,60 
34,10 
2 32,53 
1 34,73 

7 201,00 
8 169,72 
9 174,93 
183, 4 
1 189,4 
!2 182,55 
!1 183,71 


centals. 

72-95 
85-15 
92-00 
102-35 
91-75 
81-55 
89-40 

145-35 
188-75 
176-95 
200-45 
173-80 
196-10 
179-15 
tons. 
1-66 
1-40 
1-55 
1-30 
1-07 
1-45 
1-40 

1-25 
2-50 
2-25 
2-70 
1-75 
2-50 

2-39 
2-25 
2-20 
2-45 
2-jjp 
2-65 
2-35 

7-34 
9-50 
9-7J 
9-6C 
10 -7 
9-(K 
9-5J 

8-4( 
10-CK 
9-8( 
11-3 
9-4 
9-2 
10-0 

bush. 
14-5 
20-0 
17-0 
12-0 
6 16-7 
21-2 
1 16-fl 

32-2 
9 34- 
7 34-C 
2 27-; 
3 27-( 
9 35- 
4 31-( 


centals. 

47,935,200 
62,607,720 
75,344,940 
80,298,840 
64,407,600 
55,745,300 
66,118,860 

31,725,500 
61,349,800 
56,144,300 
58,195,450 
39,575,150 
43,973,500 
49,398,040 
tons. 
13,684,700 
14,772,300 
16,348,000 
13,338,700 
11,366,100 
14,488,200 
13,901,960 

1,133,476 
1,525,000 
151,000 
136,400 
155,500 
99,100 
147,633 

262,400 
446,400 
494,200 
583,790 
662,200 
806,400 
489,798 

2,690,370 
4,787,500 
4.942.76C 
5.641.75C 
6,361,60C 
5,879,(XK 
4,884,79f 

117, 60( 
180, 00( 
240, 00( 
412, 40( 
268,001 
190,40 
243,60 

bush. 
552,00 
606,00 
624,60 
452,90 
5 573,00 
5 688,80 
555,70 

5 6,482,30 
5.839.0C 
K) 6,038,00 
5 5,095,OC 
K) 5,118,OC 
5 6,533,(K 
X) 5,714, 4f 


Ib. 




- 
- 
- 


- 
- 

57-6 
59-9 
59-0 
55-5 
59-8 
59-7 
58-4 

34-8 
36-4 
10 36-C 
32-1 
10 36-C 
K) 32-C 
10 35-C 


$ 

1-69 
1-63 
1-58 
1-62 
1-28 
0-90 
1-55 

0-92 
0-85 
0-98 
0-83 
0-67 
0-54 
0-86 
per ton. 
10-33 
16-25 
20-72 
26-10 
23-56 
13-46 
19-24 

10-00 
12-00 
29-00 
33-12 
20-20 
26-34 
27-18 

11-59 
17-84 
21-85 
23-79 
19-95 
12-77 
19-97 

5-14 
6-15 
6-92 
7-7, 
7-0 
4-9i 
6-8C 

6-7! 
10-2, 
10-81 
12-81 
65 
7-8 
10-0 
per 
bush. 
2-0 
2-2 
2-7 
2-0 
1-0 
9 1-2 
2-fl 

0-f 
2 0-7 
0-J 
5 0-1 
14 0-! 
10 (H 
18 0-- 




80,804,400 
102,235,300 
118,894,200 
129,803,300 
82,147,600 
50,320,000 
102,776,960 

29,253,000 
52,252,000 
54,958,700 
48,212,700 
26,620,400 
23,886,000 
42,259,360 

141,376,700 
241,277,300 
338,713,200 
348,166,200 
267,764,200 
194,950,000 
267,459,520 

11,335,000 
18,300,000 
4, 379, COO 
4,518,000 
3,111,000 
2,610,000 
4,012,667 

3,041,300 
7,963,500 
10,800,200 
13,887,700 
13,211,000 
10,295,000 
9,780,740 

13,834,900 
29,439,100 
34,179,500 
43,701,000 
44,880,800 
29,197,600 
) 33,207,060 

793,800 
i 1,845,000 
i 2,606,000 
} 5,278,700 
) 1,742,000 
3 1,500,000 
1 2,453,100 

9 1,091,000 
2 1,344,000 
3 1,705,200 
906,000 
573,000 
5 863,000 
2 1,123,840 

5,185,800 
7 4,535,000 
5 5,132,000 
3,567,000 
,0 2,560,000 
U 2,662,000 
3 4,195,960 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 191721 


Turnips, mangolds, etc. .1917 

1919 
1920 
1921 
, . 1922 
Averages 1917~21 


TTnv and clover . .1917 


191S 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


Grain hay, (Alberta).... 1921 
Ay* ^ 
Grain hay (B C ) 1919 


1921 
1922 
Averages 1919-21 


Alfalfa ..1917 


1018 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


Fodder corn 1917 


1915 
1920 
1921 
1925 
Averages 1917-2] 


Riitrar beets 191 


101 1 

191! 
1921 

192 
192 
Averages 1917-2 


Prince Edward Island 


191 
191 
192 
192 
192 


Oats I 91 


U 191 

191 
19: 
19: 
19: 
Averages 1917-! 



AREA, YIELD AND VALUE OF CROPS 



241 



1. Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1917-22 and 

Five- Year Average, 1917-21 con. 



Field crops. 


Area. 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


Total 
yield. 


Weight 
per 
measured 
bushel. 


Average 
price 
per 
bushel. 


Total 
value. 


Prince Edward Island con. 
Barley 1917 


acres. 
3,500 


bush. 
28-50 


bush. 
99,750 


Ib. 
46-45 


$ 

1-22 


$ 

121,700 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


5,672 
5,636 
5,046 
6,334 
4,716 
5,238 


28-50 
29-00 
24-50 
23-25 
29-00 
26-50 


162,000 
164,000 
123,000 
147,400 
136,300 
139,230 


49-31 
50-00 
47-47 
48-41 
48-47 
48-33 


1-25 
1-40 
1-27 
0-75 
1-01 
1-18 


203.400 
229,700 
156,200 
110,550 
137,700 
164,310 


Peas... ..1917 


60 


14-00 


840 


60-60 


2-86 


2,400 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


460 
490 
164 
212 

277 
277 


16-00 
16-00 
16-50 
23-50 
21-00 
17-25 


7,300 
8,100 
2,700 
5,000 
5,800 
4,788 


60-66 
60-00 
60-00 
55-00 
59-00 
59-25 


2-90 
3-25 
3-00 
1-25 
2-35 
2-68 


21,200 
26,300 
8,100 
6,300 
13,600 
12,860 


Buckwheat.. ..1917 


2,500 


29-00 


72,500 


47-80 


1-32 


95,700 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


5,592 
4,094 
4,035 
i_ 2,932 
2,723 
3,830 


21-75 
20-75 
23-50 
24-75 
27-25 
23-50 


122,000 
87,800 
95,000 
7?, 800 
74,200 
90,020 


48-77 
48-80 
46-67 
46-15 
47-00 
47-64 


1-44 
1-50 
1-30 
0-75 
0-82 
1-29 


175,500 
132,000 
123,500 
54,600 
60,800 
116,260 


Mixed grains 1917 


7,800 


38-25 


298,400 


42-61 


0-98 


292,400 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


13,475 
18,900 
16,504 
16,770 
17,326 
14,690 


44-50 
44-00 
33-75 
29-25 
37-75 
38-00 


600,000 
843,400 
556,600 
491,900 
652,200 
558,060 


45-00 
44-00 
41-44 
41-47 
41-00 
42-90 


1-04 
1-22 
0-85 
0-80 
0-63 
1-01 


623,400 
1,039,400 
473,000 
393,520 
407,700 
564,344 


Potatoes... ..1917 


35,000 


centals. 
105-00 


centals. 
3,675,000 




percental. 
1-25 


4,594,000 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages . . 1917-21 


31,543 
36,234 
36,322 
36,921 
35,553 
35 204 


102-00 
75-00 
102-00 
96-95 

74-75 
95-85 


3,217,380 
2,717,400 
3,704,820 
3,579,480 
2,657,700 
3 374 816 


- 


1-04 
1-41 
Ml 

0-75 
0-50 
1-10 


3,378,000 
3.850,000 
4,013.600 
2,684,600 
1.329,000 
3 704 04fl 


Turnips, mangolds, etc.. 1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages. .. . 1917-21 


8,100 
8,246 
12,337 
9,397 
9,961 
8,115 
9 608 


252-70 
260-25 
259-20 
241-00 
285-20 
285-00 
260-10 


2,047,000 
2,146.000 
3,198,000 
2,264,500 
2,841,100 
2,313,000 
2 499 320 


_ 


0-62 
0-58 
0-51 
0-60 
0-47 
0-36 
0-55 


1, 269.000 
1,244 700 
1,638,800 
1,359,000 
1,336.400 
833,000 
1 369 580 


Hay and clover 1917 


197,000 


tons. 
1-55 


tons. 
305 400 




per ton. 
12-67 


3 869 000 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


222,691 
237,883 
243,394 
255,010 
258,559 
231 196 


1-50 
1-80 
1-25 
0-80 
1-45 
1-35 


334,010 
428,000 
304,200 
215,200 
379,400 
317 360 


- 


14-17 
20-00 
26-00 
30-00 
12-00 
19-87 


4,732,800 
8,564,000 
7,909.000 
6,455,200 
4,553,000 
6 306 000 


Fodder corn 1917 


250 


7-00 


1 800 




5-00 


9 000 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


420 
522 
190 
485 
670 
373 


5-25 
12-00 
8-00 
10-00 
7-50 
8-85 


2,200 
6,260 
1,500 
4,800 
5,000 
3 31 


- 


9-00 
8-00 
10-00 
6-00 
6-00 
7-40 


19,800 
50.000 
15,000 
28,800 
30,000 
24 520 


Nova Scotia- 
Spring wheat 1917 


16 200 


bush. 
15-75 


bush. 
255 150 


57-93 


per 
bush. 
2-34 


597 000 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages .. 1917-21 


32,737 
28,931 
26,116 
16,294 
14,493 
24 055 


22-25 
19-50 
19-50 
15-50 
20-25 
19-25 


728,000 
564,000 
511,900 
252,000 
293,600 

4fip 91 n 


59-43 
58-32 
59-00 

58-77 
59-08 

iS.fiQ 


2-36 
2-81 
2-15 
1-42 
1-60 

9.^1 


1,718,000 
1,585,000 
1,098,000 
357,000 
470,000 
i n?i n<v> 


6237316 















242 



PRODUCTION 



1 Area Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1917-22 and 

Five- Year Average, 1917-1921 con. 



Field crops. 


Area. 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


Total 

yield. 


Weight 
per 
measured 
bushel. 


Average 
price 
per 
bushel. 


Total 
value. 


Nova Scotia con. 

Oata .; 1917 


acres. 

123,000 
145,036 
158,838 
152,976 
136,904 
136,862 
143,351 

4,800 
11,571 
13,894 
11,487 
8,686 
7,155 
10,087 

300 
531 
1,046 
470 
369 
243 
543 

170 
1,753 
1,896 
1,046 
775 
639 
1,128 

1,000 
8,829 
6,859 
4,617 
2,982 
3,108 
4,857 

10,900 
19,342 
17,384 
13,106 
9,404 
8,657 
14,027 

4.00C 
5,40< 
8,62* 
6,171 
4.7K 
4,49i 
5,7* 

41,001 
51,25 
62,06 
50,09 
39,16 
38,05 
48,71 

9,10 

8 23,82 
9 30,29 
19,94 
15,43 
2 16,16 
19.71 


bush. 

29-25 
37-25 
36-00 
30-25 
28-75 
33-25 
32-50 

24-75 
30-00 
31-25 
26-00 
23-00 
27-25 
27-75 

15-00 
14-50 
29-50 
15-00 
14-25 
20-25 
20-50 

14-25 
18-75 
20 -CO 
20-50 
16-75 
22-00 
19-00 

17-75 
16-25 
12-75 
18-50 
19i25 
19^00 
16-00 

21-00 
23-00 
25-25 
22-25 
20-50 
24-00 
22-75 

24 -OC 
36 -OC 
37-5C 
32 -5( 
30 -0( 
30-5( 
29 -5( 

centals. 
104-9. 
111-4 
96-6 
122-2 
98-2 
97-1 
107-3 

175-4 
3 195-6 
268-8 
6 215-8 
6 247-5 
2 .215-6 
9 228-5 


bush. 

3,597,800 
5,403,000 
5,718,000 
4,636,800 
3,927,400 
4,549,000 
4,656,600 

118,800 
347,000 
434,000 
298,400 
200,100 
194,000 
279,660 

4,500 
7,700 
31,000 
7,100 
5,260 
4,900 
11,112 

2,400 
33,000 
38,000 
21,400 
12,981 
14,000 
21,556 

17,750 
143,000 
87,000 
85,900 
57,800 
59,000 
78,290 

228,900 
445,000 
439,000 
291,400 
192,500 
208,000 
319, 36C 

96,000 
195, (KK 
218, 0(K 
200, 6<X 
141, 1(K 
137, 50( 
170, 14( 

centals. 
4,303,80* 
5,865,601 
5,995,201 
6,125,401 
3,848,40 
3,695,4 
5,227,68 

1,596,50 
4,660,35 
5 8,144,50 
5 4,305,50 
3,820,50 
3,484,50 
4,505,47 


Ib. 

32-28 
34-69 
34-54 
33-45 
34-15 
34-50 
33-82 

46-54 
48-19 
46-97 
46-76 
47-58 
47-96 
47-21 

54-50 
55-67 
53-00 
56-00 
52-50 
56-00 
54-33 

58-50 
59-50 
58-50 
56-81 
58-20 
57-00 
58-30 

59-00 
59-14 
57-56 
58-50 
59-86 
58-83 
58-81 

46-56 
47-10 
47-23 
47-27 
48-07 
46-94 
47-25 

39-91 
42-24 
46-77 
39 -2( 
44-4f 
45 -7( 
) 42-5! 

- 
- 

- 
- 

- 








$ 

0-92 
1-06 
1-14 
1-00 
0-74 
0-66 
0-99 

1-34 
1-62 
1-77 
1-51 
1-16 
0-98 
1-55 

1-67 
1-85 
1-55 
1-50 
1-50 
1-38 
1-59 

4-44 
3-20 
3-84 
3-67 
3-36 
3-00 
3-57 

7-95 
7-34 
6-37 
6-00 
4-36 
4-00 
6-42 

1-14 
1-35 
1-55 
1-36 
1-0 
0-95 
1-34 

1-24 
l-3( 
l-5c 
1-3: 
0-9; 
0-8. 
l-3( 

per cental 
1-5, 
1-5 
1-8 
1-6 
1-5 
0-9 
1-6 

0-9 
1-1 
1-2 
1-2 
0-4 
0-6 
1-0 


$ 

3,310,000 
5,727,000 
6,519,000 
4,614,000 
2,897,300 
2,988,000 
4,613,460 

159,200 
562,000 
768,000 
452,000 
231,600 
191,000 
434,560 

7,500 
14,200 
48,000 
10,650 
7,900 
6,800 
17,650 

10,700 
106,000 
146,000 
78,500 
43,600 
42,000 
76,960 

141,100 
1,050,000 
554,000 
515,400 
251,800 
236,000 
502,460 

261,000 
601,000 
680,000 
397,000 
203,500 
189,000 
428,500 

119,000 
254,000 
334,000 
265,000 
136,700 
117,000 
221,740 

} 6,599,000 
5 9,092,000 
1 10,891.000 
} 9,966,000 
8 6,093,000 
1 3,572,000 
3 8,528,200 

4 1,501,000 
5 5,406,000 
9,773,000 
4 5,368,000 
1,528,000 
2,090,000 
4 4,715,200 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


Barley ...1917 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


Rye ..1917 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


Peas ..1917 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


Beans ..1917 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


Buckwheat . . 1917 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
A verages 191 72 3 


]VIixod grains 1913 


1918 

19H 
192( 
192] 
192i 
Averages 19172 


Potatoes 191 


191 
191 
192 
192 
192 


Turnips, mangolds, etc.. 191 
iy i 
191 
192 
192 
192 
Averages.. ..1917-2 



AREA, YIELD AND VALUE OF CROPS 



243 



1. Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1917-22 and 

Five- Year Average, 1917-1921 con. 



Field crops. 


Area. 


Yield 
per 
acre. 


Total 
yield. 


Weight 
per 
measured 
bushel. 


Average 
price 
per 
ton. 


Total 
value. 


Nova Scotia con. 
Hay and clover 1917 


acres. 
542,000 


tons. 
1-65 


tons. 
894 300 


Ib. 


$ 

H-83 


$ 
in nnn nnn 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


605,464 
678,357 
632,069 
571,661 
558,052 
605 910 


1-45 
2-10 
1-50 
1-35 
1-55 
1-60 


878,000 
1,425,000 
948,000 
771,700 
871,000 

009 40fl 


- 


20-00 
22-34 
35-00 
23-00 
16-25 

9fi. Oft 


17,560,000 
31,835,000 
24,966,000 
17,749,000 
14,154,000 

9fi t*3 Q firtrt 


Alfalfa 1917 


V 

30 


3-50 


100 




l^.ftf} 


1 IAA 


Fodder corn 1917 


48C 


9-20 


4 400 




6.0/1 


9ft A(\f\ 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 1917-21 


4,644 
2,960 

1,451 
1,466 
1,179 
2,200 


9-50 
9-50 
8-00 
6-50 
7-55 
8-85 


44,000 
. 28,000 
11,600 
9,500 
8,900 
19 500 


- 


9-00 
8-00 
10-00 
6-00 
9-50 

8 .40 


396,000 
224,000 
116,000 
57,000 
84,600 

ico ocn 


New Brunswick- 
Spring wheat 1917 


16,000 


bush. 
12-00 


bush. 
192 000 


58-43 


per 
bush. 

2-25 


43? Hftn 


1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages.... 1917-21 


49,453 
35,641 
29,485 
28,028 
22,629 
31 721 


19-00 
17-50 
15-75 
15-25 
17-50 
16-75 


940,250 
623,000 
464,400 
427,000 
396,000 

KOQ QQn 


59-68 
59-61 
58-25 
59-20 
59-29 
w.ns 


2-32 
2-80 
2-11 
1-50 
1-73 


2,183,700 
1,744,400 
979,900 
641,000 
685,000 


Oats 1917 


190 000 


22-50 


4 27"; 000 


w.w 


O.Q4 




1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Averages 19-17-21 


224,442 
305,484 
309,071 
284,728 
313,937 
262 745 


31-50 
30-25 
29-50 
25-00 
30-75 
28-00 


7,051,400 
9,261,000 
9,117,600 
7,118,000 
9,666,000 
7 3fi4 finn 


35-32 
"35-10 
34-93 
31-50 
35-85 
34. m 


0-97 
0-98 
0-60 
0-65 
0-58 

Ofi9 


6,877,400 
9,086,000 
5,470,600 
4,627,000 
5,606,000 


Barley 1917 


1 800 


22-00 


*3Q Rf]f\ 


49. (24 






1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
Aver